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LI B R.ARY 

OF THE 

UN I VER.5ITY 
OF ILLINOIS 



FI 



v. 



p. 2. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED BY MARSHALL FIELD, 1893 

PUBLICATION 266 
ZOOLOGICAL SERIES VOL. XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 



BY 

CHARGES E. HELLMAYR 

Associate Curator of Birds 



PART VI 

OXYRUNCIDAE - PlPRIDAE - COTINGIDAE 
RUPICOLIDAE - PHYTOTOMIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

EDITOR 



f NATURAL 
tt > HISTORY 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

November 14, 1929 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

PUBLICATION 266 
ZOOLOGICAL SERIES VOL. XIII 



CATALOGUE OF BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 
AND THE ADJACENT ISLANDS 

IN 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INCLUDING ALL SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH 
AMERICA. MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA. SOUTH AMERICA. THE WEST 
INDIES. AND ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA. THE GALAPAGOS 
ARCHIPELAGO. AND OTHER ISLANDS WHICH MAY BE IN- 
CLUDED ON ACCOUNT OF THEIR FAUNAL AFFINITIES 

BY 

CHARLES E. HELLMAYR 

Associate Curator of Birds 



PART VI 

OXYRUNCIDAE - PlPRIDAE - COTINGIDAE 
RUPICOLIDAE - PHYTOTOMIDAE 



WILFRED H. OSGOOD 

Curator, Department of Zoology 

EDITOR 




CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

November 14, 1929 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 






2- 

PREFACE TO PART SIX 

The present instalment concludes the enumeration of the 
American Mesomyodian Passeres, the other families of that section 
having been dealt with in the three preceding parts. For the sake 
of convenience, it has been deemed advisable not to include in 
Part VI any other family, but to restrict it to the catalogue of the 
Manakins, Chatterers and allies, which form a natural group of 
closely related birds. 

As stated in the preface to Part V, proper definition of the various 
families of the Mesomyodian Passeres, particularly of the Haploo- 
phonae, is unusually difficult owing to the incompleteness of data on 
their anatomical structure, and the reference of certain genera to 
one family rather than to another must largely be regarded as 
provisional. Moreover, the exact status of two groups now ranked 
as families the Sharp-Bills and the Cocks-of-the-Rock is quite 
unsettled, and further researches into their anatomical peculiarities 
may lead to their suppression. 

Publication of this volume has unexpectedly been delayed. The 
greater part of the manuscript having been compiled in 1926 and 
1927, the results of recent investigations by other students have 
not been considered beyond their inclusion in footnotes, wherever 
it was possible to make such additions. On the other hand, the long 
time that has elapsed since its preparation afforded me an opportu- 
nity to examine much pertinent material (including many types) in 
various museums in this country as well as in Europe. The account 
of certain genera of Manakins is practically based on the splendid 
series of these birds in the collections at Pittsburgh and Munich. 

As in the past, the author has enjoyed, in the performance of his 
task, the cooperation of museums and numerous correspondents by 
the generous loan of material and other acts of courtesy for which 
he wishes to publicly express his gratitude. 

Acknowledgments are particularly due to Mr. Outram Bangs, 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; 
Mons. J. Berlioz, of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris; Dr. 
F. M. Chapman, of The American Museum of Natural History, 
New York; Mr. C. F. Cooper, of the University Museum, Cambridge, 
England; Mr. Donald R. Dickey and Mr. A. van Rossem, of Pasa- 
dena, California; Count Nils Gyldenstolpe, of the Stockholm Museum, 



Sweden; Mr. N. B. Kinnear, of the British Museum, London, 
England; Dr. A. Laubmann, of the Zoological Museum, Munich; 
Dr. C. W. Richmond and Mr. J. H. Riley, of the U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C.; Lord Rothschild, of Tring, England; 
Dr. Simpson, of the Free Public Museums, Liverpool, England; 
Dr. E. Stresemann, of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, Germany; 
and Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Charles Westcott, of Springfield, Massachusetts, again has 
been very helpful in checking references and revising the manuscript 
for the press. 

NOVEMBER 2, 1929 C. E. HELLMAYR 



IV 



CONTENTS 

Orders, Families, and Genera included in Part VI 
ORDER PASSERIFORMES 



SUBORDER MESOMYODI 

FAMILY OXYRUNCIDAE 

(Sharp-Bills) 

Oxyruncus Tcmminck I 

FAMILY PIPRIDAE 
(Manakins) 

Piprites Cabanis 3 

Pipra Linnaeus 8 

Teleonema Reichenbach 38 

Machaeropterus Bonaparte 40 

AUocotopterus Ridgway 42 

Chloropipo Cabanis and Heine .... 43 

Ceratopipra Bonaparte 46 

Xenopipo Cabanis 47 

Tyranneutes Sclater and Salvin .... 47 

Masius Bonaparte '. 49 

Antilophia Reichenbach 51 

Chiroxiphia Cabanis 52 

Ilicura Reichenbach 60 

Corapipo Bonaparte 61 

Manacus Brisson 64 

Neopipo Sclater and Salvin 75 

Massornis Oberholser 77 

Schiffornis Bonaparte 78 

Sapayoa Hartert 86 

Neopelma Sclater 87 

Heterocercus Sclater 90 

FAMILY COTINGIDAE 
(Chatterers) 

Phoenicircus Swainson 92 

Laniisoma Swainson 95 

Phibalura Vieillot 97 

Heliochera Filippi 98 



Doliornis Taczanowski 100 

Tijuca Ferussac 101 

Ampelion Cabanis 101 

Porphyrolaema Bonaparte 103 

Cotinga Brisson 104 

Xipholena Gloger 109 

Carpodectes Salvin . 1 1 1 

Euchlornis Filippi 113 

Ampelioides Verreaux 124 

lodopleura Lesson 125 

Calyptura Swainson 127 

Attila Lesson 128 

Casiornis Des Murs 146 

Laniocera Lesson 149 

Rhytipterna Reichenbach 1 52 

Lipaugus Boie 156 

Chirocylla Sclater and Salvin 163 

Pachyramphus Gray 163 

Platypsaris Sclater 193 

Tityra Vieillot 204 

Haematoderus Bonaparte 225 

Querula Vieillot 226 

Pyroderus Gray 228 

Cephalopterus Geoffrey 

Saint-HHaire 231 

Perissocephalus Oberholser 234 

Gymnoderus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire . 235 
Procnias Illiger 237 

FAMILY RUPICOLIDAE 

(Cocks-of-the-Rock) 

Rupicola Brisson 242 

FAMILY PHYTOTOMIDAE 

(Plant-Cutters) 
Phytotoma Molina 247 



LIST OF NEW NAMES PROPOSED IN PART VI 

Schiffornis turdinus panamensis subsp. nov 84 

Attila spadiceus pacificus nom. nov 140 



CATALOGUE 
OF 

BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS 

By Charles E. Hellmayr 
PART VI 



ORDER PASSERIFORMES Continued. 
Suborder MESOMYODI Continued. 

FAMILY OXYRUNCIDAE. 1 

SHARP-BILLS. 
Genus OXYRUNCUS Temminck. 

Oxyruncus TEMMINCK, Anal. Syst. G6n. d'Orn., in Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., I, 
p. LXXX, Oct., 1820 generic characters, but no genotype indicated. 

Oxyrhyncus SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., i, No. 9, pi. 49, July, 1821 new name 
for Oxyruncus TEMMINCK; type by monotypy Oxyrhyncus cristatus SWAIN- 
SON. 

Oxyrhynchus (not of LEACH, 1816) TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 21, pi. 
125, April, 1822 type by monotypy Oxyrhynchus flammiceps TEMMINCK 
= Oxyrhyncus cristatus SWAINSON. 

Oxyrhamphus STRICKLAND, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6, p. 420, 1841 new name 
for Oxyrhynchus TEMMINCK, preoccupied. 

Oxyramphus BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 211, 1850 emendation. 

*Oxyruncus cristatus cristatus (Swainson). CRESTED SHARP-BILL. 

Oxyrhyncus cristatus SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., i, No. 9, pi. 49, July, 1821 
Brazil. 

Oxyrhynchus flammiceps TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 21, pi. 125, 
April, 1822 Brazil. 

Oxyrhynchus serratus MIKAN, Del. Flor. et Faun. Bras., fasc. 3, pi. [17], 1823 

Rio de Janeiro (descr. adult and young). 

Oxyrhamphus flammiceps BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 33, 1856 

Brazil; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., i, p. 42, 1868 Rio de Janeiro and Rio 



affinities of this family are not satisfactorily determined, and it may 
become necessary to merge it with the Cotingidae. 



2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Parana, Sao Paulo; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 254, 1873 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 281, 1888 "Novo" 
Friburgo, Brazil; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 206, 1899 Iguap, 
Sao Paulo; idem, i. c., 4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 296, 1907 Estagao Rio Grande, Iguape', Itapura, and 
Ubatuba (Sao Paulo), Marianna (Minas Geraes), and Espirito Santo; 
BERTONI, Rev. Inst. Parag., 1907, (sep. p. 5) Paraguay. 

Oxyruncus cristatus cristatus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
333, 1907 southeastern Brazil. 

Oxyrhamphus flammiceps paraguayensis CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 597 Sapucay, 
Paraguay. 

Oxyruncus flamiceps paraguayensis BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 57, 1914 
Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo and southern Minas Geraes (Marianna) to Santa Catharina, 
and Paraguay (Sapucay). 1 

i: Brazil (Victoria, Sao Paulo i). 

Oxyruncus cristatus hypoglaucus (Salvin and Godmari).* WHITE- 
BELLIED SHARP-BILL. 

Oxyrhamphus hypoglaucus SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), i, p. 206, 1883 
Roraima and Merum Mountains, British Guiana; SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 
291 same localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 282, 1888 same 
localities. 

Oxyruncus hypoglaucus CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 240, 1921 Roraima 
and Merum6 Mountains. 

Range: Mountain ranges of British Guiana (Roraima, Merume'). 

Oxyruncus cristatus brooksi Bangs and Barbour. 3 BROOKS'S SHARP- 
BILL. 

'Birds from Paraguay appear to be inseparable from others taken in Brazil. 
When describing O. f. paraguayensis, Chubb compared the Paraguayan series 
with a number of old skins of faded coloration. Recently collected Brazilian 
specimens, however, are fully as bright, both above and below, as Foster's birds 
from Sapucay. 

Material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro 5; Rio Parana, Sao Paulo i; 
Victoria, Sao Paulo 4; Blumenau, Santa Catharina i. Paraguay: Sapucay 5. 

^Oxyruncus cristatus hypoglaucus (SALVIN and GODMAN): Similar to O. c. 
cristatus, but under parts white, with only the sides and tail coverts tinged with 
pale greenish yellow; lores and cheeks white instead of pale yellow; median upper 
wing coverts more conspicuously margined with yellow; back slightly brighter 
green. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima 6. 

^Oxyruncus cristatus brooksi BANGS and BARBOUR: Nearest to O. cristatus 
f rater, and wings similarly marked; but under parts white, washed with pale 
greenish yellow on sides and tail coverts only, as in O. c. hypoglaucus, and black 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 3 

Oxyruncus brooksi BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 220, 
1922 Mount Sapo, eastern Panama (type examined); GRISCOM, I.e., 69, 
p. 178, 1929 Cana. 

Range: Eastern Panama (Mount Sapo and Cana, Darie'n). 

*Oxyruncus cristatus frater (Sclater and Salvin). 1 COSTA RICAN 
SHARP-BILL. 

Oxyrhamphus frater SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. Lond., 1868, p. 326 Calove- 
vora, Veragua; idem, Exotic Orn., Part 9, p. 131, pi. 66 (adult female 
and young), 1868 Veragua and Costa Rica; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, 
p. 194 Calovevora and Chitrd, Veragua; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 281, 1888 Calovevora and Castillo, Veragua, and Costa Rica; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 2, 1888 Costa 
Rica and Panama. 

Oxyrhynchus flammiceps (not of TEMMINCK) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N.Y., 9, p. 106, 1868 San Jos, Costa Rica; FRANTZIUS, Journ. Orn., 17, 
p. 304, 1869 Orosi, Costa Rica; SALVIN, Ibis, 1869, p. 314 Costa Rica 
(crit.). 

Oxyruncus cristatus frater RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 334, 
1907 Panama and Costa Rica (monog.); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6. P- 736, 1910 Santa Maria de Dota, San Carlos, La Vijagua, and Cari- 
blanco de Sarapiqui, Costa Rica (habits). 

Range: Costa Rica and Panama (Chiriqui and Veraguas). 
i: Costa Rica (Buena Vista de San Carlos i). 

FAMILY PIPRIDAE. 

MANAKINS. 
Genus PIPRITES Cabanis. 

Piprites CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 234, 1847 type by monotypy 
Pipra pileata TEMMINCK. 

Hemipipo CABANIS, I.e., p. 234, 1847 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, 1855, p. 
55) Pipra Moris TEMMINCK. * 

spots less numerous and more restricted than in any other race, becoming evanes- 
cent on the flanks. Superficially resembling O. c. hypoglaucus in white under parts, 
but back much brighter as well as more yellowish green, and larger wing coverts 
and tertials much more broadly margined with yellow. Wing (adult male) 90, 
(female) 88-90; tail 54-57; bill 16-18. 

Material examined. Panama: Mount Sapo (including the type) 3. 

l Oxyruncus cristatus frater (SCLATER and SALVIN): Like O. c. cristatus with 
yellow under parts; but above much brighter, fresher green and wing coverts as 
well as tertials much more broadly edged with yellow. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: La Vijagua 2, San Carlos 2. Panama: 
Boquete, Chiriqui I. 

*The insignificant divergency in structure and the similarity of the sexes seem 
hardly sufficient grounds for generic separation of this group. 



4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Piprites pileatus (Temminck). PILEATED MANAKIN. 

Pipra pileata (NATTERER MS.) TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 29, pi. 
172, fig. i (male), Dec., 1822 Brazil =Curityba, state of Parana (descr. 
of male and female). 

Piprites pileata BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 449, 1856 Brazil. 

Piprites pileatus PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 Curytiba, Parana 
(spec, examined); PELZELN, MADARASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. i, 
pi. i, (male, female), 1887 Curytiba; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
284, 1888 Brazil; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 297, 
1907 Campos do Jordao, Sao Paulo; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 13, 1910 "Novo" Friburgo, Rio and Curytiba, Parana; SZTOLC- 
MAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 178, 1926 Invernadinha, Cara 
Pintada and Vermelho, Parana. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio de 
Janeiro (Nova Friburgo) to Parana. 1 

Piprites chloris chloris (Temminck). TEMMINCK'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra Moris (NATTERER MS.) TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 29, pi. 172, 
fig. 2, Dec., 1822 Brazil (type from Ypanema, Sao Paulo, in Vienna 
Museum examined). 

Piprites chloris BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 449, 1856 "Im 
Innern Brasiliens (Goyaz, Matto Grosso)", errore; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 
2, p. 126, 1868 Ypanema, Sao Paulo (spec, examined); PELZELN, MADA- 
RASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 3, pi. 2, fig. i, 1887 Ypanema; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 284, 1888 Brazil; IHERING, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 207, 1899 Piracicaba and Iguap, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 297, 1907 Piracicaba and Rio Feio, Sao Paulo; BERTONI, 
Rev. Inst. Parag., Asunci6n, p. 5, 1907 Alto Parana, Paraguay, and 
Misiones; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 598 Sapucay, Paraguay; DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 432, 1910 Paraguay and 
Misiones; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Alto Parana. 

Piprites chloris chloris HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 13, pi. 
2, fig. 8, 1910 Sao Paulo and Espirito Santo, Brazil; idem, Verb. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., 12, p. 137, 1915 Braco do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo 
(crit.). 

Hemipipo chloris SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 178, 
19^6 Salto de Uba and Porto Mendes, Parana. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo to Parana; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina (Misiones). 2 

*Piprites chloris chlorion (Cabanis). GRAY-BREASTED MANAKIN. 

Hemipipo chlorion CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 234, 1847 Cayenne; 
idem in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 697, 1848 Cayenne. 

Material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo I, Rio I. Parana: 
Curityba 8. 

2 Material examined. Brazil, Sao Paulo: Ypanema (including the type) 5, 
Victoria 2, Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande do Rio Paranapanema 3; Braco do Sul, 
near Victoria, Espirito Santo I. Paraguay: Sapucay 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 5 

Piprites Morion PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 part, Barra do Rio 
Negro [= Manaos] and Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, examined); SAL VIN 
and GODMAN, Ibis, 1882, p. 78 British Guiana (crit.); SAL VIN, I.e., 1885, 
p. 299 Bartica Grove, Merum Mts., and Roraima; PELZELN, MADARAsz 
and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 5, pi. 2, fig. 2 ("male"), 1887 part, descr. of 
male and hab. French and British Guiana, Barra [do Rio Negro], and Borba, 
Rio Madeira; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 285, 1888 Roraima, 
Bartica Grove, and Merum Mts., British Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 288, 1907 Cussary, lower Amazon (spec, examined); idem, 
I.e., 56, p. 504, 1908 Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z (spec, examined); BER- 
LEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 315, 1908 Cayenne; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 361, 1914 Quati-puni, Rio Guamd (Santa Maria de Sao 
Miguel), Cussary, Rio Tapajoz (Goyana, Villa Braga), Rio Jary (Santo 
Antonio da Cachoeira); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 91, 1916 Utinga, 
Para; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 1918 
Lelydorp, Surinam; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 251, 1921 Ituribisi 
River, Supenaam, Bartica, Roraima, and Merum6 Mts.; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 
Piprites Moris Morion HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 302, 1910 part, Borba, 
Rio Madeira; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 13, 1910 Cayenne, 
British Guiana, and northern Brazil; CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, 
p. 7, 1924 (?) foot of Mount Duida, upper Orinoco, and Cussary, lower 
Amazon; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 333, 
1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
west to Manaos and the lower Rio Madeira (Borba), east to northern 
Maranhao (Tury-assu). 1 

i: Brazil (Tury-assu, Maranhao i). 

Piprites chloris bolivianus Chapman* BOLIVIAN GREENISH MAN- 
AKIN. 

'Specimens from British Guiana are conspicuous for their grayish hind neck 
and their uniform pale gray breast and abdomen, strongly contrasted with the 
yellow throat and tail coverts, while the rectrices are but indistinctly tipped with 
yellowish. An adult male from Borba, Rio Madeira, is similar, except for 
wider tail tips. Another male from Manaos and a female from Cussary (south 
bank of the lower Amazon) are slightly smaller; and, besides, they show a faint 
yellowish tinge on the anal region. A single male from Maranhao (Tury-assu) is 
grayer above than any other specimen examined. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne I. British Guiana: Bartica 
Grove I, Roraima 5, Quonga i. Brazil: Manaos i; Cussary I; Villa Braga, 
Tapajdz i; Borba, Rio Madeira i; Tury-assu, Maranhao I. 

1 Piprites Moris bolivianus CHAPMAN: Nearly allied to P. c. Morion, but 
with much smaller bill; grayish breast and sides tinged with yellowish; middle of 
abdomen brighter yellow; rectrices broadly tipped with pale yellowish as in P. c. 
tschudii. Wing 67-69; tail 50-53; bill 9. 

A specimen from Bolivia has the nape extensively gray like P. c. Morion; while 
the two Brazilian birds, in this respect, rather resemble P. c. tschudii. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Quebrada Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba ( d* 
ad., June 28, 1892. G. Garlepp. Beilepsch Collection) I. Brazil: Salto do Girap, 
Rio Madeira (d*imm., Oct. 15, 1829. J. Natterer) i; Engenho do Gama, Rio 
Guapore 1 , Matto Grosso (o"imm., July 19, 1826. J. Natterer) i. 



6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Piprites chloris bolirianus CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 6, 1924 
Mission San Antonio, Rio Chimor6, Bolivia. 

Piprites Morion (not of CABANIS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 part, 
Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso and Salto do Girao, upper Rio Madeira 
(spec, examined); PELZELN, MADARAsz and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 5, 
1887 part, Engenho do Gama and Salto do Girao. 

Piprites chloris chlorion HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 302, 1910 part, En- 
genho do Gama and Salto do Girao. 

Range: Northern Bolivia (San Antonio, Rio Chimore"; Quebrada 
Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba) and adjacent sections of central 
Brazil (Salto do Girao, upper Rio Madeira; Engenho do Gama, Rio 
Guapore", western Matto Grosso). 

*Piprites chloris tschudii (Cabanis). TSCHUDI'S MANAKIN. 

Hemipipo tschudii CABANIS. Journ. Ornith., 22, p. 99, 1874 "central Peru" 
= Ninabamba, dept. Junin (type in Berlin Museum examined); TACZA- 
NOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, p. 539 Peru. 

Pipra chloris (not of TEMMINCK) TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 271, 
1844 Peru; idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 144, 1846 montanas of "north- 
western" Peru. 

Piprites chloris SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogotd. 

Piprites chlorion (not of CABANIS) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 26, p. 72, 1858 
Rfo Napo; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1866, p. 190 Upper Ucayali; idem, 
I.e., 1873, p. 282 Upper Ucayali, Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 
1868 part, Marabitanas and mouth of the Xie, Rio Negro, and Rio 
Icanna, Brazil (spec, examined); TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 22 
Huambo and Yurimaguas, Peru; PELZELN, MADARAsz and LORENZ, 
Monog. Pipr., p. 5, pi. 2, fig. 2 ("female"), 1887 part, descr. of female 
and young, and hab. Peru, Ecuador, Bogota, Marabitanas and Rio Iganna. 

Piprites tschudii TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 334, 1884 Huambo, Yuri- 
maguas, upper Ucayali, and Ninabamba, Peru; PELZELN, MADARAsz and 
LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 7, pi. 3, fig. i, 1887 Peru (descr. and fig. of type 
discolored by preservation in alcohol); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 284, 1888 Bogota, Sarayacu, Rio Napo; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 367 La Gloria and La Merced, dept. Junfn, Peru. 

Piprites chloris tschudii HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 13, 
1910 Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and upper Rio Negro, Brazil; CHAPMAN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 534, 1926 Zamora, Rio Suno, and below 
San Jose", Ecuador. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from the eastern slopes of the East- 
ern Andes in Colombia south through eastern Ecuador to central 
Peru (dept. Junin), east to northwestern Brazil (upper Rio Negro). 1 

i: Colombia (Bogotd i). 

*Birds from Peru (La Gloria, La Merced) have the tips to the median upper 
wing coverts paler, so as to suggest a second light wing bar. On the upper Rio 
Negro this form passes gradually into P. c. chlorion. A couple from Marabitanas 



1929 BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 7 

Piprites chloris antioquiae Chapman. 1 CHAPMAN'S GREENISH MANA- 

KIN. 
Piprites chloris antioquiae CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 6, 1924 

La Frijolera, lower Cauca, Antioquia, Colombia. 
Piprites tschudi (not Hemipipo tschudii Cabanis) CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. N.H., 36, p. 483, 1917 La Frijolera. 

Range: Tropical Zone of the lower Cauca, state of Antioquia, 
northern Colombia. 

*Piprites griseiceps Salvin* GRAY-HEADED MANAKIN. 

Piprites griseiceps SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., "1864," p. 583, pub. April, 1865 
Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 116, 
1868 Tucurriqui; PELZELN, MADARASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 9, 
pi. 3, fig. 2, 1887 Tucurriqui; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 285, 
1888 Tucurriqui; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 
107, pi. 41, fig. 3, 1890 Tucurriqui; SALVIN, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., i, p. 
XXXII, 1893 San Carlos, Nicaragua; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, 768, 1907 Costa Rica (Tucurriqui, Jime'nez, Reventazon) 
and Nicaragua (San Carlos); BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 32, 
1909 La Vijagua, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
676, 1910 Reventazon, La Vijagua, El Hogar, and Miravelles, Costa 
Rica; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 14, 1910 Costa Rica 
and Nicaragua. 

Range: Costa Rica (chiefly on the Caribbean slope) and 
Nicaragua (San Carlos). 

i: Costa Rica (El Hogar i). 

and a female from the mouth of the Rio Xie closely match Ecuadorian examples, 
being just a little paler yellow below, with less greenish suffusion across the chest. 
The Marabitanas male has the whitish tips to the rectrices fully as wide, and the 
median wing coverts as distinctly marked with yellowish, as in birds from Peru; 
while the female, in coloration of tail, resembles Morion of Guiana. A male from 
the Rio Iganna [ =Rio Isana], in coloration of under parts, is exactly intermediate 
between chlorion and tschudii; and except for its larger bill it can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from P. c. bolivianus. Finally, another male from Marabitanas is 
gray-breasted like chlorion and apparently is not separable from Guianan examples. 
The type of H. tschudii, owing to its preservation in alcohol, has lost most of the 
greenish and yellow tints of the plumage, thereby misleading the authors of the 
"Monograph of the Manakins" as to its true characters. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota" 5. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2. Peru: 
Ninabamba (the type) i, La Gloria 2, La Merced i. Brazil: Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro 3, Rio Iganna [ = Rio Isana] i, mouth of the Rio Xi6 I. 

1 Piprites chloris antioquiae CHAPMAN: "Similar to P. c. tschudii, but upper 
parts brighter green, nape with less gray; under parts brighter, clearer yellow, 
less suffused with olive." (CHAPMAN, I.e.). 

We are not acquainted with this race, based on a single male from La Frijolera 
in the lower Cauca region. 



griseiceps SALVIN differs from its allies by reason of slate gray top 
and sides of the head, without any yellow on forehead and lores; white instead 
of yellow orbital ring; and by having the greater upper wing coverts narrowly 
margined with olive-green like the back, instead of broadly tipped with yellowish 
white, besides several minor differences. Wing (one adult male) 65; tail 46. 



8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Genus PIPRA Linnaeus. 

Pipra LINNAEUS, Mus. Adolph. Frid., 2, Prodr., p. 32, 1764 type by subs, 
desig. (Gray, List Gen. Birds, p. 33, 1840) Par us aureola LINNAEUS. 

Pythis "VIEILL[OT]" (not Pithys VIEILLOT, 1816) BOIE, Isis, 1826, p. 971 
type Pipra leucocUla LINNAEUS. 

Dixiphia REICHENBACH, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 63, 1850 type Pipra leucocitta 
LINNAEUS. 

Lepidothrix BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 (=Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 6), 1854 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, 1855, p. 147) Pipra 
cyanocapilla HAHN. 

Dasyncetopa BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 ( = Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 6), 1854 type by monotypy Pipra serena LINNAEUS. 

*Pipra aureola aureola (Linnaeus). ORANGE-HEADED MANAKIN. 

Parus Aureola LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., loth ed., i, p. 191, 1758 based on 
EDWARDS, Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 83, pi. 83, fig. 2, "from some part of 
South America, near the equinoctial line" Surinam suggested as type 
locality (auct. HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 6). 

Pipra rubra P. L. S. MULLER, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 177, 1776 based on 
DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 302, fig. 2, Cayenne. 

Pipra aurantiaca DAUDIN in BUFFON, Hist. Nat., (DiDOT d.), Quadr., 14, 
p. 289, 1799 based on "Le Manakin orang6 BUFF. VIII, p. 60," Cayenne. 

Pipra aurantia SUCKOW, Anfangsgr. Naturg., 2, (2), p. 1188, 1801 based on 
"Manakin orang" BUFFON; Daubenton, PI. enl. 302, fig. 2; and EDWARDS, 
Nat. Hist. Birds, 2, p. 83, pi. 83, fig. 2. 

Pipra dubia MADARAsz, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 3, p. 270, pi. 9, 1886 locality un- 
known ( = discolored specimen) . 

Pipra aureola DESMAREST, Hist. Nat. Tang., Manak. et Todiers, livr. 6, pi. 
54 (adult male), 55, 56 (immature males); livr. 8, pi. 57 (variety), 1806 
Guiana; HAHN, Vogel aus Asien etc., Lief. 2, pi. 5, 1818 Guiana; WAGLER, 
Isis, 1830, p. 933 Cayenne; CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, p. 696, 1848 mouth of the Barima: BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. 
Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 37, 1857 Cayenne; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
126, 1868 part, Rio Negro (spec, examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z. 
S.Lond., 1868, p. 168 Pilar, Sucre, Venezuela; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 299 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 293, 1888 Surinam, Cayenne, Bartica Grove, Pilar (Venezuela), "Trin- 
idad"; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 4, p. 55, 1892 El Pilar, Vene- 
zuela; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 Saint 
Georges, Ouanary, and Mahury, French Guiana; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 
6 part, excl. Santare"m (monog.); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 288, 
1907 "Maraea" [=Maraca], Mexiana, Maraj6, "Rio Mojii," Monte 
Alegre; HAGMANN, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 26, p. 32, 1907 Mexiana: MENE- 
GAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 12, 1908 French Guiana; BER- 
LEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 136, 318, 1908 Cayenne, Roche-Marie, 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 9 

Approuague (French Guiana localities); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 
524, 1913 part, north side of lower Amazon; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p- 363, 1914 part, Marajo (Sao Natal, Chaves), Mexiana, Maraca, 
Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Arumanduba, Monte Alegre, Rio 
Maecuru; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 242, 1921 Bartica, Bonasica, 
Anarica River, Abary River, Merum6 Mts., Roraima. 

Pipra flavicollis (not of SCLATER) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, 
p. 579 part, Mexiana. 

Pipra aureola aureola HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 6, pi. 2, 
fig. 7, 1910 part, Cayenne, Surinam, British Guiana, Venezuela, "Para" 
and "Barra do Rio Negro"; idem, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 304, 1910 part 
(excl. Santare'm); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math-phys. Kl., 26, 
No. 2, p. 90, 1912 "Rio Moju"; I.e., p. in, 1912 Fazenda Nazareth, 
Mexiana; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 248, 1916 Las 
Barrancas, Orinoco delta; BEEBE, Trop. Wild Life, i, p. 134, 1917 Bartica 
Grove; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 1918 
Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northeastern 
Venezuela (Orinoco delta; El Pilar, near Carupano, Sucre); and 
extreme northeastern Brazil, north of the Amazon, as far west as 
the Rio Maecuru, supposedly also on the Rio Negro. 1 

9: French Guiana (Cayenne 5); Dutch Guiana (vicinity of 
Paramaribo i); British Guiana (Hyde Park, Demerara River i); 
Brazil (Rio Maecuru 2). 

Pipra aureola aurantiicollis Todd.* ORANGE-THROATED MANAKIN. 

Pipra aureola aurantiicollis TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 96, 1925 
Santarem (type examined). 

'Birds from the islands in the delta of the Amazon (Maraj6, Mexiana) and 
from near Monte Alegre (on the north bank of that river) agree in every respect 
with a large series from Guiana. Three adult males from an unspecified locality on 
the "Rio Negro" erroneously stated to be from Manaos in Nov. Zool., 17, p. 304, 
1910, and in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 6, 1910 merely differ by having a 
darker red breast and less orange about forehead and throat; they are very dif- 
ferent from P. a. flavicollis, originally described from Barra do Rio Negro [ = 
Manaos], of which I have seen a series from Obidos, about one hundred miles 
west of Monte Alegre. If really from the Rio Negro, they probably came from 
the upper stretches of that river where quite a number of Guianan species are 
known to occur. 

No reliable record exists for Trinidad, sometimes included in the habitat of the 
Orange-headed Manakin, although there is in the Paris Museum a male said to 
have been sent from that island by Robin in 1816. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 15, Roche-Marie 2, Approu- 
ague 2, Mana 5. Dutch Guiana: vicinity of Paramaribo 10. British Guiana: 
Demerara River 4. Venezuela: Guanoco, Orinoco delta i; El Pilar, Sucre I. 
Brazil: Sao Natal, Marajo 2; Palheta, Maraj6 2; Fazenda Nazareth, Mexiana 11; 
Monte Alegre 2; Rio Maecuru 2; "Rio Negro" 3. 

*Pipra aureola aurantiicollis TODD: Similar in the male sex to P. a. aureola, 
but throat cadmium yellow with merely a few orange chrome tips (instead of 
orange, most of the feathers largely tipped with flame scarlet) ; cheeks and auric- 



io FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra aureola (not of LINNAEUS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 part, 
Santar^m (spec, examined); HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 6 part, Santare'm; 
IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 298, 1907 part, Santar6m; 
SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 524, 1907 Cussary; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 363, 1914 part, Cussary and Tamucury, south bank of lower 
Amazon. 

Pipra aureola aureola HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 6, 1910 
part, Santarm; idem, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 304, 1910 part, Santar6m. 

Pipra aureola flaviceps (lapsu) RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 24, 1891 
Santarm. 

Range: Northern Brazil, on the south bank of the lower Ama- 
zon (Santarem; Cussary; Tamucury). 

*Pipra aureola flavicollis Sclater. 1 YELLOW-THROATED MANAKIN. 

Pipra flavicollis SCLATER, Contrib. Ornith., 1851, p. 143 Barra do Rio Negro 
[ = Manaos], Brazil ' (type in British Museum examined) ; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 579 part, north side of the Amazon; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 294, 1888 Barra do Rio Negro. 

ulars less suffused with scarlet; scarlet pectoral area less "solid," with more of 
the yellowish basal portion of the feathers showing through. Wing (adult male) 
60-64; tail 28-31; bill 8K-IO. 

While somewhat inclined toward P. a. flavicollis, the present form may be sep- 
arated from it by generally darker, more orange forehead and by the decidedly 
deeper (more orange) yellow of the throat not being abruptly defined against the 
red of the chest. Fifteen males from Santar6m in the collection of the Carnegie 
Museum are fairly uniform, although one or two approach the allied races in cer- 
tain respects. The majority resemble aureola in coloration of tail, the lateral 
rectrices having no white at all or merely a narrow streak along the shaft. Two 
specimens, however, show a distinct white subbasal band across the inner web of 
the outermost rectrix; and another in the Vienna Museum has the outermost 
pair banded on both webs, and the two succeeding ones marked with a white 
spot at the base of the inner web, thus closely resembling the pattern of Peruvian 
examples of P. fasciicauda purusiana. 

This form is known to me only from Santare'm, but I do not doubt that the 
examples recorded by Madame Snethlage from the south bank of the lower Amazon 
(Cussary, Tamucury) will prove to be referable to the same race. 

Material examined. Brazil: Santarem 20. 

1 Pipra aureola flavicollis SCLATER: Nearly allied to P. a. aurantiicollis, but 
adult male with throat and foreneck lighter yellow (varying from light cadmium 
to cadmium yellow), abruptly contrasted with scarlet of breast; frontal band 
lighter cadmium yellow and more strongly defined; lores and sides of head like- 
wise clearer cadmium yellow, with but little scarlet suffusion on the upper portion 
of the auriculars. Wing 62-64; tail 27-30. 

The range of this well-marked race is rather peculiar. It replaces P. a. aureola 
in western Lower Amazonia, extending on the north bank of the Amazon as far east 
as Obidos, but it is also found along both sides of the Rio Madeira. Males from 
the last-named river, as a rule, have the yellow forehead more extensive and the 
auriculars less suffused with scarlet, though the divergency is insignificant. In 
the light of the material secured by S. M. Klages at Obidos, it appears that 
the type locality Manaos, which had been questioned by both Sclater and myself, 
was, after all, correct. 

Material examined. Brazil: Manaos (the type) 2; Itacoatiara 2; Obidos 5; 
islands at Obidos 4; Rio Madeira, Borba 2, Marmellos I, Humaytha n. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. n 

Pipra aureola (not of LINNAEUS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 part, 

Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, examined) ; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, 

p. 363, 1914 part, Obidos and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 
Pipra aureola flavicollis HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 8 Barra and Borba 

(monog.); idem, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 358, 1907 Humaytha, Rio Madeira; 

idem, I.e., 17, pp. 303, 305, 1910 Marmellos, Rio Madeira (crit., range); 

idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 west bank of the Rio 

Madeira. 

Range: Northern Brazil, on the north bank of the lower Ama- 
zon (from Obidos to Manaos) and on the Rio Madeira (Borba, right 
bank; Marmellos and Humaytha, left bank). 

2: Brazil (Itacoatiara 2). 

*Pipra fasciicauda fasciicauda Hellmayr. BANDED-TAILED MANAKIN. 

Pipra fasciata (not of THUNBERG, 1822)* LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. 
Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 38, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia (type in 
Paris Museum examined); idem, Voyage Ame"r. Mrid., Ois., p. 295, pi. 30, 
fig. i, 1839 Santa Cruz and Guarayos, Bolivia; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S. Lond., 1879, p. 616 Bolivia (ex D'ORBIGNY); SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 294, 1888 part, Bolivia; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 2, p. 87, 1889 Falls of the Rio Madeira, Bolivia. 

Pipra fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Ibis, (8), 6, p. 9, 1906 new name for Pipra 
fasciata LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, preoccupied (syn. part, Bolivian 
localities). 

Pipra fasciicauda fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 54, 1908 range 
in part, eastern Bolivia; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 
part, Bolivia. 

Pipra aureola fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 305, 1910 part, 
eastern Bolivia; idem, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 123, 1915 eastern 
Bolivia and extreme southeastern Peru (Yahuarmayo, Carabaya); idem, 
Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 61, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, 
Peru; idem, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 12, 1925 Bolivia (note on type). 

Range: Eastern Bolivia (Santa Cruz; Buena vista; Guarayos; 
Rio San Mateo; falls of the Rio Madeira) and extreme southeastern 
Peru (Yahuarmayo, north slope of Sierra de Carabaya).* 

2: Bolivia (Buenavista, dept. Santa Cruz 2). 

*Pipra fasciicauda scarlatina Hellmayr. 3 SCARLET MANAKIN. 

Pipra aureola scarlatina HELLMAYR, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 122, 1915 
Fazenda Cayod, Salto Grande do Rio Paranapanema, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

J See Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 13, Part 5, p. 465, 1927. 

*Material examined. Bolivia: Guarayos (including the type) 2; Rfo San 
Mateo 3; Santa Cruz i; Buenavista 2. Peru: Yahuarmayo, Carabaya 3. 

1 Pipra fasciicauda scarlatina HELLMAYR: Similar to P. f. fasciicauda in tail 
markings (viz., all of the rectrices with a continuous yellowish-white band across 



\ 



12 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra fasciata (not of LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY) SCLATER and SAL VIM, 
P.Z.S. Lond., 1867, p. 579 Rio Tocantins; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., a, p. 
127, 1868 Rio Parana (Sao Paulo), Goyaz, Villa Maria, Engenho do 
Gama, Rio Guapore 1 , [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso, and Sao Vicente, 
Matto Grosso (spec, examined); REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. 
Foren., 1870, p. 321 Lagda Dourada and near Lagda Santa, Minas 
Geraes; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 294, 1888 part, spec, b-d, 
Matto Grosso, Engenho do Gama, and Rio Parana; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N. H., 5, p. 109, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; IHERING and 
IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 298, 1907 Piracicaba, Salto Grande do 
Rio Paranapanema, Avanhandava, Itapura, and Bebedouro, Sao Paulo. 

Pipra fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 9 part, descr. and hab. part, 
Brazilian localities; BERTONI, Seg. Contrib. Omit. Parag. in Rev. Inst. 
Parag., 1907, p. 5 Paraguay; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 12 1907 
Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 528, 1908 Aru- 
matheua, Rio Tocantins; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 600 Sapucay, Paraguay; 
SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 1913 Tapaj6z, Jamauchim, Curua 
and Tocantins rivers; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 364 Ilha Pirunum 
and Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; (?) BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y), 2, p. 90, 
1916 Utinga, near Para; BERTONI, El Hornero, i, p. 257, 1919 Puerto 
Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Pipra fasciicauda fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 54, 1908 Fazenda 
Esperanca, Goyaz; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 part, 
central Brazil and Lower Amazonia. 

Pipra aureola fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 303, 1910 Maroins, 
Rio Machados; idem, I.e., p. 305, 1910 part, Brazilian localities; idem, 
Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 123, 1915 synon., range. 

Range: Paraguay (Sapucay; Puerto Bertoni) and the interior 
of Brazil, south to northern Sao Paulo and western Minas Geraes, 
west to Matto Grosso and the Rio Machados, north to Lower 
Amazonia (Rio Tapajoz, Rio Curua, and Rio Tocantins). 

3: Brazil (Chapada, Matto Grosso 3). 

both webs) ; but cheeks, auriculars, and throat largely tipped with scarlet, partly 
concealing the cadmium yellow ground-color; foreneck and breast much darker, 
scarlet instead of cadmium orange or orange chrome; the scarlet color, in form of 
lateral edges, frequently extending down to the lower tail coverts. Female not 
distinguishable from P. f. fasciicauda. 

There is obviously no difference between specimens from various localities. 
Birds from the Tapaj6z, including a male from Miritituba, agree with others from 
Matto Grosso and show not the least tendency in the direction of P. a. aurantii- 
collis, found at Santar^m; and as the ranges of P. a. flavicollis and P. f. calamae 
closely approach each other on the Rio Madeira, without evidence of intergrada- 
tion, it is perhaps safer for the present to treat P. fasciicauda as specifically dis- 
tinct. 

Material examined. Sao Paulo: Fazenda Cayoa, Salto Grande do Rio 
Paranapanema 7, Rio Parana 3. Minas Geraes: Rio Jordao, near Araguary 
4. Matto Grosso: Engenho do Gama 3, Villa Maria 3, Villa Bella de Matto 
Grosso 3, Chapada 7. Goyaz: Goyaz City 2, Fazenda Esperanca 2. Amazonas: 
Maroins, Rio Machados 2; Rio Tapaj6z, Itaituba 2, Villa Braga 3, Miritituba I. 



1 929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 13 

Pipra fasciicauda purusiana Snethlage. 1 PURUS MANAKIN. 

Pipra fasciicauda purusiana SNETHLAGE, Ornith. Monatsber., 15, p. 160, 
1907 Ponto Alegre, Rio Punis, Brazil; idem, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 12, 1908 
Bom Lugar, Ponto Alegre, Monte Verde, Rio Punis; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 364, 1914 same localities; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 54, 
1908 crit., range; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 
western Brazil to eastern Peru. 

Pipra fasciata (not of LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY) SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S. Lond., 1873, p. 282 Rio Ucayali, Peru (spec, examined); SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 294, 1888 part, spec. e,f, upper Ucayali, Peru. 

Pipra fasciicauda HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 9 part, Ucayali and Chuchurras 
(Huanuco), Peru. 

Pipra aureola purusiana HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 306, 1910 Rio Punis 
and eastern Peru (crit.). 

Range: Western Brazil, banks of the upper Rio Punis, west to 
eastern Peru (Rio Ucayali; Chuchurras, Rio Palcazu, dept. Huanuco). 

Pipra fasciicauda calamae Hellmayr. 2 CALAMA MANAKIN. 

Pipra aureola calamae HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, pp. 303, 306, 1910 Calama, 
Rio Madeira, Brazil. 

Range: Central Brazil, on the right bank of the upper Rio 
Madeira (Calama, Allianca, Santa Izabel). 

Pipra anomala Todd. 3 ANOMALOUS MANAKIN. 

Pipra anomala TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 97, 1925 Santare'm, Rio 
Tapaj6z, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum examined). 

1 Pipra fasciicauda purusiana SNETHLAGE: Adult male similar to P. f. fascii- 
cauda, but central rectrices uniform black, and black tips to under tail coverts 
much more extensive; throat and foreneck cadmium orange as in P. f. fasciicauda, 
from which the female is indistinguishable. Wing (adult male) 63-65; tail 26-30. 

In specimens from the Rio Punis two or four of the median rectrices are 
entirely black, and the two or three external pairs are banded with yellowish on 
both webs, while the intervening ones have a white patch near the base of the 
inner vane. In Peruvian skins the six median rectrices are devoid of white. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Purus: Monte Verde 3, Ponto Alegre (the 
type) I , Bom Lugar i . Peru : Rio Ucayali I ; unspecified I ; Chuchurras, dept. 
Huanuco 4. 

1 Pipra fasciicauda calamae HELLMAYR: Similar in the male sex to P.f. puru- 
siana, and agreeing with topotypical Brazilian examples in tail markings; but the 
entire fore part of the crown is cadmium yellow; breast deeper crimson; flanks 
strongly washed with olive; abdomen and basal portion of under tail coverts 
suffused with crimson. Wing (male) 64-65; tail 27-28. 

Material examined. Brazil: Calama 6, Allianca 2, Santa Izabel, Rio Preto 2. 

'Pipra anomala TODD: Pileum and nape deep orange chrome; back dark 
olive green, most of the feathers apically edged with sooty black, more broadly so 
on the mantle; wing coverts, wings, and tail dusky black, exteriorly edged with 
olive green; lores pale yellow, tipped with blackish; circumocular region and 
auriculars black, forming a large dark patch on the sides of the head; throat 



14 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Northern Brazil, in state of Para (Santare'm, Rio 
Tapaj6z). 

*Pipra isidorei Isidore! Sclater. ISIDOR'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra isidorei SCLATER, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 9, 1852 "Nouvelle 

Grenade" = Bogotei (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, Contrib. 

Ornith., 1852, p. 132, pi. 100, fig. i Bogotd; BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 San Jos6, Ecuador. 
Pipra isidori SCLATER, P.Z.S. Lond., 22, p. 114, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador! 

idem, l.c , 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 

298, 1888 Bogota, and Sarayacu, Ecuador (excl. Peruvian references); 

GOODFELLOW, Ibis, iQOi, p. 708 Baeza, Ecuador. 
Pipra isidorii isidorii HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 28 Bogota and Ecuador 

(monog.) 
Pipra isidorei isidorei HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 

Bogota and eastern Ecuador. 
Pipra isadorei isadorei CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 481, 1917 

Buenavista, eastern Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 531, 1926 Zamora and 

below San Jos, Ecuador. 

Range : Tropical Zone of eastern Ecuador and of the eastern 
slope of the Eastern Andes of Colombia. 1 

2: Colombia (Bogotd i); Ecuador (Napo region i). 

*Pipra isidorei leucopygia Hellmayr. 2 WHITE-RUMPED MANAKIN. 

Pipra isidorei leucopygia HELLMAYR, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 53, p. 200, 
I 93 Huambo, Peru; idem, Ibis, 1906, p. 29 northern Peru (monog.); 
idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 Huayabamba Valley, 
Peru; MENEGAUX, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, east 
of Tayabamba, Peru. 

light orange yellow, deeper on chin and malar region, continuous with a narrow 
streak of dull orange along the sides of the neck connecting with the orange of 
the nape; breast washed with cadmium orange, forming a brightly colored zone, 
fading into the maize yellow of the abdomen; flanks washed with olive grayish; 
under tail coverts sooty black, basally white and edged with yellowish; under 
wing coverts very pale buffy grayish; bill black. Wing (male) 74; tail 40; bill 12. 
The type (and only known specimen), by the coloration of the under parts, 
somewhat resembles P. fasciicauda; but the much larger bill and greater dimen- 
sions, together with the black sides of the head, distinguish it at a glance from 
that group of Manakins. The coloring of the upper parts is very peculiar, too, 
and while the type may be not quite mature, I have little doubt of its specific 
distinctness. 

'Specimens from Ecuador agree with Bogotd skins. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogotd 25. Ecuador: Baeza 2, Napo re- 
gion 2, Sarayacu 3. 

1 Pipra isidorei leucopygia HELLMAYR: Adult male similar to P. i. isidorei, 
but rump for the greater part milky white like the cap, instead of light Amparo 
blue; female with rump slightly more yellowish green. Wing (male) 48-50; tail 

2O-2I. 

Material examined. Peru: Huambo (including the type) 3; Huayabamba i; 
Moyobamba 3; Nuevo Loreto 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 15 

Pipra isidori (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 23 
Huambo; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 342, 1884 Huambo. 

Range: Tropical zone of northern Peru (Huambo; Huayabam- 
ba; Moyobamba; Nuevo Loreto, east of Tayabamba, dept. Libertad). 
4: Peru (Moyobamba 3; Nuevo Loreto i). 

*Pipra coronata velutina Berlepach. VELVETY MANAKIN. 

Pipra velutina BERLEPSCH, Ibis, (5), i, p. 492, 1883 Veragua; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 299, 1888 part, spec, a-c, Bugaba, Chiriqui, and 
Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. no, 1890 
part, Bugaba, Chiriqui, Santiago de Veraguas; CHERRIE, Proc. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., 14, p. 535, 1891 Pozo Azul, Costa Rica (crit., descr. of female); 
idem, Anal. Inst. Fis.-Geog. Nac. Costa Rica, 6, p. 72, 1893 Rio Naranjo, 
Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 364, 1901 Divala, Panama; HELLMAYR, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 30 part, Costa Rica, Chiriqui, and Veragua; RIDGWAY, Bull. 
U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 750, 1907 part, southwestern Costa Rica 
and western Panama (Divala, Santa F6 de Veragua, Bugaba, Volcan de 
Chiriqui); BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, and El Pozo 
de TeYraba, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 681, 1910 
Buenos Aires, El General, Pozo Azul de Pirns, El Pozo de TeYraba, and 
Boruca, southwestern Costa Rica (habits). 

Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) SALVIN, P. Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 
Santiago de Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 200 Bugaba and Volcdn de 
Chiriqui, Panama. 

Pipra coronata velutina HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 
part, Costa Rica, Chiriqui, Veragua. 

Range : Extreme southwestern Costa Rica and western Panama 
(Chiriqui and Veraguas). 1 

8: Costa Rica (Terraba i, Boruca 4, Buenos Aires i, Lagarto 
i); Panama (Chiriqui i). 

*Pipra coronata minuscula Todd. 2 SHORT-WINGED VELVETY MAN- 
AKIN. 

*Birds from Bugaba, Chiriqui agree in size and coloration with a Costa Rican 
series. I have not seen any material from Veraguas, the type locality, but accord- 
ing to Berlepsch's measurements (wing 61; tail 27), specimens from this province 
appear to be referable to the northern larger race. 

Material examined. Costa Rica 21. Panama (Chiriquf, Bugaba, Divala) 14. 

1 Pipra coronata minuscula TODD: Very similar to P. c. velutina, but wings 
and tail shorter; bill decidedly smaller; plumage in adult males deeper black, and 
crown a shade darker blue. Wing (male) 55-58, (female) 54)4-57 ; tail 24^-27; 
bill 7-8. 

Birds from the Panama Railroad average slightly larger (wing 58-59^; tail 
26K-28), but have the small bill and deep coloration of South American speci- 
mens. 

Material examined. Panama: Lion Hill (adult males) 3. Colombia: Alto 
Bonito i, Remedies I, N6vita 6, Sipi 6, Juntas de Tamana I, Noanama 3, Rio 
Cajon i, San Joaquin [= Buenaventura ] I. Ecuador: Cachavi 3, San Javier 7. 



16 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra velutina minuscula TODD, Proc. Biol Soc. Wash., 32, p. 115, 1919 
Quibd6, Rfo Atrato, Colombia; BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 215, 1922 Mount Sapo and Jesusito, DariSn. 

Pipra coronata (not of SPIX) LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 70, 1847 
"Nouvelle Grenade," coll. DELATTRE. 

Chiroxiphia cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
N.Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad. 

Pipra cyaneocapilla SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 362 
Panama (crit.); idem, I.e., 1879, p. 517 Medellin, Remedios, Rio Neche, 
Colombia. 

Pipra velutina (not of BERLEPSCH) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 299, 
1888 part, spec, d-i, Panama, Lion Hill, Remedios; SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. no, 1890 part, Lion Hill, Panama, and 
Colombia; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 488, 1898 Cachavi, Ecuador; 
HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 30 part, Panama, western Colombia, and north- 
western Ecuador (crit.); RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
750, 1907 part, Panama (Lion Hill), western Colombia, and northwestern 
Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 381, 1917 Alto Bonito, 
Bagado, Andagueda, Juntas de Tamana, N6vita, Noanama, San Jose", 
Buenaventura, Barbacoas, and Puerto Valdivia, Colombia; STONE, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 268, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Pipra coronata velutina HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 
part, Panama, western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador; idem, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1140 N6vita, Sipi, Noanama, Rio Caj6n, and San 
Joaqufn [= Buenaventura], Pacific Colombia. 

Range: Eastern Panama, from the Panama Railroad east- 
wards; western Colombia (Pacific coast, extending east to the lower 
Cauca and Rio Nechi, Antioquia), and northwestern Ecuador (prov. 
Esmeraldas). 

2: Colombia (Alto Bonito, Rio Sucio i; Noanama, Rio San 
Juan i). 

Pipra coronata carbonata Todd. 1 COAL-BLACK MANAKIN. 

Pipra carbonata TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 98, 1925 Tonantins, 
north bank of Rio Solimoes, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum examined). 

1 Pipra coronata carbonata TODD: Most nearly allied to P. c. coronata, from 
the south bank of the Rio Solimoes, but adult males much deeper Cvelvety) black; 
under parts entirely uniform, the abdomen not paler than the breast; under tail 
coverts as a rule more grayish olive, less yellowish; cap on average darker, about 
salvia blue. Wing 58-61; tail 29-32; bill 8-9. 

The excellent material secured by S. M. Klages for the Carnegie Museum 
proves beyond doubt that the black blue-capped Manakins from north of the 
Solimoes, heretofore united with P. c. coronata, are easily distinguishable by their 
blacker coloration. In this respect, P. c. carbonata approaches P. c. minuscula, 
but differs on account of the purplish blue rump, much narrower black frontal 
band, and paler under tail coverts. The under parts are almost uniform velvety 
black, while in typical coronata the abdomen is decidedly duller, more sooty than 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 17 

Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN?) 1 SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1866, p. 190 "Upper Ucayali," errore* (spec, in British Museum exam- 
ined); idem, I.e., 1867, p. 580 upper Rio Negro; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 978 
Pebas, Rio Maran6n, Peru (spec, in British Museum examined); idem.l.c., 
I 873, p- 283 part, Pebas and "Upper Ucayali"; PELZELN, Orn, Bras., 2, 
p. 128, 1868 Sao Pedro, Cocuy, Marabitanas, and Rio Icanna, upper 
Rio Negro (spec, examined); TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 343, 1884 
part, Pebas and Loretoyacu, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
299, 1888 part, spec. a,b,g,h,j-n, Sarayacu, "Upper Ucayali," Pebas, 
Peruvian Amazon, Rio Napo, Ecuador; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2, p. 72, 1889 Rio Napo. 

Pipra cyanocapitta SALVADORI and FESTA, Bull Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 
362, p. 14, 1899 Rio Santiago, Ecuador. 

Pipra coronata (not of SPIX) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 22, p. 114, 1854 Quijos, 
Rio Napo; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 32 part, descr. and hab. Rio Negro, 
northeastern Peru, and eastern Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
36, p. 482, 1917 Florencia and La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, 
I.e., 55, p. 532, 1926 Rio Suno and below San Jos6, Ecuador; BERLIOZ, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 Rfo Suno and San Jos, 
Ecuador. 

Pipra coronata coronata HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 
part, Ecuador, Peru, and Rio Negro. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from the north bank of the Rios 
Solimoes (Tonantins, Manacapurii) and Maranon (Nauta, Pebas, 
Loretoyacu) north through eastern Ecuador to southeastern Colombia 
(Caqueta region), east to the upper Rio Negro in northwestern 
Brazil. 

the breast. From P. c. hoffmannsi the north Amazon form may be told, in addi- 
tion to its blacker coloring, by the absence of the olivaceous tinge on the lower 
belly, purplish instead of verditer blue rump, and by lacking the greenish edges 
to the wings. 

Adult males from the north bank of the Marafitfn (Pebas, Nauta), eastern 
Ecuador, and the Caqueta region in Colombia agree with the Tonantins series. 
Three from the upper Rio Negro, although somewhat faded through age, appear 
to belong to the same race. Two (out of three) males from Manacapuni, farther 
east on the Solimoes, by reason of a faint olivaceous tinge on the abdomen and a 
dusky blue wash across the chest, slightly diverge in the direction of P. c. hoff- 
mannsi. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Solimoes: Tonantins 8, Manacapuni 3; 
Marabitanas, Rio Negro 3; Rio Icanna [=Rio Isana] 4. Peru: Nauta 3, Rfo 
Tigre I, Yahuas Territory, near Pebas I, Pebas I. Ecuador: San Jos6 4, Rfo 
Napo 8. Colombia, Caqueta: La Morelia 3, Florencia 4. 

l Pipra cyanocapilla HAHN (Vogel aus Asien, etc., Lief. 15, pi. 3, fig. 2, 1826 
Brazil) may have been based on a specimen of the present form. Considering 
the similarity of the three races found on the banks of the Solimoes and in the 
absence of a more definite locality than "Brazil", it seems best to drop the name 
altogether as ambiguous. The whereabouts of the type purchased from a dealer 
and formerly in the describer's private collection is unknown. 

*The specimen which has no original label is no doubt incorrectly marked 
"Upper Ucayali." No black form of this group has been found on the Ucayali, 
where one of the green-plumaged races is more likely to occur. 



1 8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 
Pipra coronata coronata Spix. 1 BLUE-CAPPED MANAKIN. 

Pipra coronata SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 5, pi. 7, fig. i, 1825 Sao Paulo de Oli- 
venga, Rio Solimoes, Brazil (types in Munich Museum examined); (?) 
SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 Rio Javarri; HELLMAYR, Ab- 
handl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 640, 1906 note on type; idem, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 32 part, Sao Paulo de Olivenca and (?) Rio Javarri; IHER- 
ING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 299, 1907 part, Rio Juru 
(spec, examined). 

(?) Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1873, p. 283 part, Rio Javarri; (?) TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 343, 
1884 part, Rio Javarri; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 
part, Rio Jurua (spec, in Museu Paulista examined). 

Pipra coronata coronata HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 
1910 part, Sao Paulo de Olivenca and Rio Jurua. 

Pipra herbacea SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 6, pi. 8a, fig. I, 1825 "in sylvis flum. 
Amazonum" (type in Munich Museum examined; =female); HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 640, 1906 (crit.). 

Range: Extreme northwestern Brazil, from the south bank of 
the Rio Solimoes (Sao Paulo de Olivenga) south to Sao Felippe, on 
the upper Rio Jurua, and (?) west to the Javari. 

Pipra coronata hoffmannsi Hellmayr. 2 HOFFMANNS'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra hoffmannsi HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 49, 1907 Teffe", Rio Soli- 
moes, Brazil; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 Teffe\ 

*The adult male of P. c. coronata has the upper parts markedly duller, more 
of a brownish black than either P. c. carbonata or P. c. hoffmannsi; the color of the 
abdomen is intermediate between the two, being neither deep velvety black like 
the breast as in the former, nor dingy olive greenish as in the latter, but dull 
sooty, distinctly paler than the anterior under parts. Immature males closely 
approach P. c. hoffmannsi. 

A single male obtained by E. Garbe at Sao Felippe, on the upper stretches 
of the Rio Jurud, on December 16, 1901 (Museu Paulista, No. 2260), is perfectly 
identical with examples from Sao Paulo de Olivenga in the Carnegie Museum, 
which were directly compared with the types in the Munich Museum. The type 
of P. herbacea is evidently a female of the same form, and we formally suggest 
Sao Paulo de Olivenga as its type locality, in order to finally dispose of that name. 

The westward extension of its range cannot be traced with certainty, owing 
to lack of material from the country between the Jurua and Ucayali, and it re- 
mains to be ascertained where the green and black forms meet in eastern Peru. 

Material examined. Brazil: Sao Paulo de Olivenga (including the types) 
n; Sao Felippe, Rio Jurua I. 

*Pipra coronata hoffmannsi HELLMAYR: Adult male nearest to P. c. coronata, 
but cap shorter and darker blue; back, sides of the head, and throat deeper (vel- 
vety) black; rump washed with yerditer blue instead of with purplish ; greater upper 
wing coverts, quills, and rectrices distinctly edged with green; middle of breast 
and abdomen dingy olive yellowish; sides dark green; female more conspicuously 
yellowish along the abdominal line. Wing 58-61, (female) 55-59; tail 27-30; bill 
8-9. 

This form apparently replaces P. c. coronata on the south bank of the Soli- 
moes east of the Rio Teffe\ The dark shade of the blue cap, the distinct green 
wing-edgings, and the extensive yellowish abdominal line in the original series 



IQ2Q. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 19 

Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 299, 
1888 part, spec, e, Ega=Teffe. 

Range: Northwestern Brazil, on the south bank of the Rio 
Solimoes, from the Rio Teffe east to Caviana, near the mouth of 
the Rio Puriis. 

Pipra coronata chloromelaena Todd. 1 GREEN-BLACK MANAKIN. 

Pipra chloromelaena TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 97, 1925 Nova 
Olinda, left bank of lower Purvis, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum 
examined). 

Range: Western Brazil, on the left bank of the lower Rio 
Purus (Nova Olinda). 

Pipra coronata arimensis Todd. 2 ARIMA MANAKIN. 

Pipra chloromelaena arimensis TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 98, 1925 
Arima, right bank of lower Punis, Brazil (type in Carnegie Museum 
examined). 

from Teff reveal close affinity to P. c. chloromelaena, of the lower Purus. Four 
males from Caviana (opposite Manacapuni) , on the other hand, differ by reason of 
duller black dorsal surface, with more bluish rump and less conspicuous green edges 
on the wings, somewhat lighter blue cap, and more restricted as well as more oliva- 
ceous (less yellowish) abdominal line. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Solimoes: Teff6 9, Caviana 4. 

1 Pipra coronata chloromelaena TODD: Adult male closely similar to P. c. 
hoffmannsi, but upper back varying from dusky green to greenish slaty black 
(instead of plain black), passing into Danube green on rump and tail coverts; 
green edges on wing coverts, quills, and rectrices wider and brighter; throat 
somewhat duller, more greenish black, shading into dark green on chest; extensive 
area along middle of breast and abdomen dingy primrose yellow; sides brighter 
green; female not distinguishable. Wing (male) 59-61; tail 29-31; bill 8-9. 

This most interesting form connects the black and green races of the blue- 
capped group, thus confirming my suspicion that they are all representatives of 
a single specific unit. The darkest specimens closely approach hoffmannsi, being, 
however, more tinged with greenish on mantle, sides of the head and throat, 
while the lower back and tail coverts are decidedly green, instead of being 
blackish, tinged with verditer or dusky blue. Wings and tail are more broadly 
margined with brighter green. The cap is about the same tone, salvia blue, with 
a faint violaceous cast, the bases of the feathers dusky as in P. c. hoffmannsi. 

Material examined. Brazil: Nova Olinda, lower Punis 9. 

1 Pipra coronata arimensis TODD: Adult male closely similar to P. c. chloro- 
melaena, but cap much paler, light cerulean blue instead of salvia blue, with the 
bases of the feathers decidedly greenish; back without any black, the anterior 
portion being Danube green, becoming brighter posteriorly; sides of head and 
throat dusky green (less blackish) ; chest brighter, about empire green ; middle of 
belly and under tail coverts brighter, barium yellow rather than primrose yellow. 
Wing (male) 56-60; tail 27-30; bill 8-9. 

Reexamination shows specimens from Humaytha to be identical with the 
series from Arima. The darker blue lateral and posterior edge of the cap is but 
slightly suggested in males of this form. Females are hardly different from P. c. 
chloromelaena, though the yellowish abdominal area averages a little brighter. 

Material examined. Brazil: Arima, Rio Punis 15; Humaytha, Rio Madeira 7. 



20 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra caelesti-pileata (not of GOELDI) HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 359, 1907 
Humaytha, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 307, 1910 Humaytha; idem 
in WYTSMAN, Gen Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 part, Rio Madeira (Humaytha). 

Range: Western Brazil, from the right bank of the lower Rio 
Punis (Arima) to the left bank of the Rio Madeira (Humaytha). 

Pipra coronata caelesti-pileata Goeldi. 1 AZURE-CAPPED MANAKIN. 

Pipra caelesti-pileata GOELDI, Compt. Rend. Six. Congr. Internat. Zool. Berne, 
p. 549, May 25, 1905 or later 2 upper Rio Purus = Uby Cachoeira (type 
examined); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 12, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio 
Purus; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 366, 1914 Cachoeira; HELLMAYR in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 part, Rio Purus. 

Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 
1905 part, "Rio Jurua" =Rio Chiruao (Churuan), Brazil (spec, examined). 

Pipra exquisita HELLMAYR, Ibis, p. 35 part, Rio Purus and "Rio Jurua" 
[=Rio Chiruao ]. 

Pipra coronata (not of SPIX) IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, 
p. 299, 1907 "Rio Jurua," part. 

Pipra exquisita caelesti-pileata HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, 
p. 63, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Sierra de Carabaya, Peru (crit.), and "Rio 
Jurua" [=Rio Chiruao ]. 

Range: Western Brazil, from the Rio Chiruao (Churuan), a 
southerly tributary of the Jurua, and the upper stretches of the Rio 

1 Pipra coronata caelesti-pileata GOELDI: Most nearly related to P. c. arimensis, 
but cap of adult male less shining and appreciably darker, about light methyl-blue, 
with more of the greenish bases showing through; upper parts including the edges 
of wing and tail feathers much brighter and clearer, grass or spinach green; sides 
of head and throat more greenish (dark cress green); breast brighter, spinach 
green rather than Danube green; middle of belly and crissum as a rule clearer 
yellow. Wing (male) 58-62; tail 29-31; bill 8-9. 

This form is unquestionably distinct from both P. c. arimensis and P. c. 
exquisita, as shown by a very satisfactory series in the Carnegie Museum from 
Hyutanahan. The cap of the adult males lacks the purplish posterior margin, and 
is intermediate in tone between the salvia blue of chloromelaena and the light 
cerulean blue of arimensis, the bluish tips being, at the same time, shorter and 
less flattened. The type of P. caelesti-pileata has the crown lighter blue than any 
of the Hyutanahan birds, more like arimensis, but this is likely to be individual. 
Two males from the upper stretches of the Rio Chiruao (Churuan), a southerly 
tributary of the Jurua, halfway between that river and the Punis, agree well with 
the average from Hyutanahan. According to information received from their 
collector, the late Ernesto Garbe, they came from a section of the Jurua region, 
far away from Sao Felippe, where a single male of the black-plumaged P. c. coronata 
was obtained, as recorded under that form. Ihering's and Hellmayr's intimation, 
that the two races are found together, thus proves to be fallacious. 

Birds from southeastern Peru (Yahuarmayo), while pointing to exquisita be- 
cause of the slightly paler crown, are not otherwise different from Purus specimens. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Punis: Uby Cachoeira (the type) I, Hyu- 
tanahan 14; Rio Chiruao (Churuan) 3. Peru: Yahuarmayo 6. 

'Although there is a note on the title-page "sorti de presse le 25 mai 1905," 
the volume evidently was not issued until October or November of that year. 



igag. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 21 

Purvis (Hyutanahan, Uby Cachoeira) south to extreme southeastern 
Peru (Yahuarmayo, north slope of Sierra de Carabaya, dept. Puno). 

*Pipra coronata exquisita Hellmayr. 1 EXQUISITE MANAKIN. 

Pipra exquisita HELLMAYR, Bull. Brit. Orn. CL, 15, p. 56, March, 1905 Chu- 
churras, near Pozuzo, dept. Huanuco, Peru; idem, Ibis, 1906, p. 35, pi. I 
part, Chuchurras, Peru; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 
Chuchurras. 

Range: Central Peru, in depts. of Junin (Puerto Bermudez) 
and Hudnuco (Chuchurras). 

4: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Rio Pichis, Ucayali drainage basin, 
dept. Junin 4). 

*Pipra coronata circumpicta Zimmer? HUALLAGA MANAKIN. 

Pipra coronota circumpicta ZIMMER, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 84, 

1929 Munichis, Yurimaguas, Peru. 
Pipra cyaneocapilla (not of HAHN) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, 

p. 751 Chyavetas; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 283 part, Chyavetas; TACZA- 

NOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 343, 1884 part, Chyavetas; SCLATER, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., 14, p. 299, 1888 part, spec. f,i, Chyavetas and Rio Huallaga 

(spec, examined). 

Pipra exquisita (not of HELLMAYR) HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 35 part, Chya- 
vetas and Rio Huallaga. 

Range: Northeastern Peru, south of the Maran6n (Chyavetas; 
Yurimaguas, lower Huallaga, dept. Loreto). 

i: Peru (Munichis, Yurimaguas i). 

*Pipra caeruleocapilla Tschudi* TSCHUDI'S BLUE-CAPPED MANAKIN. 

1 Pipra coronata exquisita HELLMAYR: Agreeing with P. c. caelesti-pileata in 
bright spinach green upper parts and breast, but cap of adult males much paler 
and more greenish blue (between calamine blue and pale cerulean blue) ; sides of 
head and throat lighter ciess green (hardly darker than the back), and middle of 
the belly brighter as well as clearer yellow. Wings (male) 57-60; tail 26-29; bill 8-9. 

Males from Puerto Bermudez are perfectly identical with a cotype from Chu- 
churras. 

Material examined. Peru: Chuchurras 4; Puerto Bermudez 4. 

1 Pipra coronata circumpicta ZIMMER: Adult male nearest to P. c. exquisita, 
but crown decidedly deeper, about pale cerulean blue, encircled by a light methyl 
blue border; middle of abdomen somewhat dingier yellow. Wing 57-60; tail 
26-28; bill 8-9. 

Material examined. Peru: Yurimaguas (the type) i; Chyavetas i; "Hual- 
laga" i. 

'Pipra caeruleocapilla TSCHUDI, in its velvety black plumage of the male, 
resembles P. coronata carbonata, but is immediately distinguished by the light 
blue uropygial patch and much paler cap. It is possibly a zonal representative 
of the P. coronata group. The late W. Hoffmanns obtained it at Pozuzo, Rfo 
Pozuzo, at elevations of from 800 to 950 meters, while lower down in the same river 



22 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra caeruleocapilla 1 TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 271, 1844 Peru; 
idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 145, 1846 Montanas of "northwestern" 
Peru, we suggest Montafias of Vitoc, dept. Junfn; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1873, pp. 780, 782 Cosnipata, dept. Cuzco; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, p. 
538 Amable Maria and Soriano, dept. Junfn; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 344, 
1884 same localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 300, 1888 
Peru; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 368 La Gloria, 
Vitoc and La Merced, Chanchamayo, dept. Junfn; idem, Ornis, 13, p. 
114, 1906 Huaynapata, Marcapata Valley, dept. Cuzco; HELLMAYR, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 29 Peru (monog.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 8, 1910 Peru; idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 62, 1920 
Chaquimayo, Sierra de Carabaya, Peru. 

Range: Upper Tropical Zone of central and southeastern Peru, 
in depts. Huanuco, Junin, Cuzco, and northern Puno (Sierra de 
Carabaya). 

5: Peru (Huachipa, dept. Huanuco 5). 
*Pipra iris iris Schinz. OPALESCENT MANAKIN. 

Pipra Iris SCHINZ, Naturg. Vogel, 2nd ed., livr. 7, p. 91, pi. 39,* left upper 
fig. (=male), 1851 "Guyana," eirore, we substitute Para; see ZIMMER, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 38, p. 87, 1925 (crit.). 

Pipra opalizans PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 128, 186, Sept., 1868 Pard (descr. 
of male); BERLEPSCH, Ibis, 1898, p. 60, pi. 2 ( =male) Oure'm, Rio Guamd; 
HELLMAYR, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 53, p. 201, 1903 Benevides, 
near Pard (descr. of female); idem, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 294, 1905 Igarap^- 
assu, Para; idem, I.e., 13, p. 363, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata; idem, Ibis, 
1906, p. 41 Pard district (monog.); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 
1907 Santo Antonio do Prata; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 
9, p. 8, 1910 near Para; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. 
Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 29, 90, 1912 Peixe-Boi, east of Pard (Pard localities); 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 367, 1914 Mocajatuba, Providencia, 
Ananindeua, Benevides, Apehu, Santa Izabel, Peixe-Boi, and Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Pard district, and (?) Cussary, 1 lower Amazon; BEEBE, 
Zoologica (N. Y.), 2, p. 91, 1916 Utinga, near Pard; BOND, Auk, 44, 
p. 563, 1927 "Patagonia," forty miles east of Pard; STONE, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 167, 1928 Utinga, Santa Izabel, and Castanhal, 
Pard. 

valley at Chuchurras, alt. 320 meters, P. coronata exquisita was found. Females 
of the two species are inseparable. 

Material examined. Dept. Hudnuco: Pozuzo 7, Huachipa 5. Dept. Junfn: 
La Gloria 2. Dept. Cuzco: Marcapata (alt. loop meters) 5. Dept. Puno: Rio 
Huacamayo (alt. 1000 meters) i, Chaquimayo, Sierra de Carabaya 2. 

'Sometimes spelled caeruleicapilla. 

*The plate erroneously inscribed "P. strigilata." 

*The locality "Cussary", if correct, may be referable to P. i. eucephala. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 23 

Range: Northeastern Brazil, in the eastern section of the state 
of Para, from the Tocantins east to Our^m, Rio Guama. 1 
6: Brazil (Utinga, near Pard 6). 

Pipra iris eucephala Todd.* WESTERN OPALESCENT MANAKIN. 

Pipra iris eucephala TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 112, 1928 Miriti- 
tuba, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil. 

Range: Northern Brazil, in the western section of the state 
of Para (Santare"m, Colonia do Mojuy, and Miritituba, on the right 
bank of the Rio Tapajoz). 

Pipra nattereri Sdater. 3 NATTERER'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra nattereri SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., "1864," p. 611, pi. 39, 1865 Borba, 
Rio Madeira; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 127, 1868 Borba, Rio Madeira 
and Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso (spec, examined) ; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 302, 1888 Borba; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 40 Borba 
(monog.); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 504, 1908 Villa Braga, Rio 
Tapaj6z; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 360, 1907 Borba (crit.); idem, 
l.c., 17, p. 307, 1910 Calama and Allianca (Rio Madeira), Santa Izabel 
(Rio Preto), and Jamarysinho, Rio Machados (crit.); idem in WYTSMAN, 
Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 left bank of Tapaj6z to Rio Madeira; SNETH- 
LAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 366, 1914 Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Villa Braga) 
and (?) Rio Jamauchim (Tucunare 1 ). 4 

Pipra gracilis HELLMAYR, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 53, p. 202, 1903 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore\ Matto Grosso (descr. of female); idem, 
Ibis, 1906, p. 39 Engenho do Gama. 

Range : Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the left bank 
of the Tapajoz west to the right bank of the Rio Madeira, extend- 
ing south to western Matto Grosso (Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore"). 

1 Material examined. Brazil, Para: Igarape'-assu 3, Benevides I, Santo An- 
tonio do Prata i, Utinga 6, Peixe-Boi 14, Oure'm (Rio Guamd) I. 

t Pipra iris eucephala TODD; "Similar to P. i. iris in heavy bill, but adult 
male with the opalescent feathers of the pileum continued over the forehead 
almost to the base of the bill; female with the pileum decidedly bluish, in contrast 
with the back, instead of pure green." (W. E. C. TODD, I.e.)- 

This is obviously a well-defined race, pointing in certain respects to P. nat- 
tereri, of the left bank of the Tapaj6z, which may ultimately prove to be con- 
specific with P. iris. 

*Pipra nattereri SCLATER is probably a western race of P. iris. The females 
are very much alike, that of P. nattereri differing chiefly by reason of its smaller 
darker bill and more bluish crown. Birds from the Rio Tapajoz are identical with 
a topotypical series, while those from Calama and farther up the Rio Madeira are, 
as a rule, more deeply and more solidly green on throat and chest. However, 
the variation is not constant enough to warrant the recognition of a separate 
race, for which the name P. gracilis would be available. 

Material examined. Rio Tapaj6z: Villa Braga 3, Itaituba 3. Rio Madeira: 
Borba 16, Calama 14, Allianca 3, Parafso i; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto i; Jamary- 
sinho, Rio Machados 3. Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso (female) i. 

'Probably referable to P. iris eucephala. 



24 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Pipra serena serena Linnaeus. WHITE-FRONTED MANAKIN. 

Pipra serena LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., I, p. 340, 1766 based on 
BRISSON, Orn., 4, p. 457, pi. 36, fig. 2, Cayenne and Surinam; DESMAREST, 
Hist. Nat. Tang., Manak. et Todiers, livr. 4, pi. 62 (male), 1805; livr. 8, 
pi. 64 (young male or female), 1806 "la Guyane"; VIEILLOT and OUDART, 
Galerie Ois., I, (2), p. 95, pi. 72, 1823 "Guyane et Br6sil"; WAGLER, 
Isis, 1830, p. 935 "Guiana," Cajenna (descr.); DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., 
p. 35, pi. 40, fig. 2, circa 1856 "Maranhao et Para" (errore); SCLATER, 
Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 249, 1862 Cayenne; idem. Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 300, 1888 Cayenne; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 38 Cayenne 
(monog.); BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 137, 1908 Ipousin, R. Approu- 
ague, French Guiana; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 190, 
1910 Surinam (?). 

Dasycetopa serena BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 37, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Pipra serena serena HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 
Cayenne. 

Range: French Guiana and adjacent districts of northern 
Brazil (Upper Rocana, northern Pard), possibly also Surinam. 1 

i: French Guiana (Cayenne i). 

*Pipra serena suavissima Salmn and Godman. ORANGE-BELLIED 

MANAKIN. 

Pipra suavissima SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (4), 6, p. 79, pi. i, 1882 Merum6 
Mountains and Bartica Grove, British Guiana; SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 300 
Bartica Grove, Merume' Mts., R. Atapurow, and Roraima; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 300, 1888 same localities; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, 
p. 37 British Guiana (monog.); BEEBE, Trop. Wild Life, i, p. 134, 1917 
Bartica Grove; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 247, 1921 British 
Guiana (numerous localities). 

Pipra serena (not of LINNAEUS) SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 245, 
1848 Our Village, Kukenam Valley, dist. Yuruari, Venezuela; CABANIS, 
I.e., 3, p. 697, 1848 Roraima region. 

Pipra serena suavissima HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, pi. 3, 
fig. 6, 1910 British Guiana. 

Range: British Guiana and adjacent parts of southeastern 
Venezuela (dist. Yuruari). 1 

3: British Guiana (Roraima 2, Merume' Mountains i). 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 8, Ipousin, Approuague River 
2, Tamanoir, Mana River 5, Pied Saut, Oyapock 16. Brazil: Upper Rocana, 
northern Para 3. 

2 Beebe's record (Zoologica, N.Y., 2, p. 91, 1916) from Utinga, near Para, 
Brazil requires confirmation. Unfortunately, the specimen is not at present 
accessible for reexamination. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima 7, Merumg Mts. 3, Quonga 
i, Mazaruni River 3, Essequibo River 2. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 25 

*Pipra chloromeros Tschudi. 1 PERUVIAN MANAKIN. 

Pipra chloromeros TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 271, 1844 Peru; idem 
Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 144, 1846 Montanas of "northwestern" Peru, we 
suggest valley of Vitoc, dept. Junin; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1869, p. 598 Cosnipata, dept. Cuzco; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 617 Baganti, 
Bolivia; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, P- 539 Amable Maria, dept. Junin and 
Monterico, dept. Ayacucho; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 22 Huambo, Peru; idem, 
Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 339, 1884 Peruvian localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 295, 1888 Cosnipata, Peru and Baganti, Bolivia; BERLEPSCH 
and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 368 La Gloria, La Merced, and 
Borgona, dept. Junin; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 17 Peru and Bolivia 
(monog.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 Peru and 
Bolivia; HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 62, 1920 Chaqui- 
mayo and Yahuarmayo, Sierra de Carabaya, Peru; CHAPMAN, Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 117, p. 99, 1921 Rio Cosireni, Urubamba region, Peru; 
HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. n, 1925 Yuracares and Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia. 

Pipra rubrocapitta (not of TEMMINCK) LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., 
I, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 38, 1837 Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Yura- 
cares, Bolivia (descr. of female; spec, in Paris Museum examined); D'OR- 
BIGNY, Voyage Ame'r. Mrid., Ois., p. 294, 1839 Yuracares, Bolivia. 

Range: Tropical zone of Bolivia and Peru (north to the valley 
of Huayabamba). 

2: Peru (Vista Alegre, dept. Huanuco i); Bolivia (Rio Espirito 
Santo i). 

*Pipra mentalis mentalis Sclater. YELLOW-THIGHED MANAKIN. 

Pipra mentalis SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, "1856," p. 299, pi. 121, Jan., 
1857 C6rdova, Vera Cruz, Mexico; idem and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 125, 
Guatemala; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 837 Honduras; SALVIN, Ibis, 
1872, p. 318 Chontales, Nicaragua; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
295, 1888 part, spec, a-s, C6rdova, Yucatan, Mugeres and Meco Islands, 
Honduras, Rio de la Pasion and Choctum (Guatemala), Chontales (Nic- 
aragua), Angostura, Tucurriqui, and Tuirialba (Costa Rica); SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1889, P- 364 Mugeres and Meco Islands, Yucatan (crit.); SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 108, 1890 part, Mexico 
to (eastern) Costa Rica; RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 509, 
1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (habits); HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 
13 Mexico to Nicaragua (monog.); DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 100, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala. 

l Pipra chloromeros TSCHUDI differs from the other red-headed species by reason 
of the strongly rounded tail, with the shafts of the lateral rectrices rigid and some- 
what thickened at the base. 

Material examined. Peru: Huambo I, Huayabamba 2; Pozuzo, Huanuco 
2, Vista Alegre, Huanuco i; La Gloria, Junin 3; Chaquimayo 5, Yahuarmayo, 
Sierra de Carabaya I. Bolivia: San Mateo 12, Rio Espirito Santo I, Yuracares 
i, Santa Cruz I. 



26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra mentalis mentalis RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 746, 
1907 southeastern Mexico to Nicaragua (monog., full bibliography); 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 Mexico to Nicaragua. 

Pipra mentalis ignifera RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 747, 
1907 part, east Costa Rican localities and references; CARRIKER, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 681, 1910 part, La Florida, Cuabre, Rfo Sicsola. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico (in states of Vera Cruz, Tabasco, 
Campeche, and Yucatan) and southward through Guatemala, 
British Honduras, Honduras, and Nicaragua to eastern Costa Rica 
(Talamanca). 1 

13: Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal 5, unspecified i); Nicara- 
gua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua 5); Costa Rica (Orosi 2). 

*Pipra mentalis ignifera Bangs. SOUTHERN YELLOW-THIGHED MAN- 
AKIN. 

Pipra mentalis ignifera BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 363, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; idem, 
I.e., 24, p. 303, 1907 Boruca, Paso Real, Pozo del Rfo Grande, western 
Costa Rica; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 15 part, Chiriqui and Costa Rica 
(excl. Angostura and Paiz) (monog.); RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 747, 1907 part, Chiriqui and western Costa Rica (monog., full 
bibliography); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 681, 1910 part, 
western Costa Rica (habits); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 7, 1910 part, Chiriqui and Costa Rica; KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. 
Boston Soc. N. H., 38, p. 457, 1928 Boquete Trail, Panama. 

Pipra mentalis (not of SCLATER, 1857) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 200 Mina 
de Chorcha and Bugaba, Chiriqui; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
295, 1888 part, spec, v, Bugaba, Chiriqui; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 108, 1890 part, Bugaba and Mina de Chorcha; 
CHERRIE, Anal. Inst. Fisico-Geog. Nac. Costa Rica, 6, p. 72, 1893 Rio 
Naranjo, Costa Rica; UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 439 Volcan de Mira- 
velles, Costa Rica; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 369, p. 6, 1899 Chiriqui. 

Range: Western Costa Rica and western Panama (Chiriqui). 2 
4: Costa Rica (Boruca 3, TeYraba i). 

*Pipra mentalis minor Hartert* LESSER YELLOW-THIGHED MANAKIN. 

'The few adult males seen from eastern Costa Rica (Orosi, Angostura, Tala- 
manca) appear to me decidedly referable to the northern race, with which they 
agree in proportion of tail, pale yellow thighs and chin-spot, as well as in the 
more crested, flame-scarlet head. 

Twenty-nine specimens from Mexico (C6rdoba) to Nicaragua, and five from 
eastern Costa Rica examined. 

*Material examined. Panama: Chiriqui 15, Sevilla Island 2. Costa Rica 
(Boruca, Pozo Azul de Pirns, Trraba, Miravelles) 22. 

1 Pipra mentalis minor HARTERT: Adult male agreeing with P. m. ignifera in 
deep black under parts; but on average smaller, with shorter, weaker bill; head 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 27 

Pipra mentalis minor HAETERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 489, 1898 Cachavf, prov. 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type examined); HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 16 
western Ecuador (monog.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 
1910 western Ecuador; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1139 Rio Caj6n, 
Sipi, Noanama, and N6vita, Pacific Colombia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 36, p. 480, 1917 Baudo, Noanama, N6vita, San Jose", and 
Barbacoas, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 531, 1926 Esmeraldas and Rio 
de Oro, Ecuador; GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 179, 1929 
Cana, Dari6n. 

Chiroxiphia mentalis (not Pipra mentalis SCLATER) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Pipra mentalis SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 362 Panama; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 295, 1888 part, spec, w-a 1 , Panama; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 108, 1890 part, 
Lion Hill, Panama. 

Pipra mentalis ignifera (not of BANGS) HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 15 part, 
Lion Hill, Panama; RIDGWAY, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 747, 
1907 part, Panama; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 
1910 part, Panama; STONE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 268, 
1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Pipra mentalis subsp. minor SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 362, p. 14, 1899 Rio Peripa, Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical lowlands of the Pacific coast of Ecuador and 
Colombia, north to eastern Panama (Canal Zone). 

6: Ecuador (Carondeled, prov. Esmeraldas i); Colombia (Con- 
doto, Rio Condoto i); Panama (Barro Colorado Island 4). 

*Pipra erythrocephala erythrocephala (Linnaeus). GOLDEN-HEADED 
MANAKIN. 

Parus erythroccphalus LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., loth ed., x, p. 191, 1758 based 
on EDWARDS, Nat. Hist. Birds, i, p. 21, lower figure, Surinam. 

Pipra aurocapilla 1 LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 29, 1823 
"Brazil" (descr. of male); WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 934 Cayenne (descr.); 

even deeper red, this being particularly noticeable on the forehead and crown; 
gonydeal angle but narrowly bordered with yellow; inner secondaries only with 
narrower, yellowish inner margins; thighs somewhat paler; female merely distin- 
guishable by shorter wings, smaller bill, and more yellowish under wing coverts. 
Wing (male) 55-58; tail 26-28; bill 8-9 with topotypes. 

Birds from western Colombia agree in coloration and small bill, but approach 
P. m. ignifera in length of wing and tail, ten adult males measuring 57-60, resp. 
28-29 mm. Three from Panama, however, are small again (wing 54-55 mm.), 
though their bills are larger than in Ecuadorian specimens. 

Material examined. Ecuador, prov. Esmeraldas (Cachavi, San Javier, 
Carondeled) 15. Colombia: Rio Cajon 2, Sipi 4, Noanama 4, N6vita 6, Condoto, 
Rio Condoto i. Panama: Barro Colorado Island 4. 

frequently spelled auricapttla. 



z8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, i, p. 215, 1847 Whomana River, an 
affluent of the Barima; CABANIS, I.e., 3, p. 696, 1848 British Guiana; 
BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 444, 1856 "bei Para" and 
Guyana; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 127, 1868 Barra [ = Manaos], Sao 
Pedro, Marabitanas, Barcellos, and Rio Icanna, Rio Negro region (spec, 
examined); TAYLOR, Ibis, 1864, p. 87 Trinidad; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 "Para" (errore) and Barra do Rio Negro; 
idem, I.e., 1868, p. 628 San Esteban, Venezuela; FINSCH, I.e., 1870, p. 
573 "Trinidad"; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 516 Remedies and 
Neche, Antioquia; SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 1880, p. 169 Minca, Santa 
Marta; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 300 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merume" 
Mts., Atapurow River, and Roraima, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 296, 1888 part, spec, a-q, e'-l', Cayenne, Maroni River, 
Georgetown, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Atapurow River, Roraima, "Para" 
(errore), San Esteban, Venezuela, Cauca, Minca, and Chepo, Panama; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 109, 1890 Chepo, 
Panama; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 6, p. 45, 1894 Princestown, 
Trinidad; BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 137, 1898 Santa Marta; 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 156, 1900 Bonda, Onaca, Minca, 
Agua Dulce, Las Nubes, and Valparaiso, Santa Marta district; MENEGAUX, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 Mahury, French Guiana. 

Pipra chrysocephala DESCOURTILZ, Ornith. Bre'sil., Part 4, p. 36, pi. 41, fig. 
i, circa 1856 "Au Maranhao et Para" (errore). 

Pipra erythrocephala actinosa BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 214, 1922 Mount Sapo, eastern Panama; GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. 
Novit., 282, p. 7, 1927 Chiman, Panama; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 178, 1929 El Tigre, Rio Cupe, Dari6n. 

Dixiphia erythrocephala BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 37, 
1 8 57 Cayenne. 

Pipra erythrocephala LEOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 255, 1866 Trinidad; BER- 
LEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 53, 1902 Maipures, Somborge, 
and Nericagua, Rio Orinoco, and Suapure, La Pricion, Nicare, and La 
Uni6n, Rfo Caura, Venezuela (spec, examined); HELLMAYR, I.e., 13, p. 
27, 1906 Caparo, Valencia, Chaguaramas, and Pointe Gourde, Trinidad; 
idem, I.e., 14, p. 30, 1907 Obidos (crit.; occurrence at Para denied); CHER- 
RIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., I, p. 190, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; 
HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 20 part, Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad, Rio 
Negro, Colombian localities (except Bogota), and Panama; BERLEPSCH, 
Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 137, 318, 1908 Ipousin, R. Approuague, Cayenne, 
and Mahury, French Guiana; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), i, p. 94, 1909 
Guanoco, Orinoco Delta, Venezuela; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 7, 1910 part; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 365, 1914 
Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Monte Alegre, Rio Maecuru, 
Obidos, and Rio Jamunda (Faro); CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 245, 
1921 British Guiana (numerous localities). 

Pipra erythrocephala erythrocephala RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
4, p. 748, 1907 eastern Panama through Colombia and Venezuela to 
Trinidad and Cayenne; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., i, p. 364, 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 29 

1908 Aripo and Carenage, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 2, p. 248, 1916 from 
Somborge, near mouth of Rio Meta, up the Orinoco, and Caura Valley; 
HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 86, 1912 San 
Esteban, Cumbre Chiquita, and Las Quiguas, Carabobo; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 479, 1917 Rio Salaqui, Los Cisneros (Rio 
Dagua), Puerto Valdivia and Rio Frio, Cauca, and west of Honda, Colom- 
bia (spec, examined); BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 72, 1918 Lelydorp, Wanaweg, Javaweg, and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam; 
TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 334, 1922 Onaca, Cin- 
cinnati, La Tigrera, Las Vegas, Las Taguas, Minca, and Don Diego, 
Colombia; GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 179, 1929 Cana, 
Darie'n (crit.). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; extreme north- 
eastern Brazil, from the Guianan border south to the north bank of 
the lower Amazon, west to the Rio Negro; Trinidad; Venezuela, 
from the north coast south to the Orinoco Valley; Colombia, west 
of the Eastern Andes (except the valley of the Rio Lebrija), and 
eastern Panama, west to the Canal Zone (Chepo). 1 

5 : Dutch Guiana (Lelydorp, Surinam i) ; British Guiana (Hyde 
Park, Demerara River 2); Venezuela (Puerto Cabello, Carabobo i); 
Brazil (Conceigao, Rio Branco i). 

further subdivision of this race appears to be impracticable. Adult males 
from Trinidad, the north coast of Venezuela, Santa Marta, and Darien (eastern 
Panama) have the head generally of a slightly deeper orange yellow hue, but as 
only about 40% of the specimens are distinguishable, I do not see any advantage 
in recognizing P. e. actinosa. Birds from the Caura River are precisely similar 
to a Guianan series, while those from the north bank of the lower Amazon 
(Obidos and Rio Maecuru) and Manaos ate among the smallest I have seen. 
Specimens from Pacific Colombia (Rio Salaqui: Murindo and Sautata, Rio Atrato; 
Los Cisneros, Rio Dagua) agree with those from the northern districts (Santa 
Marta; Jaraquiel, Bolivar) and Panama. Birds from the Cauca Valley evidently 
form the transition to P. e. flammiceps. One male each from Puerto Valdivia and 
Rio Frio are inseparable, in size as well as in coloration, from the specimen with 
the most deeply colored head from the Pacific coast (Murindo; Carnegie Museum, 
No. 64179), while another from Puerto Valdivia, by reason of its shorter wings and 
more reddish orange cap, closely approaches the paler example of flammiceps from 
El Tambor. Three males from west of Honda, Magdalena River, however, are 
again indistinguishable from the Santa Marta average. On the upper Rio Negro, 
this form gradually passes into the western P. e. berlepschi, and six (out of seven) 
males from Barcellos and various localities farther up the river have the light 
cadmium yellow head of that form, though in dimensions they rather agree with 
Guianan specimens. Females vary much individually. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 7, Mana I, Tamanoir, Mana 
River 10, Pied Saut, Oyapock 7, Mahury I. Dutch Guiana; Lelydorp i, near 
Paramaribo 4. British Guiana: Demerara River 2, Merum6 Mountains 2. 
Brazil: Upper Rocana i; Conceicao, Rio Branco i; Obidos 2; Rio Maecuru i; 
Manaos 6; Barcellos 2; Marabitanas 4; Rio Icanna [ =Rio Isana] I ; Rio Xi6 I. 
Venezuela: Maripa, Caura 5, Upper Caura i, El Llagual, Caura district 3; Puerto 
Cabello 3, San Esteban 3, Las Quiguas 4, Cumbre Chiquita I ; Nevesi, Paria 
Peninsula 2, Vacua, Paria Peninsula 2. Island of Trinidad 28. Colombia: 
Santa Marta region 21; Jaraquiel, Bolivar 3; west of Honda, Magdalena Valley 
3; Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca 2; Rio Frio, Cauca i; Los Cisneros, Rio Dagua 
3; Murindo, Antioquia I ; Sautata, Rio Atrato I ; Rio Salaqui, Choc6 I. Panama: 
Mount Sapo, Darien 20. 



30 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Pipra erythrocephala berlepschi Ridgway. 1 BERLEPSCH'S GOLDEN- 
HEADED MANAKIN. 

Pipra erythrocephala berlepschi RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 117, 
1906 Nauta, northeastern Peru; MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6og. Arm6e 
Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B. 60, 1911 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; CHAP- 
MAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 480, 1917 La Morelia, Florencia, 
Buenavista, and Villavicencio, eastern Colombia (spec, examined); idem, 
I.e., 55, p. 530, 1926 Zamora, Rfo Suno, and below San Jos6, Ecuador 
(spec, examined); BANGS and NOBLE, Auk, 35, p. 453, 1918 Perico, Rfo 
Marafi6n, Peru; BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 
Rio Suno, Ecuador. 

Pipra auricapilla (not of LICHTENSTEIN) SCLATER P.Z.S.Lond., 26, p. 457, 
1858 Gualaquiza, Ecuador; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1866, p. 567 
Peru (probably Nauta); idem, I.e., 1867, p. 751 Chyavetas, Peru; idem, 
I.C., 1867, p. 978 Pebas; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 283 Nauta, Chyavetas, 
Pebas; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 340, 1884 Nauta, Chyavetas, 
Iquitos; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 296, 1888 part, spec, r-d', 
Pebas, Chyavetas (Peru), Rfo Napo, Bogota; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 2, p. 72, 1889 Rfo Napo, Ecuador; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 
37. P- 99. !889 Tonantins, Rio Solimoes; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 1899 Gualaquiza and Zamora; GOOD- 
FELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 708 Coca, upper Napo. 

Pipra erythrocephala (not of LINNAEUS) HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 20 part, 
"Tocantins" [= Tonantins], Rio Solimoes, Brazil, Peru, eastern Ecuador, 
and Bogota; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av. Part 9, p. 7, 1910 part, Ecuador, 
Peru, eastern Colombia. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from the eastern slope of the East 
Colombian Andes (north to Boyaca) through eastern Ecuador south 
to the north bank of the Rio Solimoes in Brazil (Tonantins) and to 
northern Peru (chiefly on the north bank of the Maran6n, but 
crossing that river west of the Huallaga). 

15: Colombia (Bogotd 5); Peru (Moyobamba 9, Yurimaguas i). 

1 Pipra erythrocephala berlepschi RIDGWAY: Similar to P. e. erythrocephala, 
but on average larger, and head in adult male decidedly paler, cadmium yellow 
rather than orange, without any, or with mere traces of a blood-red posterior 
margin. 

Birds from eastern Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru agree well together, while 
three males from Tonantins, Rio Solimoes, Brazil, have a slight suggestion of the 
red posterior border to the yellow cap. On the Solimoes as well as in Peru, the 
range of this race is separated from that of the red-headed form by the Amazon 
Valley, and in the eastern section of the Maran6n River it apparently is 
found only on its northern bank. However, west of the junction of the Huallaga 
River, it crosses the Maran6n, numerous specimens having been taken at Chya- 
vetas and Moyobamba. 

Material examined. Colombia: "Bogota" 15; Palmar, Boyaca 3; La Colo- 
rada, Boyaca 2; Villavicencio i; Florencia, Caqueta 3; La Morelia, Caqueta 2. 
Ecuador: Rfo Suno 10, San Jos6 5, Zamora 6. Peru: Rfo Tigre I, Nauta 2, 
Pebas 2, Chyavetas I, Moyobamba 9, Yurimaguas I. Brazil: Tonantins, Rio 
SolimSes 3. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 31 

Pipra erythrocephala flammiceps Todd. 1 FLAME-HEADED MANAKIN. 

Pipra erythrocephala flammiceps TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 32, p. 115, 
1919 El Tambor, Santander, Colombia (type examined). 

(J)Pipra auricapilla (not of LICHTENSTEIN) BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, 
p. 304, 1884 Bucaramango. 

Range: Eastern Colombia (Valley of the Rio Lebrija, dept. 
Santander) . 

*Pipra erythrocephala rubrocapilla Temminck. 1 RED-HEADED MANA- 
KIN. 

Pipra rubrocapilla 3 TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 9, pi. 54, fig. 3 (male), 
1821 "Bresil," we suggested Bahia as type locality; SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 Ega, Rio Solimoes; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
127, 1868 Bahia, Engenho do Gama (Matto Grosso), Borba (Rio Madei- 
ra), and Manaqueri (Rio Solimoes), Brazil (spec, examined); SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 283 Santa Cruz, Rio Huallaga, Peru (spec, 
in Tring Museum examined); FORBES, Ibis, i88i,p. 344 Caxanga, Recife, 
and Beberibi, Pernambuco; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 295, 1888 
Pernambuco, Bahia, "Rio Claro, Goyaz," 4 "Iquitos," Peru, 4 Ega, Brazil; 
RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santarm; IHERING, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo; idem, I.e., 6, 
p. 435, 1905 Rio Jurua (spec, examined); HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. n 
Brazil and eastern Peru (monog.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 299, 1907 Porto Cachoeira (Espirito Santo), Bahia, Rio 
Jurua, and Santarem; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 1907 Para, 
Rio Capim, Castanhal; idem, I.e., 56, p. 12, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purtis; 
idem, I.e., p. 504, 1908 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz; idem, I.e., p. 529, 1908 
Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 49, 1907 
Teff, Rio Solimoes; idem, I.e., 17, p. 307, 1910 Calama, Allianca, and 

1 Pipra erythrocephala flammiceps TODD: Very close to P. e. erythrocephala, 
but slightly smaller; adult male with head more deeply colored, occiput and hind 
neck being strongly suffused with orange chrome; sides of head likewise more 
reddish orange; no red posterior border to cap. Wing (two adult males) 54; tail 
18; bill 8#. 

This form rests on two males from the Rio Lebrija in the Carnegie Museum. 
The type has a redder head than any specimen of the Golden-headed Manakin 
seen by me. The second example, taken on the same day, however, is less charac- 
teristic, being closely approached by one of the Puerto Valdivia skins in the 
American Museum of Natural History. As pointed out above, birds from the 
Honda region appear to be inseparable from typical erythrocephala, leaving rather 
a peculiarly restricted habitat for flammiceps. More information is necessary 
before its claims for distinction can be considered as established. 

Material examined. Colombia: El Tambor, Rio Lebrija, Santander 2. 

J An earlier name is possibly Pipra erythrolophos VIEILLOT (Tabl. Enc. Meth., 
Orn., i, livr. 89, p. 390, 1820 "le PeYou"). No mention being made of thecolora- 
tion of thighs or under wing coverts, it cannot be decided, however, whether it 
is referable to P. e. rubrocapilla or P. chloromeros, both of which are found in 
Peru. The type is not in the Paris Museum. 

'Often spelled rubricapilla. 
4 Localities doubtless erroneous. 



32 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Maroins (Rio Machados), Rio Madeira; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 7, 1910 eastern Peru and Brazil, south of the Amazon; SNETH- 
LAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 365, 1914 Para, Mocajatuba, Providencia, 
Ananindeua, Benevides, Santa Izabel, Castanhal, Peixe-Boi, Santo An- 
tonio do Prata, Rio Capim (Aproaga), Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Aruma- 
theua), Rio Xingii (Victoria), Tamucury, Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Villa 
Braga), Rio Purus (Cachoeira); LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 
1920 Ilhex>s to Belmonte, Bahia. 

Pipra erythrocephala (not of LINNAEUS) WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 187 (ed. in 
8vo p. 184), 1820 Barra do Jucu, Espirito Santo; LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. 
Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 29, 1823 Brazil (descr. of female); WIED, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), p. 422, 1830 eastern Brazil; WAGLER, Isis, 1830, 
p. 933 "Guiana," Brasilia; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 
433. !8s6 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Pipra auricapilla (not of LICHTENSTEIN) LAYARD, Ibis, 1 873, p. 384 Nazare", 
near Para (seen only); GOELDI, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim. 

Pipra rubrocapilla subsp. HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 362, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para (crit.). 

Pipra erythrocephala rubrocapilla HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 27, 90, 1912 Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga (Para local- 
ities); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 90, 1916 Utinga, near Para; STONE, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 167, 1928 Para, Rio Guama, Rio In- 
hangapy, Pinheira, Para district. 

Range: Brazil, south of the Amazon, extending along the Rio 
Madeira south to western Matto Grosso (Rio Guapore") and on the 
east coast to Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro; also the adjacent 
section of northeastern Peru, east of the Huallaga River (Santa 
Cruz). 1 

10 : Brazil (Bahia 2; Santo Amaro, Bahia 3; Magoary, Pard i; 
Utinga, Para 3; Santare"m i). 

*Pipra pipra anthracina Ridgway* ZELEo6N's MANAKIN. 



is obviously no local variation in th'e Red-headed Manakin, specimens 
from eastern Brazil (Bahia, Rio de Janeiro) being inseparable from an Amazonian 
series. A single adult male obtained by E. Bartlett at Santa Cruz, on Sept. 24, 
1866, likewise compares well with the Brazilian average. Certain skins from Para 
exhibit a decided tendency toward P. e. erythrocephala, of the north bank, by 
having the bases of the feathers on the anterior crown distinctly orange. 

In addition to the scarlet head, P. e. rubrocapilla may be distinguished from 
the yellow-headed forms by its longer tail and more grayish green (less yellowish) 
under parts of the female sex. 

Material examined. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro i; Bahia 15, Santo Amaro, 
Bahia 3; Sao Lourenco, Pernambuco 5; Para region 24; Santare'm i ; Rio Madeira, 
Calama 3, Borba 5, Maroins I; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso (o*ad.) i; 
Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes 3; Teff 4; Rio Jurua I. Peru: Santa Cruz I. 

1 Pipra pipra anthracina RIDGWAY: Adult male closely similar to P. p. coracina, 
but decidedly smaller; body plumage duller, opaque velvety black, without trace 
of the bluish gloss; under tail coverts mostly tipped with grayish or dingy yellowish. 
Wing 60-63; tail 27-29; bill 9. No female seen. 

Material examined. Panama: Chiriquf i; Chitra, Veraguas i ; Cordillera de 
Tele" i ; Veraguas (unspecified) 6. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 33 

Pipra pipra anthracina RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 117, 1906 
Moravia, Costa Rica; idem, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 751, 1907 
Panama and southwestern Costa Rica (monog., full bibliography); 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 680, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica. 

Pipra leucocitta (not of LINNAEUS) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 Cordil- 
lera de Tote, Veragua (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 1870, p. 200 Calove- 
vora, Chitra, and Boqueti de Chitra, Veragua (spec examined) ; SCLATEE, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 297, 1888 part, spec, c-h, Chitra, Calevovora, 
Santa Fe', and Cordillera de Tote, Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. no, 1890 part, Panama; CHERRIE, Proc. U. S. 
Nat Mus., 14, p. 536, 1891 Costa Rica (female descr.); HELLMAYR, 
Ibis, 1906, p 22 part, Veragua. 

Pipra leucocitta anthracina HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 
1910 southwestern Costa Rica and Veragua; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. 
Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p 29, 1912 Costa Rica and western 
Panama (crit.). 

Range: Costa Rica (Moravia; Guayabo) and western Panama 
(Chiriqui; Veraguas). 

i: Panama (Veraguas i). 

Pipra pipra minima Chapman. 1 LEAST MANAKIN. 

Pipra leucocitta minor (not Pipra mentalis minor HARTERT, 1898) CHAPMAN 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 33, p. 623, 1914 Cocal, Western Andes of 
Colombia (type examined). 

Pipra leucocitta minimus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 480, 
1917 new name for P. leucocitta minor CHAPMAN, preoccupied; Cocal, 
Colombia. 

Range: Western Andes of Colombia (Cocal, west of Popaydn). 

*Pipra pipra coracina Sclater.* SCLATER'S BLACK MANAKIN. 

Pipra coracina SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, p. 29, June, 1856 Bogota (type in 
British Museum examined) ; idem, I.e., 26, p. 71 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

1 Pipra pipra minima CHAPMAN: Adult male most nearly resembling P. p. 
coracina and body plumage, as in this form, velvety black, with a slight silky 
gloss; but much smaller; white crest shorter; under tail coverts tipped with gray- 
ish, as in P. p. anthracina. Female unknown. Wing (two adult males from Cocal) 
54-55; tail 24-25; bill 8K-9- 

*Pipra pipra coracina SCLATER: Differing from P. p. pipra by larger size; 
deep velvety black but faintly glossed body plumage of the adult male, and 
brighter green coloration, particularly below, of the female sex. Wing (male) 
66-70, (female) 67; tail 27-32; bill 9. 

Ecuadorian specimens agree with those from Bogota, and so does also a 
single male from Pomara, Peru, in the American Museum of Natural History. 
A male from the Boca de Rio Curaray, in southeastern Ecuador, however, 
hardly differs from P. p. pipra. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 8, Buena vista 2. Ecuador: San 
Jos<6 5, Gualaquiza 2, "Rio Napo" 3; Guayaba, Rio Zamora i; Rfo Suno, above 
Avila i. Peru: Pomara, lower Marafi6n I. 






34 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra leucocilla (not of LINNAEUS) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 22, p. 114, 1854 
Quijos, Ecuador; idem, 1 c., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota; idem, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 297, 1888 part, spec, i-o, Bogota, Sarayacu, and Rio Napo; 
SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 14, 1899 
Gualaquiza, Ecuador. 

Pipra leucocilla coracina HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 26 part, Bogota and 
eastern Ecuador; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 8, 1910 Colombia 
and Ecuador; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. KL, 26. No, 2, 
p. 29, 1912 Colombia and eastern Ecuador (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 36, p. 481, 1917 Buenavista (above Villavicencio) and Anda- 
lucia, Eastern Andes, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 531, 1926 Guayaba, 
Zamora, Rfo Suno, and below San Jos6, Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of the Eastern Andes of Colombia, 1 
eastern Ecuador, and northwestern Peru (Pomara, lower Maran6n, 
dept. Amazonas). 

i: Colombia (Bogotd i). 

*Pipra pipra pipra Linnaeus. WHITE-CROWNED BLACK MANAKIN. 

Parus pipra LINNAEUS,* Syst. Nat., loth ed., i, p. 190, 1758 based on "Caco- 
tototl" SEBA, Thes., 2, p. 102, pi. 96, fig. 5, "in Indiis"= Surinam. 

Pipra leucocilla LINNAEUS, Mus. Ad. Frid., 2, Prodr., p. 33, 1764 no locality 
indicated, Surinam suggested as type locality (auct. BERLEPSCH and HAR- 
TERT, 1902); SCHOMBIJRGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, i, p. 215, 1847 Who- 
mana River, affluent of the Barima; CABANIS, 1. c., 3, p. 697, 1848 British 
Guiana; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 127, 1868 Barra do Rio Negro [ = 
Manaos ], Marabitanas, and Rio Icanna, Rio Negro (spec, examined); 
SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 300 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, and Merum Mts., 
British Guiana; W. SCLATER, 1. c., 1887, p. 318 Maccasseema, British 
Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 297, 1888 part, spec, w c', 
Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Cayenne, Maroni River; BERLEPSCH and 
HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 53, 1902 Suapure, La Pricion, and Nicare, 
Caura River, Venezuela (spec, examined); MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. 
Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 Camopi, Mahury, and Oyack Mts., French 
Guiana; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 22 part, Cayenne, Surinam, British 
Guiana, eastern Venezuela (Caura), and Rio Negro; BERLEPSCH, 1. c., 15, 
PP- J 37. 3*8, 1908 Ipousin, Appiouague River (French Guiana) localities; 
MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14, p. 12, 1908 French Guiana; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 365, 1914 part, Rio Jary (Santo 
Antonio da Cachoeira), Obidos, and Rio Jamunda (Faro); CHUBB, Birds 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 246, 1921 British Guiana (numerous localities). 

l Pipra leucocilla SCLATER and SALVIN (P.Z.S.Lond., 1875, P- 2 37 San Cris- 
t6bal, Tachira, western Venezuela) probably belongs here. Unfortunately, the 
specimens are lost. 

1 Although the more detailed description, added on p. 191, refers to another 
species, Arundinicola leucocephala, as pointed out by BERLEPSCH and HARTERT 
(Nov. Zool., 9, p. 50, note*, 1902), Linnaeus's diagnosis and references pertain 
exclusively to the White-crowned Black Manakin which must, therefore, be called 
P. p. pipra (see ZIMMER, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, pp. 86-87, 1929). 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 35 

Pipra leucocapilla GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 1002, 1789 new name for 
Pipra leucocilla LINNAEUS. 

Pipra leucocilla leucocilla HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 
1910 part, Guiana, Venezuela, and northwestern Brazil (Rio Negro); 
idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 28, 1912 
part, excl. Peru; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 
1918 Lelydorp, Libanonweg, and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam. 

Pipra pipra pipra CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 248, 1916 
Caura, Venezuela. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; eastern Venezuela 
(Caura Valley); northern Brazil, north of the Amazon, west to the 
Rio Negro and Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes. 1 

13: French Guiana (Saint Jean du Maroni i, Saint Laurent du 
Maroni i) ; Dutch Guiana (Rijsdijkweg i) ; British Guiana (Demerara 
River 3, Caramang River 3); Brazil (Conceicao, Rio Branco 3; 
Itacoatiard i). 

*Pipra pipra microlopha Zimmer* SHORT-CRESTED MANAKIN. 

Pipra pipra microlopha ZIMMER, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 42, p. 85, 1929 
Puerto Bermudez, Rio Pichis, Ucayali drainage basin, Peru. 

Pipra leucocilla (not of LINNAEUS) SCLATER, P. Z. S. Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 
Ega, Rio Solimoes; SCLATER and SALVIN, 1. c., 1866, p. 190 Sarayacu, Rio 
Ucayali, Peru; idem, 1. c., 1873, p. 283 part, Sarayacu; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. 
Pr., 2, p. 341, 1884 part, Sarayacu; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 297, 1888 part, spec, q, r, Ega and Rio Ucayali; IHERING, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 Rio Jurua; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 299, 1907 
part, Rio Jurua; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 22 part, Ega, Rio Jurud, 
Brazil, and Sarayacu, Peru; idem, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 49, 1907 Teffe", 
Rio Solimoes. 

'Birds from Manacapuru and the Rio Negro are identical with series from 
Guiana and eastern Venezuela (Caura Valley). 

Material examined. French Guiana: Maroni River 2, Ipousin, Approuague 
River I. Dutch Guiana: Near Paramaribo 4, Rijsdijkweg I. British Guiana: 
Demerara River 3, Caramang River 3, Camacusa 3. Brazil: Rio Negro (Manaos, 
Marabitanas, Rio Icanna [=Rio Isana]) 15; Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes 3. 
Venezuela: Caura Valley (Suapure, Nicare, La Pricion) 25. 

1 Pipra pipra microlopha ZIMMER: Adult male nearest to P. p. comata, but 
crest decidedly shorter and ending in a point instead of being rounded posteriorly, 
and upper parts less glossed with metallic blue. Wing (adult male) 65-69; tail 
29-30; bill Sya-g. 

This form cannot well be united to any other known race. Although more 
information about the exact limits of its range is urgently desired, it appears to 
replace P. p. comata in the low tropical destricts of eastern Peru. By its less glossy 
plumage in the male sex, it points in the direction of P. p. coracina, but has a 
much shorter, differently shaped crest with much less black at the base of the 
feathers. Birds from Orosa (on the south bank of the Marafi6n about halfway 
between the mouth of the Napo and Pebas, dept. Loreto) and Sao Paulo de OH- 
venga, Brazil, agree with the type except in being slightly larger and in having more 
extensive dusky bases to the crest feathers. Here should no doubt also be referred 
specimens recorded as P. leucocilla from Sarayacu (Ucayali), Teff6 (Rio SolimSes), 
and Jurua. 



36 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra leucor.illa leucocilla HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 
1910 part, Rio Solimoes, Rio Jurua, and northeastern Peru. 

Range: Tropical lowlands of the Ucayali drainage basin in 
eastern Peru, south to Puerto Bermudez, dept. Junin, north to the 
south bank of the Maranon, 1 and adjacent section of western Brazil 
(Rio Jurua; Teffe" and Sao Paulo de Olivenca, south bank of Rio 
Solimoes). 

6: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Rio Pichis, dept. Junin 6). 

*Pipra pipra comata Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 2 SNOWY-CRESTED 
MANAKIN. 

Pipra comata BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, Ibis, (6), 6, p. 392, 1894 La 
Gloria, Chanchamayo and Garita del Sol, Vitoc, dept. Junin (type ex- 
amined); idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 368 same localities. 

Pipra coracina (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 22 
Chirimoto (spec, examined); idem, Orn. Pr., 2, p. 342, 1884 Huambo and 
Chirimoto, Peru. 

Pipra leucocilla (not of LINNAEUS) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 297, 
1888 part, spec, t-v, Huambo and Chirimoto, Peru; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 
1901, p. 709 "Baeza, Ecuador," errore. 1 

J I am unable to identify a single male from Yurimaguas (Munichis) in the 
collection of Field Museum. It is too small (wing 61; tail 25) for P. p. comata, 
but differs also from P. p. microlopha in more glossy plumage and somewhat 
fuller, more rounded crest. Apparently similar specimens from Chamicuros are 
in the Tring Museum. 

The subjoined references pertain to this form of doubtful standing. 

Pipra leucocilla (not of LINNAEUS) SCLATER and SALVIN, P. Z. S. Lond., 1867, 
p. 751 Xeberos, Yurimaguas, Chyavetas; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 283 part, Xeberos, 
Yurimaguas, Chyavetas, Chamicuros; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 22 Yurima- 
guas; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 341, 1884 part, Xeberos, Yurimaguas, Chyavetas, 
Chamicuros; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 297, 1888 part, spec, c, Chami- 
curos; HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 22 part, Chamicuros, Xeberos, Yurimaguas. 

1 Pipra pipra comata BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN: Very similar to P. p. 
pipra, but tail on average longer; crest of adult male longer, fuller, and on the 
forehead white down to the base of the feathers. 

Two adult males from Garita del Sol, Vitoc, have somewhat longer tails and 
fuller crests than any other specimen seen. Birds from Huanuco are smaller, 
the tail especially is shorter, while the crest is not quite so long and always shows, 
at least on pileum and nape, distinct dusky bases to the feathers. A series from 
Huayabamba and two from Uchco (50 miles east of Chachapoyas) are inter- 
mediate in length of tail, but in other respects are nearer to the Huanuco birds. 

Adult males. Wing: Garita del Sol 69, 70; Huanuco (Chuchurras, Chinchao, 
Vista Alegre, Huachipa) 64, 65, 65, 67, 67; Huayabamba 65-66; Chirimoto 61; 
Uchco 67, 69. Tail: Garita del Sol 35, 36; Huanuco 28, 28, 28^, 29, 31; Huaya- 
bamba 33-34; Chirimoto 31; Uchco 31, 32. 

Material examined. Peru: Uchco, east of Chachapoyas 2; Huayabamba 6; 
Chirimoto 2; Chuchurras, dept. Huanuco 2; Vista Alegre 2; Chinchao 2; Huachipa 
2; Garita del Sol, Vitoc, dept. Junfn 2. 

'The specimen (now in the Tring Museum) proves on examination, to be one 
of O. T. Baron's Huayabamba skins, erroneously labeled as being from Baeza. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 37 

Pipra leucocilla coracina (not of SCLATER) HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 26 part, 
Guayabamba, Nuevo Loreto, Chirimoto, Huambo, Chuchurras, Peru; 
MENEGAUX, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 Cueva Seca, RioTocache, 
Peru. 

Pipra leucocilla comata HELLMAYR, Ibis 1906, p. 27 Valleys of Vitoc and 
Chanchamayo, Peru (monog.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 
8, 1910 Chanchamayo; CHAPMAN, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 117, p. 99, 1921 
Idma, Urubamba Valley, dept. Cuzco, Peru. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Peru, from dept. San Martin south 
to Junin and (according to Chapman) Cuzco (Urubamba Valley). 

6: Peru, dept. Hudnuco (Vista Alegre 2, Chinchao 2, Huachipa 2). 

Pipra pipra cephaleucos Thunberg. SLATY-BELLIED MANAKIN. 

Pipra cephaleucos THUNBERG. Mm. Ac. Sci. St. P^tersb., 8, p. 286, 1822 
Brazil 1 (=descr. of male in first annual plumage); LONNBERG, Ibis, 
1903, p. 241 note on type. 

Pipra pipra bahiae RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 117, 1906 Bahia, 
eastern Brazil. 

Pipra leucocilla (not of LINNAEUS) BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, 
p. 444, 1856 "Waldgebiet der Kustenstrecke Brasiliens," Nova Friburgo. 
Rio; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 Para; LAYARD, 
Ibis, 1873, p. 384 Para; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 297, 1888 
part, spec, d'-n', Para, Bahia, "Novo" Friburgo, "Sao Paulo," Brazil; IHER- 
ING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo, Nova Friburgo; 
GOELDI, Ibis, 1903, p 499 Capim River; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 
294, 1905 Igarape-assu, Para; idem, Ibis, 1906, p. 22 part, eastern 
Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Nova Friburgo, Rio), Para, Magoary, 
Benevides, Capim River; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 
299, 1907 part, Bahia; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 1907 Para 
and Santo Antonio do Prata; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 365, 1914 
part, Para, Mocajatuba, Providencia, Ananindeua, Benevides, Santa 
Izabel, Peixe-Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Baiao, Cameta) ; 
LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 Ilhebs to Belmonte, Bahia; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro. 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Tury- 
assu, Maranhao. 

Pipra leucocapUla (not of GMELIN) WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 187 (8vo ed., p. 
184), 1820 Barra do Juoi, Espirito Santo; idem, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, 
(i), p. 427, 1830 eastern Brazil. 

Pipra leucocilla leucocilla HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 363, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para. 

Pipra leucocilla bahiae HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 7, 1910 
eastern Brazil; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, 

'The type was presented by the Swedish Consul General Westin and, as 
most of the other species described by Thunberg from his collections are natives 
of eastern Brazil, there is hardly any doubt that P. cephaleucos was based on a 
young male of the form separated by RIDGWAY as P. pipra bahiae. 



38 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

No. 2, pp. 27, 90, 1912 Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga (Pard localities; crit., 
coloration of female); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 91, 1916 Utinga, 
Para; STONE, Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 167, 1928 Castanhal, Para. 

Range : Eastern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo 
north to Para, extending west apparently to the Tocantins. 1 

Genus TELEONEMA Reichenbach. 

Teleonema REICHENBACH, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 63, March i, 1850 type Pipra 
filicauda Spix. 

Cirrhipipra BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 172, 1850, March or later 1 type 
by monotypy Pipra filicauda Spix. 

Teleonema filicauda (Spix). CIRRHATE MANAKIN. 

Pipra filicauda SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 6, pi. 8, figs, i, 2, 1825 Sao Paulo de 
Olivenca, Rio Solimoes, Brazil (types in Munich Museum examined); 
WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 936 Amazon River (descr.); TSCHUDI, Faun. Peru., 
Aves, p. 413, 1846 prov. Maynas; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 
2, p. 446, 1856 (ex Spix); SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogotd; 
idem, I.e., 1867, p. 579 lower Rio Negro; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 628 Vene- 
zuela; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 Manaqueri (Rio Solimoes), 
Rio Negro, Marabitanas, and Rio Amajau (spec, examined); SCLATER, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1871, p. 749 "Oyapoc, Cayenne"; idem and SALVIN, I.e., 
1873, p. 282 Sarayacu, Upper Ucayali, Rio Paranapura, and Rio Javari, 
Peru; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. PeY., 2, p. 336, 1884 Maynas, Pebas, Iquitos, 
and Loretoyacu, Peru; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 72, 1889 
Rio Napo, Ecuador; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 708 Archidona, Ecuador. 

Pipra filifera LESSON, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 40, 1839 Peru. 

Pipra setifera DESCOURTILZ, Ornith. Bre'sil., p. 35, pi. 40, fig. 3, circa 1856 
"Bresil." 

Cirrhipipra filicauda subpailida TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 112, 
1928 Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela. 

Cirrhipipra filicauda BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 172, 1850; SCLATER, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 Rio Javarri; idem, I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 
Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 289, 1888 Barra do 
Rio Negro, Pebas, Sarayacu, Rio Napo, Bogota, San Esteban; HELLMAYR, 

'Adult males from the Pard region diverge slightly in the direction of P. p. 
pipra by having the under parts faintly glossed, while birds of eastern Brazil 
are well characterized by the dull slaty black breast and abdomen. The male in 
first annual plumage has the crest grayish white. 

Material examined. Bahia 9. Para district: Benevides 2, Magoary i, 
Santo Antonio do Prata 4, Peixe-Boi 9, Ipitinga 6. 

2 Part i (pp. 1-272) of vol. i of Bonaparte's "Conspectus Avium" was pre- 
sented to the Paris Academy on June 24, 1850, but even if issued in March, as 
claimed by Bonaparte (Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., 37, p. 423, Sept., 1850), the section 
of Reichenbach's work, published on the first day of that month, would still 
seem to have priority. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 39 

Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 640, 1906 (note on types); 
idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 9, pi. 2, fig. 3, 1910 (range); idem 
and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 85, 1912 Campanero, 
Cumbre Chiquita, and Las Quiguas, state of Carabobo, Venezuela; IHERING 
and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 297, 1907 Rio Jurua; CHERRIE, Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 247, 1916 Maipures, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 482, 1917 La Morelia and Flo- 
rencia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 532, 1926 Rio Suno, below 
San Jos4, Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Tcleonema filicaudum CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 91, 1859 
"Porto" Cabello and Peru. 

Cirrhopipra filicauda BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 302, 1889 Yurimaguas, 
Peru; idem and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 52, 1902 Maipures, Rio 
Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined); IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 
435, 1905 Rio Jurud; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 12, 1908 Cachoeira, 
Rio Punis; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 362, 1914 Rio Punis. 

Range: Western Brazil (from the Rio Jurua and the Rio Punis 
north to the Rio Negro and Rio Branco); northeastern Peru (Rio 
Javari; Rio Ucayali; Yurimaguas, lower Huallaga; Pebas, Iquitos, 
Loretoyacu, Rio Maraii6n); eastern Ecuador; eastern Colombia 
(Caqueta region); Venezuela (Maipures on the Orinoco; Campanero, 
San Esteban, Cumbre Chiquita, and Las Quiguas, state of Cara- 
bobo; mountains near Bucarito, Tocuyo, state of Lara; Orope and 
Rio Catatumbo, state of Zulia). 1 

8: Colombia (Bogota 2); Brazil (Conceicao, Rio Branco i); 
Venezuela, state of Zulia (Rio Catatumbo 3, Orope 2). 

Teleonema heterocerca (Sclater). 2 SHARP-TAILED MANAKIN. 

Pipra heterocerca SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 313, 1860 "in ripis fl. Ama- 
zonum sup." 

Specimens from the Venezuelan coast district (C. t. subpallida], while larger 
on the average, appear to be inseparable from those of Upper Amazonia. I find 
much individual variation in the color of the tibial feathers and in the depth of 
the yellow on the anterior under parts. 

Material examined. Brazil: Sao Paulo de OHvenca, Rio Solimoes (types) 3; 
Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes I ; Rio Amajau I ; Rio Negro I ; Marabi tanas i ; Con- 
ceicao, Rio Branco I. Peru: Yurimaguas 3, Rfo Tigre 4, Iquitos I. Ecuador: 
Archidona 2, Rio Napo 3. Colombia: "Bogota" 5. Venezuela: Maipures 10; 
Campanero 3, Cumbre Chiquita 4, Las Quiguas 3, San Esteban 2; mountains 
near Bucarito, Tocuyo 5; Catatumbo River 3, Orope 2. 

*Teleoncma heterocerca (SCLATER): Similar to T. filicauda, but "the outer 
rectrices acuminate and produced; the second, third, and succeeding pairs in a 
less degree than the first; the outer pair exceeding the medial rectrices, which 
have nearly the ordinary normal form, by nearly half an inch; the crimson color 
extending lower down the back above, and pervading the breast and upper part 
of the belly." 

This species was based on a single male forwarded by one of Jules Verreaux's 
correspondents from Pard, which has been lost. No other specimen answering 
the description having since come to hand, its status remains uncertain. 



40 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Cirrhopipra heterocerca SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 289, 1888 Ama- 
zonia. 

Cirrhipipra heterocerca HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 9, 1910 
Upper Amazonia. 

Range: Upper Amazonia (exact locality unknown). 



Genus MACHAEROPTERUS Bonaparte. 

Machaeropterus BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. 11, p. 316 (=Consp. 
Voluc. Anisod., p. 6), 1854 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, 1855, p. 147) 
Pipra strigilata WIED = Pipra regulus HAHN. 

*Machaeropterus regulus regulus (Hahn). 1 STRIPED MANAKIN. 

Pipra regulus HAHN, Vogel aus Asien, Africa, etc., Lief. 4, pi. 4, figs, i, 2, 
1819 Brazil (types, now in Munich Museum, examined). 

Pipra strigilata WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 187 (8vo ed., p. 184), 1820 Barra 
do Jucu, Espirito Santo (descr. of male); TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., 
livr. 9, pi. 54, figs, i, 2, April, 1821 Brazil (descr. of male and female); 
WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 936 Brazil; WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), 
p. 430, 1831 Brazil; SWAINSON, Ornith. Draw., Part 2, pi. 25 (d* 9), 1834 
Brazil; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 445, 1856 Nova 
Friburgo, Rio. 

Pipra lineata THUNBERG, M6m. Ac. Sci. St. P6tersb , 8, p. 284, pi. 8, fig. I 
(male), 1822 Brazil (descr. of male and female). 

Machaeropterus regulus SCLATER, Ibis, 1862, p. 176 southeastern Brazil; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 128, 1868 Rio de Janeiro; CABANIS, Journ. 
Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 304, 1888 Bahia, "Novo" Friburgo, "Rio Claro, Goyaz" (errore), Brazil; 
IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 300, 1907 Bahia and Porto Cachoeira, 
Espirito Santo. 

Machaeropterus strigilatus ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 236, 1889 
note on Wied's types. 

Machaeropterus regulus regulus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. II, 1910 Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Bahia 
south to Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. 

i: Brazil (Bahia i). 

1 Machaeropterus regulus regulus (HAHN), having white bases to the crown 
feathers, reminds one of M. regulus striolatus, but may be easily distinguished 
by lacking the red stain on the chest, by much darker, light buffy olive rather than 
dingy white throat, and much narrower as well as rather duller (less chestnut) 
streaking of the under parts. 

Material examined. Bahia 10; Rio de Janeiro 3; "Brazil" (the types) 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 41 

Machaeropterus regulus striolatus (Bonaparte). BONAPARTE'S 
STRIPED MANAKIN. 

Pipra striolaia BONAPARTE, P.Z.S.Lond., 5, "1837," p. 122, June, 1838 
"from that portion of Brazil, bordering on Peru"; GRAY and MITCHELL, 
Gen. Birds, i, p. 274, pi. 67, fig. 2 (male), 1846; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 
25, p- 265, 1857 Rio Javarri; idem, I.e., 26, p. 72, 1858 Rio Napo, 
Ecuador. 

Machaeropterus striolatus SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 567 
eastern Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 751 Xeberos and Chyavetas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1867, p. 978 Pebas; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 283 Nauta, Xeberos, 
Chyavetas, Chamicuros, Pebas, and Rfo Javarri; TACZANOWSKI, l.c., 
1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, o. 347, 1884 Peruvian 
localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 304, 188 part, spec, a-g, 
Rio Ucayali, Chamicuros, Pebas, Rio Napo; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., a, p. 73, 1889 Rio Napo; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 14, 1899 Zamora, Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 36, p. 482, 1917 part, Florencia and La Morelia, Caqueta, 
Colombia. 

Machaeropterus regulus striolatus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. ii, 1910 part, Upper Amazonia from Peru to eastern Colombia. 

Machaeropterus striolatus striolatus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 
532, 1926 Zamora, Rio Suno, below San Jos6, and Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from eastern Colombia (Caquetd re- 
gion) through eastern Ecuador south to northeastern Peru (dept. 
Loreto). 1 

*Machaeropterus regulus antioquiae Chapman* ANTIOQUIA MAN- 
AKIN. 

Machaeropterus striolatus antioquiae CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 5, 
Oct., 1924 Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca, Colombia. 

Pipra striolata (not of BONAPARTE) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 
Bogota. 

Machaeropterus striolatus SCLATER, Ibis, 1862, p. 176 "Venezuela" and New 
Granada; idem and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 517 Medellin, Reme- 
dies, and Neche, Colombia; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 305, 1884 
Bucaramanga; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 304, 1888 part, spec. 

'Material examined. Colombia: La Morelia, Rio Bodoquera i; Cuembi, 
Rio Putumayo 10. Ecuador: Rio Napo 3, Zamora 2, Rio Suno 2, below San 
Jos 6. Peru: Rio Tigre, near Pebas u, Iquitos i. 

1 Machaeropterus regulus antioquiae CHAPMAN: Closely similar to M. r. strio- 
latus, but pileum darker, spectrum red rather than scarlet red, with the bases of 
the feathers pale gray instead of pure white; back lighter, yellowish citrine rather 
than warbler green, washed with old gold on lower rump and upper tail coverts; 
white streaks beneath on average wider. Female indistinguishable from that of 
striolatus. Wing 51-53; tail 21-23. 

Material examined. Colombia: Alto Bonito, Rio Sucio i ; La Frijolera, 
lower Cauca i; upper Cauca 3; "Bogota" 20. 



42 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

h-m, Remedies and Bogota; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 
482, 1917 part, Puerto Valdivia and La Frijolera (lower Cauca), Alto 
Bonito (Rio Sucio), and west of Honda, Colombia. 

Machaeropterus regains striolatus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. ii, 1910 part, Cauca Valley. 

Range: Western and central parts of Colombia (Alto Bonito, 
Rio Sucio; Cauca Valley; Bucaramanga; Bogota). 
7: Colombia (Bogota 7). 

*Machaeropterus pyrocephalus (Sdater). FIERY-HEADED MANAKIN. 

Pipra pyrocephala SCLATER, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 9, 1852 locality un- 
known, probably eastern Peru (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, 
Contrib. Ornith., 1852, p. 132, pi. 97, fig. i (fig. of type = male). 

Machaeropterus pyrocephalus SCLATER, Ibis, 1862, p. 176 Rfo Ucayali and 
Rio Huallaga, eastern Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 128, 1868 Engenho 
do Gama and Sao Vicente, Rio Guapor6, Matto Grosso (spec, examined); 
SCLATER and SALVIN, P Z.S.Lond., 1878, p. 139 Rioja and Moyobamba, 
Peru; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r. f 2, p. 346, 1884 Moyobamba; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 305, 1888 Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso, 
and Rfo Ucayali; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 54, 1902 La 
Pricion, Caura, Venezuela (spec, examined) ; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. 
Av., Part 9, p. ii, pi. 3, fig. 5, 1910 (range); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 
8, p. 368, 1914 Boim, Rio Tapaj6z; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. 
Bull., 2, p. 249, 1916 La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela. 

Range: Eastern Venezuela (La Pricion, Rio Caura); northern 
Brazil (Boim, Rio Tapaj6z, state of Para; Engenho do Gama and 
Sao Vicente, Rio Guapore*, western Matto Grosso); and eastern 
Peru (Rio Ucayali, Rioja, Moyobamba, dept. San Martin ; Marcapata 
Valley, dept. Cuzco). 1 

3 : Peru (Moyobamba 3). 

Genus ALLOCOTOPTERUS Ridgway. 

AUocotopterus RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 209, 1905 type by 

orig. desig. Pipra deliciosa SCLATER. 
AUocopterus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 482, 1917 emendation. 

*Allocotopterus deliciosus (Sclater). 2 CLUB-WINGED MANAKIN. 
Pipra deliciosa SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 90, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador. 

X I am unable to discover any local variation in this species with the possible 
exception of the red crown-stripe being somewhat less extensive in males from 
the Caura Valley. 

Material examined. Peru: Moyobamba 3, Marcapata Valley i. Brazil, 
Matto Grosso: Engenho do Gama 6, Sao Vicente 3. Venezuela: La Pricion, 
Caura 2. 

*The propriety of separating the species generically from Machaeropterus may 
well be questioned, the principal point of distinction the peculiar structure of 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 43 

Machaeropterus deliciosus SCLATER, Ibis, 1862, p. 176, pi. 6 (crit.); idem, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 305, 1888 Nanegal, Intac, Sical, "Sarayacu," Ecua- 
dor; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 73, 1889 Nanegal; HARTERT, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 488, 1898 Cachavf, Ecuador; SALVADORI and PESTA, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 Gualea and Intac; GOOD- 
FELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 709 Gualea, Intac, and Mindo; HELLMAYR in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. n, pi. 3, fig. i, 1910 western Ecuador; 
MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arnie'e Mes. Arc MeYid. Equat., 9, p. B6i, 
1911 Pachijal, Esmeraldas; IX)NNBERG, and RENDAHL Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 75, 1922 Mindo, Gualea. 

Allocopterus deliciosus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 482, 1917 
Cocal and Buena vista (Narino), Colombia. 

Allocotopterus deliciosus CHAPMAN, I.e., 55, p. 533, 1926 Mindo and Nanegal, 
Ecuador. 

Range : Lower Subtropical Zone of western Ecuador and south- 
western Colombia (state of Narino). 
2: Ecuador (unspecified 2). 

Genus CHLOROPIPO Cabanis and Heine. 1 

Chloropipo CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 90, note 2, 1859 type by 
orig. desig. Chloropipo flavicollis CABANIS and HEINE = Pipr a flavicapilla 
SCLATER. 

Chloropipo flavicapilla (Sclater). YELLOW-HEADED MANAKIN. 

Pipra flavicapilla SCLATER, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 9, 1852 "Nouvelle 

Grenade" = Bogota (type in Paris Museum examined); idem, Contrib. 

Ornith., 1852, p. 132, pi. 97, fig. 2 New Granada (type figured); idem, 

P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota. 
Chloropipo flavicollis (lapsu) CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 91, 1859 

Colombia (ex SCLATER). 
Chloropipo flavicapilla SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 247, 1862 Bogota^ 

SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 516 Medellin, Antioquia; 

SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 286, 1888 Bogotd and Medellin, 

Colombia; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 12, pi. i, fig. 4, 

1910 Bogota and Cauca Valley, Colombia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N.H., 36, p. 483, 1917 San Antonio, Western Andes, Colombia. 

Range : Subtropical Zone of Colombia (San Antonio, Primavera, 
Riolima, Western Andes; Medellin, Central Andes; "Bogota"). 1 

the inner secondaries being a purely sexual character of the adult male. How- 
ever, the comparatively much shorter tail and the more operculate nostrils per- 
haps justify the recognition of the genus. 

Material examined. Twenty specimens from Western Ecuador. 

'Key to the species; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 326, 1906. 

*Material examined. Western Andes: Primavera (adult male) i; Riolima 
(female) i. Medellm, Antioquia (males) 2. "Bogota" 7. 

Females and immature birds are less brightly colored, the pileum being 
duller yellow, and the anterior under parts as well as the sides of the head more 
strongly suffused with greenish olive. 



44 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Chloropipo holochlora litae Hellmayr. 1 WESTERN GREEN MANAKIN. 

Chloropipo holochlora litae HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 325, 1906 Lita, 
prov. Imbabura, Ecuador; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 12, 
1910 northwestern Ecuador and southwestern Colombia ("Pasto in the 
Cauca Valley"); idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1138 Sipi and N6vita, 
Choc6, Colombia (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 483, 
1917 Baud6, San Jose\ and Barbacoas, western Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55. P- 533. T 9 2 6 eastern Panama to northwestern Ecuador; GRISCOM, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 178, 1929 Cana, Dari6n. 

Chloropipo holochlora SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 287, 1888 part, 
spec, b, "vicinity of Pasto," Colombia (spec, examined); HARTERT, Nov. 
Zool., 5, p. 488, 1898 Cachavi and Paramba, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Range : Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast from eastern Panama 
(Rio Tuyra) south to northwestern Ecuador (prov. Esmeraldas and 
Imbabura). 

i: Ecuador (Lita, prov. Imbabura i). 

Chloropipo holochlora holochlora Sclater. GREEN MANAKIN. 

Chloropipo holochlora SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 287, 1888 part, 
spec. a,c-f, Bogota (type), Sarayacu, Ecuador, and Chyavetas, Peru (spec, 
examined); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 325, 1906 Bogota to northern 
Peru (crit.). 

Chloropipo sp. ign. SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, pp. 751, 758 
Chyavetas, Peru (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 1873, p. 282 Chyavetas. 

Chloropipo flavicapilla (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1885, p. 93 Mapoto, Ecuador. 1 

Chloropipo holochlora holochlora HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 12, 1910 Bogotd, eastern Ecuador, and northern Peru (Chyavetas); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 483, 1917 Florencia, Caqueta, 
and Villa vicencio, eastern Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 533, 1926 Zamora, 
Rio Suno, below San Jose\ Ecuador. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from eastern Colombia (Villa vicen- 
cio; Florencia, Caqueta; Cuembi, Rio Putumayo, Narino) through 
eastern Ecuador to northern Peru (Chyavetas, dept. Loreto). 3 

1 Chloropipo holochlora litae HELLMAYR: Similar in size to C. h. holochlora, but 
upper parts, throat, chest, and sides light olivaceous green instead of shining 
grass- green. 

Material examined. N. W. Ecuador (Cachavi, Lita, Paramba, Ventanas, 
Cachyiacu) 20. Colombia: Sipi, Rio Sipi 2; N6vita, Rio Tamana i; "Pasto" I. 

2 Count Berlepsch's MS. notes, now in my possession, clearly show that the 
Mapoto specimen is referable to C. h. holochlora. 

'Birds from eastern Ecuador and a single skin from Chyavetas are identical 
with Colombian specimens. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogotd (including the type) 3; Cuembi, 
Rio Putumayo I. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2, Rio Napo i. Peru: Chyavetas I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 45 

Chloropipo holochlora viridior Chapman. 1 SOUTH PERUVIAN GREEN 
MANAKIN. 

Chloropipo holochlora viridior CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 5, 1924 
La Pampa (type) and Rio Tavara, southeastern Peru. 

Chloropipo holochlora holochlora (not of SCLATER) HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 
85, A, Heft 10, p. 60, 1920 Yahuarmayo, Carabaya (crit.). 

Range: Southeastern Peru, in northern section of dept. Puno 
(La Pampa, Rio Tavara, and Yahuarmayo, northern slope of the 
Sierra de Carabaya). 

Chloropipo uniformis Salvin and Godman.* RORAIMA GREEN MAN- 
AKIN. 

Chloropipo uniformis SALVIN and G'ODMAN, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 447, 1884 Roraima; 
SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 299 Merum6 Mountains and Roraima; idem, I.e., 
1886, p. 500 Mount Twek-quay; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
286, 1888 Roraima, Merum6 and Twek-quey mountains; HELLMAYR in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 12, 1910 mountains of British Guiana; 
CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, a, p. 250, 1921 Roraima, Merume', Twek- 
quey, "Kamarang" [=Caramang ] River. 

Range : Mountains of the interior of British Guiana. 

Chloropipo unicolor Taczanowski. 3 TACZANOWSKI'S MANAKIN. 

1 Chloropipo holochlora viridior CHAPMAN: Very close to C. h. holochlora, but 
upper parts of a fresher, more yellowish (moss) green; throat and chest also 
rather lighter; abdomen deeper yellow. Wing (two females) 72, 73; tail 46, 47. 

Material examined. Peru: Yahuarmayo I, Rio Tavara i. 

t Chloropipo uniformis SALVIN and GODMAN: Not unlike C. holochlora lilac, 
but larger, and tail notably much longer; axillars and under wing coverts pale 
yellowish, scarcely tinged with grayish in the middle; throat and chest darker 
olive green, etc. Wing 80, (female) 77-79; tail 55-58, (female) 53-55. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima 6. 

^Chloropipo unicolor TACZANOWSKI: Adult male glossy black, with wings and 
under wing coverts dull brownish black; axillars and a tuft of elongated silky 
feathers on sides of chest snowy white; bill black. Female much like C. uniformis, 
but smaller; upper parts much darker green, inclining to blackish green on pileum; 
ventral surface duller, more suffused with grayish, and a large tuft of silky white 
feathers under the wings; bill dark brown, beneath brownish white. Wing 75 
(male), 72-75^ (females); tail 51 (male), 49-50 > (females); bill 12-13. 

This species is almost certainly generically distinct from Chloropipo. Aside 
from the marked sexual dimorphism and the glossy black coloring of the male, 
which remind one of Xenopipo, it, furthermore, differs from the genotype and 
allied species by having a much smaller, slenderer bill with strongly ridged culmen, 
while the elongated plumes on the sides of the chest form another peculiar feature. 
Unfortunately, no specimen is at present available for reexamination of its struc- 
tural characters. 

Material examined. Peru, dept. Junin: Amable Maria, alt. 2000 ft. (the 
type) i (female); Garita del Sol, alt. 5740 ft., i (female). San Martin: 
Guayabamba [ =Huayabamba], alt. 4000 to 5500 ft., (types of X. subalaris) 2 
(male, female). 



46 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Chloropipo unicolor TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 335, 1884 Amable Maria, 
near Tulumayo River, dept. Junin, Peru (type in Warsaw Museum exam- 
ined; =female); BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 368 
Garita del Sol, Vitoc, Peru (crit.); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 
9, p. 12, 1910 Peru. 

Xenopipo subalaris GODMAN, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 10, p. XXVII, 1899 Guaya- 
bamba [=Huayabamba ], dept. San Martin (descr. of male and female; 
types in British Museum examined); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 324, 
1906 Peru (crit.). 

Range: Tropical Zone of Peru, in depts. Junin (Amable Maria, 
Garita del Sol) and San Martin (Huayabamba), at altitudes of from 
2000 to 5700 feet. 

Genus CERATOPIPRA Bonaparte. 

Ceratopipra BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 (=Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 6), 1854 type by monotypy Pipra cornuta SPIX. 

Ceratopipra cornuta (Spix). CRESTED MANAKIN. 

Pipra cornuta SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 5, pi. 7, fig. 2, 1825 "in sylvis flum. 
Amazonum" (type lost, formerly in Munich Museum); WAGLER, Isis, 
1830, p. 933 (descr. of type); SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 245, 
1848 Our Village, Kukenam Valley, dist. Yuruari; CABANIS in SCHOM- 
BURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 696, 1848 Roraima; BURMEISTER, 
Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 444, 1856 Amazon River and British Guiana; 
BATES, Naturalist on the Amazons, i, p. 254, 1863 Obidos; PELZELN, Orn. 
Bras., 2, p. 127, 1868 Rio Marou, Brazil; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., a, 
p. 337, 1884 part, descr. of male and female, British Guiana; SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 299 Roraima. 

Pipra iracunda SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 447, 1884 Roraima, 
British Guiana (type examined); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 229 Roraima. 

Ceratopipra cornuta SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 288, 1888 Roraima, 
British Guiana; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 14, pi. 3, 
fig. 3, 1910 British Guiana and Lower Amazonia; CHUBB, Birds Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 253, 1921 Roraima. 

Ceratopipra iracunda SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 288, pi. 19, 1888 
part, spec, a, Roraima; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 14, 
1910 Roraima; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 254, 1921 Roraima. 

Range: Eastern Venezuela (El Llagual, Caura River; Kuke- 
nam Valley, dist. Yuruari); British Guiana (Roraima); northern 
Brazil (Rio Marou, tributary of the Rio Negro; Obidos, north bank 
of lower Amazon). 1 

1 Two males from the Rio Marou, Brazil, in the Vienna Museum and a female 
taken by M. A. Carriker, Jr., on January n, 1910, at El Llagual, Caura, Vene- 
zuela (Carnegie Museum, No. 33294) agree with others from British Guiana. 
An example with only a small yellowish-red chin spot and the rest of the throat 
black like the belly was described as P. iracunda. The type specimen, obtained 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 47 

Genus XENOPIPO Cabanis. 

Xenopipo CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 235, 1847 type by orig. desig. 
Xenopipo atronitens CABANIS. 

* Xenopipo atronitens Cabanis. BLACK MANAKIN. 

Xenopipo atronitens CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 235, 1847 British 
Guiana; idem in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 697, 1848 
coast forests of British Guiana; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 129, 1868 Forte 
do Sao Joaquim (Rio Branco), Rio Iganna (Rio Negro), and Borba, Rio 
Madeira (spec, examined); SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 299 Merum6 Mts. and 
Mount Roraima, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 287, 
1888 Merum6 Mts. and Demerara (British Guiana), Oyapoc ("Cay- 
enne"), Rio Negro, Rio Iganna, and Borba; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, 
p. 136, 1908 Oyapock; HELLMAYR, I.e., 17, p. 308, 1910 Borba, Rio 
Madeira; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 15, pi. 3, fig. 2, 1910 
(range); BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 73, 1918 
Lelydorp, Surinam; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 255, 1921 Berbice 
River, Abary River, Merume' Mts., and Mount Roraima. 

Range: British, Dutch, and French Guiana; northern Brazil 
(Rio Negro; Rio Branco; Borba, Rio Madeira). 1 

i: Brazil (Manaos i). 

Genus TYRANNEUTES Sclater and Salvin. 2 

Tyranneutes SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, (4), 5, p. 268, 1881 type by monotypy 
Tyranneutes brachyurus SCLATER and SALVIN = Pipra virescens PELZELN. 

*Tyranneutes virescens (Pelzeln). 3 OLIVE-GREEN MANAKIN. 

by the late H. Whitely, Jr., on Mount Roraima, at an altitude of 3500 feet, on 
June 20, 1883, along with normally-colored males, is certainly but an individual 
variant of C. cornuta. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima 10. Venezuela: El Llagual, 
Caura I. Brazil: Rio Marou, Rio Negro district 2. 

'Material examined. British Guiana: Rupununi River 3, Merume' Mountains 
2. Brazil: Manaos i; Forte do Sao Joaquim, Rio Branco 2; Rio Icanna [=Rio 
Isana] 2; Borba, Rio Madeira i. 

*The exceedingly short secondaries and tarsi, together with the delicate toes 
and relatively large bill, seem to be excellent characters for generic separation. 
The sexes are alike in coloration and structure. 

1 Tyranneutes virescens (PELZELN) is characterized by the large (half-concealed) 
bright yellow crown patch and by the outermost rectrix being extremely narrowed 
and shortened, only about half as long as tail, with rigid shaft. Wing 47-51; tail 
19-23; bill 9-10. 

Birds from British Guiana (brachyurus) differ from the type by having less 
extensive as well as darker, golden yellow rather than lemon yellow, crown patch. 

Material examined. Brazil: Manaos (the type) I. British Guiana: Cama- 
cusa 8, Bartica Grove 3, Caramang River 2. 



48 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra virescens PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 128, 187, Sept., 1868 part, 
descr. of adult male only from Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos ], Brazil 
(type in Vienna Museum examined); SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 1883, 
p. 208 (crit.); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 300 Camacusa, British Guiana; 
HELLMAYR, Ibis, 1906, p. 42 Manaos, Brazil, and British Guiana 
(monog.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 9, 1910 range; SNETH- 
LAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 367, 1914 Obidos and Rio Jamunda (Faro), 
Brazil; BEEBE, Trop. Wild Life in Brit. Guiana, i, p. 134, 1917 Bartica 
Grove; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 248, 1921 British Guiana 
(numerous localities). 

Tyranneutes brachyurus SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, (4), 5, p. 269, 1881 
Bartica Grove, British Guiana (type examined). 

[Pipra virescens] Subsp. brachyura SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 303, 
1888 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, and Carimang River, British Guiana 
(spec, examined). 

Pipra brachyura BEEBE, Our Search for a Wilderness, pp. 342, 348, 392, 
1910 Aremu, British Guiana (habits). 

Range: British Guiana, and northern Brazil, north of the 
Amazon (Obidos; Rio Jamunda, Faro; Mandos). 

i: British Guiana (Camacusa i). 

*Tyranneutes stolzmanni (Hellmayr). 1 STOLZMANN'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra stolzmanni HELLMAYR, Ibis, (8), 6, p. 44, 1906 Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro, Brazil (monog., range); idem, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 360, 1907 
Paraiso and Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 308, 1910 Maroins, 
Rio Machados; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 9, 1910 (range); 
idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 30, 90, 1912 
Peixe-Boi, Para; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 367, 1914 Para, 
Providencia, Ananindeua, Rio Tocantins (Cameta), Cussary, Rio Jamau- 
chim (Tucunar), and Rio Tapaj6z (Boim), Brazil; BOND, Auk, 44, p. 
563, 1927 "Patagonia," forty miles east of Pard; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 80, p. 167, 1928 Castanhal, Para. 

Pipra virescens PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 128, 187, 1868 part, descr. of 
female and young male, Borba, Rio Madeira and Marabitanas, Rio Negro 
(spec examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 283 
Xeberos, Chyavetas, and Chamicuros, Peru (spec, examined); TACZA- 
NOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 345, 1884 

1 Tyranneutes stolzmanni (HELLMAYR): Similar to T. virescens, but without 
yellow crown patch or with mere traces of pale yellow at the extreme base of a 
few feathers; outermost rectrix of normal shape, neither narrowed nor abbreviated, 
and but slightly shorter than the median; subexternal rectrix as a rule from two 
to four millimeters shorter than the outermost and third pairs. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Nericagua, Orinoco 2; Suapure, Caura 
River i. Colombia: Villavicencio i, "Bogota" 15. Ecuador: Santiago i, 
Sarayacu 2, Rio Napo 2. Peru: Yurimaguas i, Xeberos 2, Chamicuros 2, Chya- 
vetas i, Puerto Bermudez I. Brazil: Marabitanas, Rio Negro 2; Borba, Rip 
Madeira 5; Paraiso, Rio Madeira 2; Maroins, Rio Machados i; Pard i; Peixe-Boi, 
near Belem 3. 



1929. BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 49 

Yurimaguas; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, 
p. 14, 1899 Santiago, Ecuador (spec, examined); BERLEPSCH and HAR- 
TERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 53, 1902 Nericagua, Orinoco River, and Suapure, 
Caura, Venezuela (spec, examined); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 300, 1907 Bogota (range in part). 

Pipra sp. ign. SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 751 Xeberos and 
Chyavetas, Peru (spec, examined). 

Pipra virescens Subsp. typica SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 303, 1888 
"Rio Negro" [ =Marabi tanas ], Xeberos, Chamicuros, Chyavetas, 
Sarayacu (Ecuador), and Bogota. 

"Pipra virescens an P. stolzmanni" (sic) SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 
1907 Pard (spec, examined). 

Tyranneutes stolzmanni CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 248, 
1916 Nericagua, Orinoco, and Caura River, Venezuela; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 532, 1926 Zamora, Rio Suno, and below San 
Jos6, Ecuador, and Rio Tavara, Peru. 

Range: Amazonian region, from southern Venezuela (Orinoco- 
Caura basin) and eastern Colombia (Villavicencio) south through 
eastern Ecuador and northwestern Brazil (Marabitanas, upper Rio 
Negro) to southeastern Peru (Rio Tavara, Carabaya), and along 
the south bank of the Amazon through northern Brazil east to the 
Para district. 

2 : Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Rio Pichis, Ucayali drainage basin, 
dept. Junin i); Colombia (Bogota i). 

Genus MASIUS Bonaparte. 

Masius BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 175, 1850 type by monotypy Pipra 
chrysoptera Lafresnaye. 

Anticorys CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 90, 1859 new name for 
Masius BONAPARTE. 

*Masius chrysopterus chrysopterus (Lafresnaye). GOLDEN-WINGED 
MANAKIN. 

Pipra chrysoptera LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 97, 1843 Santa F de 
Bogota; idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 44, 1843 same locality; GRAY and 
MITCHELL, Gen. Birds, i, p. 274, pi. 67 (upper figure), 1846. 

Masius chrysoptera BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 175, 1850 Colombia. 

Masius chrysopterus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogotd; TAC- 
ZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, I.e., 1885, p. 93 Mapoto, Ecuador; PELZELN, 
MADARASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipridae, p. u, pi. 4, 1887 Bogotd and 
eastern Ecuador (monog.); BERLEPSCH, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 
Bogota; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 291, 1888 Bogota; GOOD- 
FELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 708 Baeza, Ecuador (spec, examined); CHAPMAN, 



50 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 483, 1917 La Candela (east slope of Central 
Andes, head of Magdalena Valley), Fusugasuga, and Aguadita, Eastern 
Andes, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 534, 1926 Macas, lower Sumaco, 

San Jos6 de Sumaco, Baeza, and below Oyacachi, eastern Ecuador. 


Masius chrysopterus chrysopterus HARTERT and HELLMAYR, Ornith. Mo- 

natsber., u, p. 33, 1903 Eastern Andes of Colombia and Ecuador (crit.); 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 16, 1910 (range). 

Range: Northwestern Venezuela (Guarico, state of Lara); 
eastern Colombia (Eastern Andes, and east slope of Central Andes 
at the head of the Magdalena Valley); eastern Ecuador. 1 

5: Colombia (Bogotd 5). 
*Masius chrysopterus coronulatus Sclater. CORONATED MANAKIN. 

Masius coronulatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 91, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador 
(type examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 247, pi. 19, 1862 
Nanegal; PELZELN, MADARASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 13, 1887 

part, hab. Ecuador only; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 291, 1888 

part, spec, a-i, Nanegal, "Sarayacu," Intac, and "Quito," Ecuador; 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 72, 1889 Nanegal; SALVADORI and 
FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 14, 1899 Gualea and 
Intac; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 708 Canzacota, Gualea, and Intac; 
MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Ge"og. Arme'e Mes. Arc Merid. Equat., 9, p. B6o, 
1911 "Quito," Gualea ; LONNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 75. 1922 Gualea and Nanegal; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
55, p. 534, 1926 Nanegal, Gualea, Las Pinas, and Alamor. 

Masius chrysopterus coronulatus HARTERT and HELLMAYR, Ornith. Monats- 
ber., ii, p. 34, 1903 western Ecuador (crit.); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, 
Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 16, 1910 western Ecuador. 

Masius corunulatus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 484, 1917 
part, Gallera (west of Popayan) and Buenavista, Narino, Colombia. 

Range: Western Ecuador and southwestern Colombia (north 
to Gallera, west of Popaydn). 2 

5: Ecuador (Gualea 2, Pachajal i, Ana Maria i, "Quito" i). 



tips of the crest feathers vary from orange chrome to grenadine red in 
Bogota skins. Three males from Baeza (Ecuador) are of the dark-crested type, 
while a single male from Guarico (Venezuela) agrees with the average from Bogota 
in having the tips flame-scarlet. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 27. Ecuador: Baeza 4. Vene- 
zuela: Guarico, Lara (Carnegie Museum, No. 36888. cfad., Feb. 10, 1911. M. A. 
Carriker, Jr.) I. 

2 Two (out of three) adult males from Gallera (Andes west of Popaydn, Cauca) 
are indistinguishable from topotypes, while the third specimen, like one from 
Gualea, closely approaches certain individuals of M. c. bellus. 

Material examined. Pachajal i, Ana Maria i Colombia: Gallera 3. 
Ecuador: Gualea 6, Nanegal 3, Intac 4, Canzacota 2, "Sarayacu" 2, unspeci- 
fied 4. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 51 

Masius chrysopterus bellus Hartert and Hellmayr. 1 BEAUTIFUL 
MANAKIN. 

Masius chrysopterus bellus HARTERT and HELLMAYR, Ornith. Monatsber., n, 
p. 35, 1903 Riolima, Cauca, Colombia; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. 
Av., Part 9, p. 16, 1910 western Colombia; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 
1138 Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, Colombia. 

Masius coronulatus (not of SCLATER) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 516 Antioquia [ = Medellfn ] (spec, examined); PELZELN, MADA- 
RASZ and LORENZ, Monog. Pipr., p. 13, pi. 5, 1887 part, descr. and hab. 
Medellin, Colombia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 291, 1888 part, 
spec, j, Antioquia. 

Masius corunulatus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 484, 1917 
part, Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Cocal (Western Andes), and La Frijolera, 
lower Cauca, Colombia. 

Range: Western Andes of Colombia (except the extreme south- 
erly section). 

Genus ANTELOPHIA Reichenbach. 

Metopia (not of MEIGEN, 1803) SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 
2, p. 491, Feb., 1832 type by orig. desig. Pipr a galeata LICHTENSTEIN. 

Antilophia REICHENBACH, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 63, 1850 type Pipra galeata 
LICHTENSTEIN. 

*Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein) . HELMETED MANAKIN. 

Pipra galeata LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 28. 1823 Sao 
Paulo, Brazil (type in Berlin Museum examined); SWAINSON, Orn. Draw., 
Part 2, pi. 23, 1834 (=adult male). 

Pipra wiedii LESSON, Traite" d'Orn., livr. 4, p. 258, Sept., 1830 no locality 
given. 

Metopia galeata BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 440, 1856 Lag6a 
Santa, Minas Geraes; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 129, 1868 Borda do 
Matto, Irisanga, Paciencia, Rio Parana, and Rio das Pedras (Sao Paulo), 
Jos6 Dias and Goyaz (Goyaz), and Sao Vicente, Matto Grosso (spec, 
examined); REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 318 
Lagda Santa, Sete Lagdas, and Curvelo, Minas Geraes, and Villa Franca, 

1 Masius chrysopterus bellus HARTERT and HELLMAYR: Similar to M. c. coronu- 
latus, but the thick flattened horny ends of the crest english red (instead of to- 
bacco brown, glossed with golden brown apically). Wing (adult males) 58-60; 
tail 41-43; bill 7-8. 

Seven adult males from the central and northern parts of the Western Andes 
differ noticeably from a series of Ecuadorian skins. However, one from the Heights 
of Caldas, Valle, and another from Las Lomitas, Cauca, have the tips of the crest 
feathers decidedly duller and more tinged with brownish, and can hardly be 
distinguished from certain dark-crested examples of coronulatus. 

Material examined. Medellfn, Antioquia i ; Pueblo Rico, San Juan slopes, 
Choc6 i; Bitaco Valley, Valle 3; La Cumbre, Valle i; Heights of Caldas, Valle i; 
Riolima, Cauca (the type) i; Las Lomitas, Cauca I. 



; OF ILU UK 



52 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

northeastern Sao Paulo; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 290, 1888 
part, spec, a-h, Bahia, "Rio," Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer Mus. N.H., 5, 
p. 107, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Antilophia galeata IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 5, p. 298, 1902 Batataes, Sao 
Paulo (nest descr.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 298, 
1907 Batataes, Franca, and Avanhandava (Sao Paulo), Chapada and 
Porto do Faya (Matto Grosso); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 55, 1908 
Goyaz and Fazenda Esperanga, Goyaz; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 17, pi. 2, figs. 5, 6, 1910 (range); REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. 
Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 76, 1910; p. 166, 1925 Santa Philomena, 
Piauhy (spec, examined). 

Range: Table-land of central Brazil, from northern Sao Paulo 
and Matto Grosso north through western Minas Geraes, western 
Bahia, and Goyaz to southern Maranhao and Piauhy (Santa Philo- 
mena). 1 

7 : Brazil (Rio das Velhas, near Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes 3 ; 
Chapada, Matto Grosso 4). 

Genus CHIROXIPHIA Cabanis. 2 

Chiroxiphia CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 235, 1847 type by subs, 
desig. (Gray, 1855, p. 55) Pipra caudata SHAW. 

Chiroprion (SCHIFF MS.) 3 BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 315 
( = Consp. Voluc. Anisod., p. 5 ), 1854 tyP e by monotypy Pipra pareola 
LINNAEUS. 

Cercophaena (SCHIFF MS.) BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 
( = Consp. Voluc. Anisod., p. 6 ), 1854 type by monotypy Pipra linearis 
BONAPARTE. 

*Chiroxiphia linearis (Bonaparte). 4 LONG-TAILED MANAKIN. 

Pipra linearis BONAPARTE, P.Z.S.Lond., 5, "1837," p. 113, June, 1838 
Mexico; Gould in HINDS, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Birds, p. 40, pi. 20 (male), 
1843 Realejo, Nicaragua. 

Pipra fastuosa LESSON, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 174, 1842 Realejo, Nicaragua; 
idem, Echo du Monde Savant, 10, No. 40, p. 947, 1843 Realejo. 

Chiroxiphia linearis SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 309, 1888 Guate- 
mala to Costa Rica; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, 

^orty-six specimens, including a female from Santa Philomena, Piauhy, 
examined. 

J See W. DEW. MILLER, A Review of the Manakins of the Genus Chiroxiphia; 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 24, pp. 331-344, 1908. 

^Separation of the genus Chiroprion seems impracticable (see MILLER, I.e., p. 
340. 

*C. linearis and C. lanceolata should probably be looked upon as geographic 
races of C. pareola with strongly pronounced characters. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 53 

p. 112, 1890 Mexico to Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Paso 
Real and Barranca de TeYraba, Costa Rica; MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 24, p. 332, 1908 southern Mexico to Costa Rica (crit.;) 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. 9, 1910 
southern Mexico to Costa Rica. 

Ckiroprion linearis RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 739, 1907 
southern Mexico to Costa Rica (monog., full bibliography); DEARBORN, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., I, p. 101, 1907 Mazatenango and 
Patulul, Guatemala; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 682, 1910 
Pacific slope of Costa Rica (habits). 

Chiroprion linearis linearis BANGS and PETERS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, 
p. 397, 1928 Chivela and Tapanatepec, Oaxaca. 

Range: Southern Mexico (in states of Oaxaca and Chiapas) 
south through Guatemala, San Salvador, and Nicaragua to the 
Pacific slope of Costa Rica. 1 

34: Guatemala (Mazatenango 2, near Patulul, Solola 7); San 
Salvador (unspecified i); Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega 
22); Costa Rica (Bebedero i, Bolson i). 

*Chiroxiphia lanceolata (Wagler). LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN. 

Pipra lanceolata WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 931 "Guiana sive Cajenna," 
errore (type in Munich Museum examined). 

Pipra pareolides D'ORBIGNY and LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., i, p. 165, 1838 
Carthagena, Colombia. 

Pipra pareola (not of LINNAEUS) HAHN, Vogel aus Asien, etc., Lief. 16, pi. 
4 (male), 1829 "Brazil, Cayenne, Cuba," errore; LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., 
livr. 4, p. 257, pi. 51, fig. i (male), Sept., 1830 "Br6sil." 

Pipra melanocephala (not of VIEILLOT, 1820) BONAPARTE, P.Z.S.Lond., 5, 
"1837," p. 113, 1838 (crit.). 

Chiroxiphya melanocephala SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 151, 1855 "Bogota;" 
idem, I.e., 24, p. 141, 1856 David, Chiriquf. 

Chiroxiphia lanceolata CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 96, 1859 
Carthagena, Colombia and Caracas, Venezuela; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 462 Lion Hill, Panama; SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 150 
Santa Fe", Veragua and David, Chiriqui; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 
1868, p. 168 Pilar, Sucre, Venezuela; idem, 1. c., p. 628 Venezuela; 
SALVIN, I.e., 1870, p. 200 Castillo, Calovevora, Chitra, Boquete de Chitra, 
and Calobre (Veragua), and Mina de Chorcha (Chiriqui); FINSCH, I.e., 
1870, p. 574 "Trinidad" (errore); SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 1879, p. 202 
Manaure, Santa Marta; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 309, 1888 
Veragua, Chiriquf, Panama, Manaure, Pilar and San Esteban (Venezuela), 

1 While this paper was passing through the press, Messrs. BANGS and PETERS 
(Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 397, 1928) have pointed out that, according to 
the length of the middle rectrices, the species may be subdivided into two races: 
C, I. linearis (southern Mexico and Guatemala), and C. I. fastuosa (Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica). 



54 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

"Trinidad"; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 112, 1890 
Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and "Trinidad"; ROBINSON, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 18, p. 672, 1896 El Valle, Margarita Island (habits, nest and 
eggs descr.); idem, I.e., p. 684, 1896 La Guayra, Venezuela; PHELPS, Auk, 
14, p. 365, 1897 Cumanacoa, Venezuela; BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
12, p. 137, 1898 Santa Marta; ROBINSON and RICHMOND, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 24, p. 173, 1901 La Guaira and San Julian, Venezuela; 
BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 365, 1901 Divala and David, Chiriquf; idem, Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 40, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 155, 1900 Bonda, Minca, and Cacagualito, 
Santa Marta; idem, I.e., 21, p. 288, 1905 Bonda (nest and eggs descr.); 
CLARK, Auk, 19, p. 263, 1902 Margarita Island; THAYER and BANGS, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 46, p. 217, 1906 Sabana de Panama; LOWE, 
Ibis, 1907, p. 563 Margarita Island; MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2 4 P- 334i X 98 Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela (crit.); HELLMAYR in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. 2, pi. 3, fig. 7, 1910 (range); 
idem and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 86, 1912 Campanero 
and San Esteban, Venezuela; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 206, 
1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 334, 1922 Fundaci6n, Bonda, Minca, Cacagualito, 
Mamatoco, and La Tigrera, Santa Marta region; HALLINAN, Auk, 41, p. 
319, 1924 Sosa Hill, Rfo Algarrobo, and Rio Velasquez, Panama (nest 
and eggs descr.). 

Chiroxiphia caudata (not Pipra caudata SHAW) LAWRENCE, Ann Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 line of Panama Railroad. 

Chiroprion lanceolata RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 737, 
1907 Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and "Trinidad" (monog.); CORY, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 246, 1909 Margarita Island; 
RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 23, 1919 Cerro de Ancdn, Panama. 

Range: Panama, west to Chiriqui, including Coiba Island; 
northern Colombia (Sabanilla; Cartagena; Santa Marta region, 
south to Santander and Bogota), and northern coast of Venezuela 
as far east as the Paria Peninsula, state of Sucre. 1 

23: Colombia (El Guayabal, ten miles north of San Jose* de 
Ciicuta, Santander 3) ; Venezuela (San Esteban i ; Macuto, Caracas 
i; Margarita Island 18). 

"Chiroxiphia pareola atlantica Dalmas. 2 TOBAGO MANAKIN. 

Venezuelan specimens average slightly duller, less blackish underneath, but 
the divergency is insignificant. There is no reliable record of its occurrence in 
Trinidad, although trade skins are sometimes no doubt erroneously labeled as 
coming from that island. 

Material examined. Panama (Chiriquf and Railroad line) 8. Colombia: 
Cartagena 2; Bonda, Santa Marta 5; Bogota 3; El Guayabal 3. Venezuela: 
San Esteban 8; Campanero 2; Macuto, Caracas i; Cumanacoa, Bermudez (now 
Sucre) 6; Guiria, Paria Peninsula 4; Margarita Island 18. 

'Chiroxiphia pareola atlantica DALMAS: Similar to C. p. pareola, but decidedly 
larger; red crest of adult males fuller and longer; female somewhat lighter, particu- 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 55 

Chiroxiphia pareola atlantica DALMAS, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 139, 
1900 Tobago; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 19, 1910 
Tobago. 

Metopia pareola (not Pipra pareola LINNAEUS) JARDINE, Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 20, p. 332, 1847 Tobago. 

Chiroxiphia pareola SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 307, 1888 part, 
spec, g, Tobago; CORY, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago. 

Chiroxiphia atlantica MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 24, p. 336, 1908 
Tobago (crit.). 

Range: Island of Tobago. 
40: Tobago Island. 

*Chiroxiphia pareola pareola (Linnaeus). BLUE-BACKED MANAKIN. 

Pipra pareola LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 339, 1766 based on 
BRISSON, EDWARDS, and MARCGRAVE, "Brasilia et Cayana"; DESMAREST, 
Hist. Nat. Tang., Manak. et Todiers, livr. 4, pi. 50 (adult male), 51, 52 
(young males), 1805; livr. 8, pi. 53 (female), 1806 "Bresil et Caienne" 
(descr. of plumages); WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 187 (8vo ed., p. 184), 
1820 Barra do Jucu, Espirito Santo; idem, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), 
p. 418, 1831 Espirito Santo and Mucuri River; SWAINSON, Ornith. Draw., 
Part 4, pi. 44 (male, female), 1836 (?); BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. 
Bras., 2, p. 442, 1856 Bahia to Guyana. 

Manacus superbus PALLAS, Spicil. Zool., fasc. 6, p. 8, pi. 3 fig. i, 1769 
Surinam. 

Pipra plumata P. L. S. MULLER, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 177, 1776 based on 
DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 303, fig. 2 (= young male), Cayenne. 

Pipra aegithalodes A. H. LICHTENSTEIN, Cat. Rer. Nat. Rar., p. 52, 1793 
based on DAUBENTON, PL Enl. 303, fig. 2, Cayenne. 

Chiroxiphia pareola CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 695, 
1848 Rupununi River; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 
Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 129, 1868 Forte do Rio Branco and 
Para; LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 384 Para; FORBES, I.e., 1881, p. 344 
Parahyba; SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 300 British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 307, 1888 part, spec. a-f,h,i,l-v, British Guiana, Cay- 
enne, Demerara, Pernambuco, Bahia, "Novo" Friburgo, "Rio Claro, 
Goyaz," Brazil; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santar^m; 
IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 300, 1907 Bahia and Santare'm; SNETHLAGE, Journ, 
Orn., 55, p. 289, 1907 Pard, Santo Antonio do Prata, Our6m (Rio Guama), 
Marajo, Monte Alegre, Maranhao; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 138, 

larly more yellowish along the abdominal line. Wing 76-80, (female) 75-78; tail 
39-42, (female) 41-44. 

This well-marked insular race is peculiar to Tobago. The original description 
is confused as regards the coloration of the female, and also disfigured by a mis- 
print in the tail measurement which should read 42 instead of 52 mm. 

Material examined. Tobago 70. 



56 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

1908 Cayenne and Roche-Marie, French Guiana; MILLER, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 24, p. 337, 1908 (crit.); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
369, 1914 Para, Providencia, Ilha das Ongas, Quatipuni, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Rio Guama (Oure"m), Rio Tocantins (Mazagao, Cameta, Baiao, 
Arumatheua), Rio Tapaj6z (Santare"m, (?) Boim), Maraj6 (Soure, Sant' 
Anna), Monte Alegre, Serra de Paituna, Maranhao; LIMA, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 12, (2), p. loo, 1920 Ilhe"os to Belmonte, Bahia; CHUBB, Birds 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 256, 1921 Upper Takutii Mts., Mazaruni River, 
Abary River, Annai; REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 100, 1910; p. 166, 1925 Miritiba, Maranhao; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Anil and Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Chiroxiphia longicauda (not Pipra longicauda VIEILLOT) CABANIS in SCHOM- 
BURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 695, 1848 "British Guiana" (ex 
SWAINSON MS.), errore; see HELLMAYR, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 14, p. 273, 
1920. 

Chiroprion pareola BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 37, 1857 
Cayenne. 

Chiroxiphia pareola pareola HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 363, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 31, 1907 Obidos; idem in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 18, 1910 (range); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. 
Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 31, 90, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio 
Acard, and Para localities; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 92, 1916 
Utinga, Para; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 167, 1928 Rio 
Capim, Rio Inhangapy, Para; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 334, 1929 Maranhao. 

Chiroprion pareola pareola BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 73, 1918 Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern and 
eastern Brazil, on the north bank of the Amazon west to the Rio 
Branco, south of the river to the right bank of the Tapaj6z,and 
extending along the east coast as far south as Espirito Santo and Rio 
de Janeiro. 1 

18: French Guiana (Cayenne i); Dutch Guiana (vicinity of 
Paramaribo i); Brazil, Amazonas (Serra Grande, Rio Branco i, 

*The locality "Rio Claro, Goyaz" is no doubt erroneous, and it is also ques- 
tionable whether the species is of regular occurrence in the vicinity of Rio de 
Janeiro. It is, however, common along the coast of Bahia and Espirito Santo, 
specimens from the former state being, so far as I can see, indistinguishable 
from Guianan ones. South of the lower Amazon, it does not seem to extend be- 
yond the Tapaj6z, and I expect that the record from Boim (left bank of this river) 
will prove to be referable to C. p. regina. Like those of the allied races, the 
females have no red on the crown or any black in the plumage, and the specimens 
described by Miller were doubtless immature males. 

Material examined. French Guiana (Cayenne, Roche-Marie, Saint Jean du 
Maroni, etc.) 20. Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo 3. British Guiana: Rupu- 
nuni River 3, Annai I. Brazil: Upper Rio Branco (Serra da Lua, Forte do Sao 
Joaquim) 16; Para (and vicinity) 9; Obidos i ; Maranhao 14; Bahia (City of Bahia, 
Santo Amaro, etc.) 17. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 57 

Serra da Lua, Rio Branco i), Maranhao (Anil, Sao Luiz i, Rosario 
2, Tury-assii 4), Bahia (Santo Amaro 5, unspecified 2). 

Chiroxiphia pareola regina Sclater. 1 QUEEN MANAKIN. 

Chiroxiphia regina (NATTERER MS.) SCLATER, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 17, 
p. 469, 1856 Borba, Rio Madeira (type in Vienna Museum examined); 
idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 266, 1857 Rio Javarri; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Birds, p. 251, pi. 20, 1862 Upper Amazon; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
129, 1868 Borba, Rio Madeira, and Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes (spec, 
examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. Lond., 1873, p. 283 Rio Javarri; 
TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 348, 1884 Rio Javarri; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 308, 1888 Rio Javari; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 
361, 1907 Humaytha and Paraiso, Rio Madeira (descr. female); idem, 
l.c., 17, p. 309, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira, and Maroins, Rio Machados 
(crit.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 19, 1910 (range); MILLER, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 24, p. 337, 1908 (crit.); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 369, 1914 Villa Braga, Rio Tapajoz (spec, examined). 

Range: Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the left 
bank of the Rio Tapajoz west to the Javari, on the Peruvian border. 

Chiroxiphia pareola napensis Miller. 2 NAPO MANAKIN. 

Chiroxiphia napensis MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 24, p. 338, pi. 25, 

1908 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 
Pipra cornuta (not of SPIX) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 26, p. 71, 1858 Rio Napo 

(spec, in British Museum examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 

751; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 282 Chyavetas, Peru (spec, examined). 
Chiroxiphia pareola (not Pipra pareola LINNAEUS) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., 14, p. 307, 1888 part, spec, j, k, Sarayacu (spec, examined); 

ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 72, 1889 Napo, Ecuador. 

^Chiroxiphia pareola regina SCLATER: Similar to C. p. napensis, but vertical 
crest of adult male lemon or gamboge yellow instead of red; female much darker 
and more uniform green below than those of C. p. pareola and C. p. atlantica. 
Wing 69-74, (female) 67-71; tail 32-36, (female) 34-36; bill 9-10. 

Two males from Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z agree with a series from the Rio 
Madeira. 

Material examined. Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z 2. Rio Madeira, Borba (in- 
cluding the type) 4, Calama 5, Paraiso 2, Humaytha 5; Maroins, Rio Machados 
i. Manaqueri, Rio Solimoes 2. 

*Chiroxiphia pareola napensis MILLER: Similar to C. p. pareola and of about 
the same proportions except for the relatively larger bill; but vertical crest of 
adult male lighter, scarlet vermilion rather than crimson; back much darker 
azure-blue; legs and feet reddish instead of yellowish. Female not certainly 
distinguishable from that of C. p. regina. Wing (males) 69-72; tail 32-34; bill 10. 

A bird, marked "male," in the green plumage, from Loretoyacu, on the north 
bank of the Maran6n near Pebas, agrees with a female from the Rio Napo, while 
a young male, obtained by E. Bartlett at Chyavetas in August 1866, has the few 
fresh feathers just appearing in the middle of the crown of a lighter, more orange- 
vermilion tone than birds from Sarayacu. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2, Rio Napo 3. Peru: Loretoyacu 
i, Chyavetas I. 



58 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Ceratopipra iracunda (not of SALVIN and GODMAN) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 288, 1888 part, spec, b-d, Rio Napo, Ecuador, and Chyavetas 
and Loretoyacu, Peru (spec, examined). 

Chiroxiphia pareola napensis HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 
19, 1910 Rio Napo, Sarayacu, Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 36, p. 484, 1917 La Morelia, Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 
534, 1926 Rio Napo, Rio Suno, and below San Jos, Ecuador. 

Range: Southeastern Colombia (Comisaria del Caqueta); east- 
ern Ecuador; and northeastern Peru (Loretoyacu, near Pebas, Rio 
Maran6n; Chyavetas). 

Chiroxiphia pareola boliviana Allen. 1 BOLIVIAN MANAKIN. 

Chiroxiphia pareola boliviana ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 87, 1889 
Yungas, Bolivia; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, Ornis, 13, p. 114, 1906 
Huaynapata, Marcapata, Peru; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 19 1910 southeastern Peru and Bolivia. 

Chiroxiphia pareola (not Pipra pareola LINNAEUS) SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 617 Nairapi and Tilotilo, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 307, 1888 part, spec, w-d', Tilotilo and Nairapi, 
Bolivia. 

Metopia galeata (not of LICHTENSTEIN) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 617 Simacu, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 290, 
1888 part, spec, i, Simacu (specimen in British Museum examined ; = 
female). 

Chiroxiphia boliviana MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 24, p. 339, pi. 25, 
1908 Yungas, Santa Cruz (near Apolobamba), and Quebrada Onda, 
Bolivia (crit.). 

Range: Southeastern Peru and Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz, 
Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz). 

*Chiroxiphia caudata (Shaw and N odder). AZARA'S LONG-TAILED 
MANAKIN. 

Pipra caudata SHAW and NODDER, Natur. Misc., 5, pi. 153, 1793 "in the 
warmer parts of South America"; THUNBERG, M6m. Ac. Sci. St. Petersb., 
8, p. 284, pi. 7, fig. i (adult male), 1822 Brazil; SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 5, 

1 Chiroxiphia pareola boliviana ALLEN: Similar to C. p. pareola, but with 
much smaller, slenderer bill, and much longer tail, the rectrices being also decid- 
edly broader; black frontlet wider; vertical crest much more restricted and of a 
darker crimson color; blue of mantle duller; legs and feet darker, reddish rather 
than yellowish flesh color, with the feathering extending down to the heel-joint. 
Wing 69^-75; tail 46-53; bill 9-10. 

Material examined. Peru: Huaynapata, Marcapata 3. Bolivia: San An- 
tonio, Yungas of La Paz 2 ; Simacu I ; Quebrada Onda, Yungas of Cochabamba 
7 ; Santa Cruz 4. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 59 

pi. 6, fig. i (adult male), 2 (young male), 1825 "Rio Solimoens," errore; 
SWAINSON, Orn. Draw., Part 4, pi. 45 (male, female), 1836 (?) Brazil; 
BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 441, 1856 Brazil; EULER, 
Journ. Orn., 15, p. 223, 1867 (nest and eggs descr.). 

Pipra longicauda VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 19, p. 163, 
1818 based on AZARA, No. 112, Paraguay; WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3, (i), p. 413, 1831 Jiboya, Bahia; KITTLITZ, Kupfert. Naturg. V6gel, 
Part 2, p. 14, pi. 18, fig. 2 (male), 1832; BONAPARTE, P.Z.S.Lond., 5, 
"1837," p. 113, 1838 (char.). 

Pipra viridis THUNBERG, Me"m. Ac. Sci. St. Ptersb., 8, p. 285, pi. 8, fig. 3 
(female), 1822 Brazil. 

Pipra ignicapilla WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 931 Brazil (type in Berlin Museum 
examined); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 19, 1910 Brazil. 

Ckiroxiphia caudata PELZELN, Reise Novara, Zool., i, Vogel, p. 79, 1865 
on the trail to the Corcovado, Rio; idem, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 129, 1868 
Registo do Sai, Rio de Janeiro, Ypanema, and Ytarare 1 (Sao Paulo), Cury- 
tiba (Parana); REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 319 
Minas Geraes; HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 305 S&o Paulo; PELZELN, 
Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 
22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; WHITE, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 608 San 
Javier, Misiones; BERLEPSCH and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 138, 
1885 Taquara, Arroio Grande, and Linha Pirajd, Rio Grande do Sul; 
SCLATER and HUDSON, Arg. Orn., i, p. 161, 1888 banks of the Uruguay, 
Misiones; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 310, 1888 "Novo" Friburgo, 
"Rio Claro, Goyaz," Santa F6 (Minas Geraes), S5o Paulo, Rio, Rio Grande 
do Sul, Misiones; BOUCARD and BERLEPSCH, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 45, 
1892 Porto Real, Rio; SALVADORI, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, 
p. ii, 1895 Ajos, Paraguay; IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 127, 1899 Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 208, 1899 
Ypiranga, Piquete, Iguape", and Piracicaba, S5o Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 
156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, I.e., 5, p. 298, 1902 
(nest and eggs descr.); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 301, 1907 Ypiranga, 
Campos do Jordao, MattHo, Franca, Itarare 1 , Alto da Serra, Piracicaba, 
IguapS, and Ubatuba (Sao Paulo), Vargem Alegre (Minas Geraes); MILLER, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 24, p. 340, 1908 (crit.); CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 599 
Sapucay, Paraguay (plumages descr.); HARTERT and VENTURI, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 206, 1909 Piray, Misiones; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Hist. Nat., 18, p. 313, 1910 Misiones; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. i, 1910 (range); CHROSTOWSKI, Compt. Rend. Soc. 
Scient. Varsovie, 5, pp. 483, 498, 1912 Vera Guarany, Parana; DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 23, p. 323, 1912 Villa Rica, 
Paraguay; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Alto Parana, Paraguay; 
MENEGAUX, Rev. Fran?. d'Orn., No. 115, p. 334, 1918 Villa Lutetia, 
near San Ignacio, Misiones; PINTO-PEIXOTO, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, 24, p. 262, 1924 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 178, 1926 Vermelho, Parana; HOLT, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 309, 1928 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 



60 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Southeastern Brazil, from southern Bahia and Minas 
Geraes to Rio Grande do Sul; Paraguay; northeastern Argentina 
(Misiones). 1 

1 1 : Brazil (Victoria, Sao Paulo i ; Sao Paulo 2 ; Rio das Velhas, 
near Lagda Santa, Minas Geraes 4); Argentina, Misiones (Puerto 
Segundo 2, Rio Paranay 2). 

Genus ILICURA Reichenbach. 

Ilicura REICHENBACH, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 63, 1850 type by subs, desig. 
(GRAY, 1855) Pipra militaris SHAW. 

Hicura BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 (=Consp. Voluc. Ani- 
sod., p. 6), 1854 emendation. 

Heilicura SALVIN, Cat. Strickland Coll., p. 320, 1882 emendation. 

Helicura SCLATER Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 311, 1888 emendation. 

Illicura BOUCARD and BERLEPSCH, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 45, 1892 emen- 
dation.. 

*Ilicura militaris (Shaw and N odder). MILITARY MANAKIN. 

Pipra militaris SHAW and NODDER, Natur. Misc., 20, pi. 849, 1808 South 
America, we suggest vicinity of Rio de Janeiro; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. 
Th. Bras., 2, p. 441, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; PELZELN, Reise Novara, 
Zool., I, Vogel, p. 79, 1865 Corcovado, near Rio de Janeiro. 

Pipra rubrifrons VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 19, p. 161, 
1818 "1'Amerique meridionale."* 

Pipra oxyura NORDMANN in ERMAN'S Reise, Naturhist. Atlas, p. 12, pi. 9, 
figs. 1,2, 1835 Brazil. 

Ilicura militaris PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 129, 1868 Rio de Janeiro and 
Capivari (Rio), Ypanema, Sao Paulo; HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 305 
Sao Paulo; PELZELN, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio; 
CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 311, 1888 Rio de Janeiro, "Novo" Friburgo, Santa F6 
(Minas Geraes), and "Rio Claro, Goyaz" [= Sao Paulo ]; IHERING, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 208, 1899 Ypiranga and Iguape', Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 
4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 301, 1907 
Ypiranga, Iporanga, Alto da Serra, and Ubatuba, Sao Paulo; HELLMAYR 
in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 20, pi. 2, fig. 4, 1910 (range); idem, Verh. 

1 Birds from Paraguay appear to be identical with others from Brazil. The 
type of P. ignicapilla is nothing but an individual variant with golden yellow in- 
stead of scarlet cap. 

Twenty-nine specimens from Brazil (Minas Geraes to Rio Grande do Sul), 
Paraguay, and Misiones examined. 

*Pipra melanocephala (not of P. L. S. MULLER, 1776) VIEILLOT (Tabl. Enc. 
M6th., Orn., i, livr. 89, p. 389, 1820 "1'ile de la Trinite"), according to the 
description, resembles /. militaris, but lacks the red frontal patch, while the outer 
webs of the secondaries are rufous ("rousses") instead of olive green. No such 
bird has ever been found on the island of Trinidad or anywhere else, nor does 
the type exist in the Paris Museum. The name is at any rate preoccupied by 

MtJLLER. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 61 

Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 137, 1915 Braco do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito 

Santo. 
Chiroxiphia militaris REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, 

p. 320 Lag6a Santa and Sete Lagdas, Minas Geraes, and Nova Friburgo, 

Rio de Janeiro. 
Itticura militaris BOUCARD and BERLEPSCH, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 45, 

1892 Porto Real, Rio. 

Range: Southeastern Brazil, from Espirito Santo and Minas 
Geraes south to Santa Catharina. 1 
i : Brazil (Sao Paulo i). 

Genus CORAPIPO Bonaparte. 

Corapipo BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 316 (=Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 6 ), 1854 type by monotypy Pipra gutturalis LINNAEUS. 

Coropipo CABAMS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 94, 1859 emendation. 

*Corapipo gutturalis (Linnaeus). WHITE-THROATED MANAKIN. 

Pipra gutturalis LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 340, 1766 based on 
"Le Manakin & gorge blanche" BRISSON, Ornith., 4, p. 444, pi. 36, fig. i, 
1760 "in America," hab. subst. Cayenne (auct. BERLEPSCH, 1908); DES- 
MAREST, Hist. Nat. Tang., Man. et Todiers, pi. 63 (male), 65 (young male), 
1805-6 Cayenne; WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 935 (descr.); SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 300 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merum6 Mts., and Mount Roraima, 
Brit. Guiana; W. SCLATER, I.e., 1887, p. 318 Maccasseema, Brit. Guiana; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 301, 1888 Cayenne, Bartica Grove, 
Merum6 Mts., Camacusa; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 138, 1908 
Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 191, 1910 Surinam. 

Pipra ptrspicUlata, WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 935 based on DESMAREST, Hist. 
Nat. Tang., Man. et Todiers, pi. 65, Cayenne (= young male ). 

Corapipo gutturalis HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 21, 1910 
Cayenne and British Guiana; BEEBE, Trop. Wild Life in Brit. Guiana, I, 
p. 134, 1917 Bartica Grove; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 259, 1921 
British Guiana (numerous localities). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana. 2 

6: British Guiana (Camacusa 3, Caramang River 3). 

*Corapipo leucorrhoa leucorrhoa (Sclater). 3 COLOMBIAN WHITE- 
THROATED MANAKIN. 

'Material examined. Braco do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo i ; Rio de 
Janeiro 3; Capivari, near Rio i; Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos, Rio 10; Rio 
Jprdao, near Araguary, Minas Geraes 3; Ipanema, Sao Paulo 3; Sao Paulo i; 
Blumenau, Santa Catharina i. 

"Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 3. British Guiana: Cama- 
cusa 6, Caramang River 3, Roraima 2. 

'Corapipo I. leucorrhoa (SCLATER) is characterized by the outermost primary 
being reduced to a narrow lanceolate feather, not exceeding 14 to 16 mm. in 



62 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra leucorrhoa SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1863, p. 63, pi. 10, 1863 Bogota 
(type in British Museum examined); BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 305, 
1884 Bucaramanga (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 301, 1888 part, spec, p, q, Bogota; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 2, p. ill, 1890 part, Colombia. 

Corapipo leucorrhoa leucorrhoa HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 21, 1910 Bogota, Bucaramanga, and Primavera, Colombia; RIDGWAY, 
Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 754, 1907 Colombia (char.). 

Corapipo leucorrhoa CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 484, 1917 
El Consuelo and Honda, Magdalena Valley, and San Antonio, Western 
Andes, Colombia. 

Range: Tropical and lower Subtropical Zone of Colombia 
(Bucaramanga, El Consuelo, and Honda, Magdalena Valley; Bogotd; 
San Antonio, near Pavas, La Maria, Dagua Valley, and Primavera, 
Western Andes, dept. Cauca). 

i: Colombia (Bogota i). 

*Corapipo leucorrhoa altera Hellmayr. 1 COSTA RICAN WHITE- 
THROATED MANAKIN. 

Corapipo leucorrhoa altera HELLMAYR, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 16, p. 84, 1906 
part, type from Carrillo, eastern Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 755, 1907 Panama to eastern Nicaragua, excl. Guaitil 
(monogr., full bibliography); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 21, pi. i, fig. 2, 1910 part, Panama, Veragua, Costa Rica, and Nica- 
ragua; idem, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 25, p. 87, 1910 eastern Costa Rica; 
KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 457, 1928 Boquete 
Trail, Panama. 

Pipra leucorrhoa (not of SCLATER) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 Santa 
F6 de Veragua and Tucurriquf, Costa Rica (descr. female); idem, l.c., 
1870, p. 200 part, Calovevora and Laguna de Castillo, Veragua; LAW- 
RENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 116, 1868 part, Cervantes and 

length, while the fifth and sixth primaries form the tip of the wing. I notice some 
variation in the proportions of the third to the sixth primaries in different individ- 
uals, but the series examined is not large enough to ascertain whether this is of 
geographical significance. 

Material examined. Bogota 4; Bucaramanga i; Primavera, Cauca 2; near 
Pavas, Western Andes 4; La Maria, Dagua Valley i. 

1 Corapipo leucorrhoa altera HELLMAYR: Male similar to C. I. leucorrhoa in 
having the posterior border of the white throat patch nearly straight; but under 
parts duller, less glossed with steel-blue; wing-formula very different, the fourth 
primary being longest, and the outermost about half as long as wing, neither 
conspicuously narrowed nor lanceolate. Wing of adult males 58^-60 (eastern 
Costa Rica), 60 (Veraguas), 57-59 (Mount Sapo, Darie"n); tail 31-33 (Costa Rica), 
32 (Veraguas), 27-30 (Dari6n); bill 8-8K- 

Specimens from eastern Panama and Choc6, Colombia are slightly smaller 
than a topotypical series. 

Material examined. Eastern Costa Rica (Carrillo, Cariblanco de Sarapiquf, 
etc.) 12. Veraguas i. Panama: Mount Sapo, Darie"n 4. 






1929. BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 63 

Angostura, Costa Rica; SALVIN, Ibis, 1872, pp. 313, 318 Chontales, Nica- 
ragua; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1878, p. 66 Cervantes and Juan Vinas, 
Costa Rica; ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. C.R., i, p. 118, 1887 part, Naranjo 
de Cartago and Chirripo, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 301, 1888 part, spec, a-m, Chontales, Nicaragua; Angostura, Tucur- 
riquf; Santa F6, Calovevora, Chitra, Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. in, 1890 part, Chontales, Tucurriqui, Angos- 
tura, Laguna de Castillo, Boquete de Chitra, Calvevora, Santa Fe"; CHER- 
RIE, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 536, 1891 Costa Rica (descr. of female 
and young male); UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 439 Miravelles, Costa Rica. 
Corapipo altera altera CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 678, 1910 Carib- 
bean slope and extreme northwestern Pacific slope of Costa Rica (crit.); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 36, p. 485, 1917 Baud6 Mts., Choc6, 
Colombia; BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 215, 
1922 Mount Sapo, DariSn (spec, examined); GRISCOM, I.e., 69, p. 179, 
1929 Cana, Darie"n. 

Range : Eastern Nicaragua ; Caribbean slope and extreme north- 
western Pacific slope of Costa Rica; Veraguas 1 ; Panama; and coast 
district of northwestern Colombia (Baud6 Range, Choco). 

i : Panama (Veraguas i). 

*Corapipo leucorrhoa heteroleuca Hellmayr. 2 PACIFIC WHITE- 
THROATED MANAKIN. 

Corapipo leucorrhoa heteroleuca HELLMAYR, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 25, p. 87, 
March, 1910 Boquete, Chiriquf. 

Corapipo altera albibarbis CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 679, August, 
1910 Guaitil, southwestern Costa Rica (crit., range). 

Pipra leucorrhoa (not of SCLATER) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 
9, p. 116, 1868 part, Guaitil, Costa Rica; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, 
p. 200 part, Volcan de Chiriquf and Bugaba; ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 part, Pozo Azul de Pirris and Guaitil, Costa 
Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 301, 1888 part, spec. n,o, Bugaba 
and southern slope of Volcan de Chiriquf; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. in, 1890 part, Guaitil (Costa Rica), Chiriquf 
and Bugaba (Panama); CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. en Costa Rica, 1890 91, 
p. 36, 1893 Palmar and Boruca; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, 
p. 40, 1902 Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Corapipo leucorrhoa altera (not of HELLMAYR) RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 755, 1907 part, Guaitil, Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 

'Mr. L. Griscom (in litt.) states that this form is the only one found in 
Veraguas, ranging as far west as Cerro Flores in extreme eastern Chiriqui. 

t Corapipo leucorrhoa heteroleuca HELLMAYR: Agreeing with C. I. altera in 
shape of wing, but adult male easily distinguished by the different form of the 
white throat patch, the posterior border of which is deeply indented medially 
towards the chin, giving the impression of an inverted V. Wing 58-62; tail 31-34; 
bill 8-9. 

Material examined. Southwestern Costa Rica (Boruca, Guayabo, Pozo Azul 
de Pirris, etc.) 14. Panama: Boquete 4, Chiriquf 5. 



64 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

24, p. 303, 1907 Boruca and Paso Real, Costa Rica; FERRY, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica. 

Range: Southwestern Costa Rica and adjacent section of 
Panama (Bugaba, Boquete, Volcan de Chiriqui, western Chiriqui). 

7: Costa Rica (Boruca 3, Guayabo i); Panama (Boquete i, 
Chiriqui 2). 

Genus MANACUS Brisson. 

Manacus BRISSON, Orn., 4, p. 442, 1760 type by tautonomy "Manacus" 
BRISSON = Pipra manacus LINNAEUS. 

Chiromachaeris CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 235, 1847 type by 
monotypy Pipra manacus LINNAEUS. 

*Manacus manacus trinitatis (Hartert). 1 TRINIDAD MANAKIN. 

Chiromachaeris manacus trinitatis HARTERT, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 29, p. 63, 
1912 Chaguaramas, Trinidad. 

Pipra gutturalis (not of LINNAEUS) LEOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 253, 1866 
Trinidad. 

Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) TAYLOR, Ibis, 1864, 
p. 87 Trinidad; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, 
spec, f-h, Trinidad. 

Manacus manacus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 6, p. 45, 1894 Princes- 
town, Trinidad; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., i, p. 190, 1906 
Aripo, Trinidad. 

Manacus manacus manacus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., I, p. 34, 1899 
part, Trinidad; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., i, p. 364, 
1908 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; (?) BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), I, p. 
94, 1909 north of Guanoco, Orinoco delta, Venezuela. 

Chiromachaeris manacus manacus HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 27, 1906 
Caparo, Laventille, Valencia, and Chaguaramas, Trinidad; idem in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 22, 1910 part, Trinidad. 

Range: Island of Trinidad, and possibly the delta of the Ori- 
noco in northeastern Venezuela. 

3: Trinidad (Port of Spain i, unspecified 2). 

l Manacus manacus trinitatis (HARTERT): Very similar to M. m. manacus, 
but averaging larger, with heavier (though not always longer) bill, and under 
parts whiter, only the flanks, thighs, and under tail coverts being pale gray, the 
latter more extensively tipped with white; female distinguishable only by larger 
bill and slightly greater dimensions. Wing (adult male) 54-55, rarely 52 or 53; 
tail 32-35, once 31; bill 11-12. 

This form I have seen only from Trinidad where it is widely distributed. 
It is, however, possible that birds from the Orinoco delta belong likewise to this 
race. Unfortunately, the specimens secured by Beebe at Guanoco cannot be 
found. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Caparo 24, Laventille 2, Chaguaramas I, 
Aripo 3, Port of Spain i. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 65 

*Manacus manacus manacus (Linnaeus'). WHITE-BEARDED MAN- 
AKIN. 

Pipra manacus LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 340, 1766 based on 
EDWARDS (Glean. Nat. Hist., i, p. 107, pi. 260, sup. fig., Surinam) and 
BRISSON (Orn., 4, p. 442, 1760, Cayenne, excl. syn. MARCGRAVE and hab. 
"Brasilia"), we accept Surinam as type locality; SCHOMBURGK, Reisen 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 490, 1848 Sand hills of the Demerara River. 

Pipra melanocephala P. L. S. MULLER, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 177, 1776 
evidently based on DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 303, fig. i, Cayenne. 

Manacus edwardsi BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, p. 171, 1850 based on ED- 
WARDS, pi. 260, sup. fig., Surinam, and DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 302, fig. i. 1 

Manacus gutturosus (not Pipra gutturosa DESMAREST) BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. 
Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 37, 1857 Cayenne. 

Chiromachaeris manacus CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
696, 1848 Demerara River; SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 252, 
1862 Cayenne; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 130, 1868 part, Barra do 
Rio Negro [= Manaos] (spec, examined); SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 301 
Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, spec, a-e, British Guiana, Cayenne, Bartica 
Grove, and Camacusa; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 
1904 Saint-Georges d'Oyapock, French Guiana; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 
15, pp. 138, 318, 1908 Cayenne, Roche-Marie, Ipousin, R. Approuague, 
Saint-Georges d'Oyapock, Maroni, French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 369, 1914 Monte Alegre, Obidos, and Rio Jamunda (Faro), 
Brazil; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 261, 1921 numerous localities. 

Chiromachaeris gutturosa(us) (errore) Goeldi, Ibis, 1897, p. 153 Counany, 
Brazil; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 Maroni, 
French Guiana. 

Manacus manacus manacus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, i, p. 34, 1899 
part, Guianas; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 73, 
1918 Paramaribo, Lelydorp, Rijsdijkweg, Surinam. 

Chiromachaeris manacus manacus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 22, 1910 part, Guianas and northern Brazil; BEEBE, Trop. Wild Life, 
i, p. 134, 1917 Bartica Grove. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
south to the north bank of the lower Amazon, west to Mandos. 2 
2: British Guiana (Hyde Park, Demerara River 2). 

^aubenton's "Manakin du Bre'sil" (pi. 302, fig. i) is clearly a copy of Ed- 
wards's "Black-capped Manakin" (pi. 260, upper figure), with a wrongly assigned 
habitat. 

*Birds from the north bank of the Amazon (Monte Alegre, Manaos) agree 
perfectly with a series from French and Dutch Guiana. Adult males from various 
localities in British Guiana appear to me likewise indistinguishable, showing the 
characteristic short wing tip, the grayish suffusion on breast and belly, as well as 
the black mottling in the white nuchal collar and postocular region. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 7, Saint Jean du Maroni I, 
Roche-Marie 10, Approuague 3. Dutch Guiana: near Paramaribo 5, "Surinam" 
3. British Guiana: Bartica Grove 2, Mazaruni River i, Demerara River 5. 
Brazil: Monte Alegre i, Manaos 2. 



66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Manacus manacus purus Bangs. 1 LOWER-AMAZONIAN MANAKIN. 

Manacus manacus purus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., I, p. 36, 1899 
Santare"m, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 
Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 31, 90, 1912 Marco da Legua, Para (Para 
localities); REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 166, 
1925 Miritiba, Maranhao; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 
1928 Rio Guama, Rio Muraiteua, Para. 

Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) SCLATER and SAL- 
VIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 130, 
1868 part, Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, examined); LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 
384 Para; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, spec, j, k, 
Para; Goeldi, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Capim River; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 
55, p. 289, 1907 Para, Santo Antonio, Capim River. 

Manacus manacus RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Diamantina, 
near Santare"m; REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, 
p. loo, 1910 Maranhao. 

Chiromachaeris manacus purus HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 363, 1906 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Marco da Legua, and Magoary, Para (crit.); 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 310, 1910 range in part, Borba to Maranhao; idem in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, pi. i, fig. i, 1910 part, Maranhao to 
lower Madeira; IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 302, 1907 Santare"m; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 370, 1914 Para, Providencia, 
Ananindeua, Benevides, Santa Izabel, Quati-puni, Santo Antonio do Prata, 
Rio Capim (Araproaga), Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Baiao, Arumatheua), 
Tamacury, and Rio Tapaj6z (Boim); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 92, 
1916 Utinga, Para; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 
6, p. 63, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 335, 1929 Maranhao. 

Chiromachaeris gutturosus (not Pipra gutturosa DESMAREST) IHERING, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 302, 1907 part, Maioba, Maranhao. 

Range: Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from northern 
Maranhao west to the lower Rio Madeira (Borba). 2 

9: Brazil, Para (Utinga 2); Maranhao (Tury-assu 4, Rosario 3). 

1 Manacus manacus purus BANGS: Differs in the male sex from M. m. mana- 
cus by reason of much longer wing tip (8 to 12 instead of 4 to 6J^ mm.); wider 
white nuchal band, without any black mottling; less black on the back; more 
extensive slate gray uropygial area; pure white middle of the abdomen and under 
tail coverts. 

Birds from Maranhao are identical with those from the Para region. Three 
adult males from Borba, lower Rio Madeira, show a certain tendency towards 
the characters of M. m. subpurus on the under parts, but by their slightly shorter 
wing tip (7 to 8 mm.) and grayish-tinged under tail coverts they diverge in the 
direction of M . m. manacus. 

Material examined. Maranhao: Miritiba 7, Tury-assu 4, Rosario 3. Para: 
Para 5, Marco da Legua 3, Magoary (E.F.B.) 2, Santo Antonio do Prata 9. 
Amazonas: Borba, lower Madeira 3. 

2 While this was passing through the press, Mr. TODD (Proc. Bipl. Soc. Wash., 
41, p. in, 1928) has separated the birds of the Para region (Benevides) as M. m. 
purissimus, basing the distinction on the more extensively white upper back and 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 6j 

Manacus manacus subpurus Cherrie and Reichenberger. 1 MATTO 

GROSSO MANAKIN. 
Manacus manacus subpurus CHERRIE and REICHENBERGER, Amer. Mus. 

Novit., 58, p. 4, 1923 Tapirapoan, Siputuba River, Matto Grosso (type 

examined). 
Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 

2, p. 130, 1868 part, Engenho do Gama and Sao Vicente, Matto Grosso 

(spec, examined). 
Chiromachaeris manacus purus (not of BANGS) HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 

309, 1910 part, Calama, Jamarysinho and Santa Izabel, Rio Preto, Rio 

Madeira (crit.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 1910 part, 

Rio Madeira to Matto Grosso. 

Range: Central Brazil, in northern Matto Grosso, extending 
along the Rio Madeira as far north as the junction of the Rio Ma- 
chados. 

Manacus manacus interior Chapman? UPPER AMAZONIAN MANAKIN. 

Manacus manacus interior CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 624, 
1914 Villa vicencio, eastern Colombia (type) and Maripa, lower Caura, 
Venezuela (spec, examined); idem, I.e., 36, p. 486, 1917 Villa vicencio; 
CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 249, 1916 Maipures, Rio 
Orinoco, and Maripa, Caura, Venezuela; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 55, p. 535, 1926 Zamora, Rio Suno, and below San Jos6, Ecuador. 

Chiromachaeris gutturosa (not Pipra gutturosa DESMAREST) SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 22, p. 114, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador. 

correspondingly reduced black area above. The specimens from Borba, men- 
tioned above, no doubt belong to M. m. purus, as defined by Mr. TODD. The 
range of the latter form would thus seem to be restricted to western Lower Am- 
azonia, extending from the Tapaj6z to the lower Rio Madeira, while birds from 
east of the Tocantins should be called M. m. purissimus 

1 Manacus manacus subpurus CHERRIE and REICHENBERGER: Closely similar 
to M. m. purus, but black dorsal area much more extensive; gray uropygial zone 
consequently more restricted, also darker in tone; flanks more strongly washed 
with darker gray. Wing (adult male) 51-53; tail 29-31 ; bill 9-9^- 

Material examined. Matto Grosso: Tapirapoan, Siputuba River (the type) 
i; Mutum Cavallo r; Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore' 2; Sao Vicente i. Rio 
Madeira: Calama i, Santa Izabel 3, Jamarysinho i. 

1 Manacus manacus interior CHAPMAN: In the male sex somewhat intermedi- 
ate between M. m. manacus and M. m. abditivus, combining, as it does, the loose, 
soft "chin-beard" and immaculate white nuchal collar of the former with the gray 
abdomen of the latter ; differing, however, from both by reason of somewhat larger 
size and much longer wing tip (9 to n, instead of 4 to 6 % mm.), while the belly 
is even more uniform and darker gray than in abditivus. Wing (male) 52-55; tail 

31-34- 

Birds from eastern Colombia, the Napo region, and a single male from Iqui- 
tos, Peru, agree very well together. Two from the Caura Valley are likewise 
wholly typical of this race, while one from Barcellos, Rio Negro, by its less grayish 
abdomen and slightly mottled postocular region, forms the transition to M. m. 
manacus. 

Material examined. Colombia: Villayicencio (including the type) 2, "Bo- 
gota" 9. Ecuador: Rio Napo 4, Gualaquiza i. Peru: Iquitos I. Venezuela, 
Caura Valley: La Uni6n I, Maripa 2. Brazil: Barcellos, Rio Negro i. 



68 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Manacus edwardsi (not of BONAPARTE) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 151, 
1855 Bogota. 

Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 
2, p. 130, 1868 part, Barcellos, Rio Negro (spec, examined); SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 567 Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 751 Chya- 
vetas; p. 978 Pebas; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 283 Nauta, Chyavetas, Pebas, 
Peru; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas; idem, Orn. Per., 2, 
p. 349, 1884 Nauta, Pebas, Chyavetas, Balza- Puerto, Yurimaguas, Peru; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, spec. i,l,q,r, Pebas, 
Sarayacu, "Bogota"; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, 
No. 362, p. 15, 1899 part, Gualaquiza and Zamora, Ecuador; BER- 
LEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 53, 1902 Maipures, Rfo Orinoco, 
and La Uni6n, Caura, Venezuela (spec, examined). 

Manacus manacus ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 73, 1889 Rfo Napo; 
MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Geog. Arme"e Mes. Arc MeYid. Equat., 9, p. B6i, 
1911 part, eastern Ecuador. 

Manacus manacus manacus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., i, p. 34, 1899 
part, Pebas, Peru. 

Chiromachaeris manacus manacus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 22, 1910 part, Orinoco region to eastern Ecuador and south to Pebas, 
Peru. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from the eastern slope of the Andes 
in Colombia through eastern Ecuador to northern Peru, east to the 
Caura Valley, Venezuela, and the upper stretches of the Rio Negro, 
northwestern Brazil (Barcellos). 

*Manacus manacus abditivus Bangs. 1 SANTA MARTA MANAKIN. 

Manacus manacus abditivus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, I, p. 35, 1899 
Santa Marta, Colombia; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 155, 
1900 Bonda, Minca, Cacagualito, Donama [ =Don Amo], Masinga Vieja, 
and Jordan, Santa Marta region; idem, I.e., 21, p. 287, 1905 Don Diego 
(nest and eggs descr.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 485, 1917 
Puerto Valdivia, Medellm, and Malena, lower Magdalena, Colombia; 
TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 336, 1922 Minca, 
Buritaca, Don Diego, Mamatoco, La Tigrera, Agua Dulce, Las Vegas, 
Loma Larga, Chirua, San Miguel, La Concepci6n, and Fundacion, Santa 
Marta region. 

Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 517 Remedies and Neche; SALVIN and GODMAN, 

1 Manacus manacus abditivus BANGS: Nearest to M. m. manacus and wing tip 
hardly longer (6 to 8 mm.), but easily distinguished by more elongated as well as 
more rigid "chin-beard," darker gray abdomen, and by lacking the black mottling 
on postocular region and nuchal collar. Wing (adult male) 51-54; tail 28-32. 

Two males from Remedies have the white areas of the plumage very faintly 
tinged with yellowish, suggesting intergradation with M. m. flaveolus, the form 
found in the upper Magdalena Valley. 

Material examined. Colombia, Santa Marta region: Masinga Vieja I, Don 
Amo I, Minca 5, Bonda 3; Remedies, lower Cauca 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 69 

Ibis, 1880, p. 169 Minca, Santa Marta region; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, spec, s-u, Remedies, Minca. 
Manacus manacus BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 137, 1898 Santa 

Marta. 
Chiromachaeris manacus abditivus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 

p. 23, 1910 part, Santa Marta. 

Range : Northern Colombia, from the Santa Marta region south 
to the lower Cauca (Puerto Valdivia, Medellin) and lower Magda- 
lena River (Malena). 

i: Colombia (Santa Marta i). 

*Manacus manacus flaveolus Cassin. 1 YELLOWISH MANAKIN. 

Manacus flaveolus CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1851, p. 349 Bogota; 

SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 151, 1855 Bogota. 
Pipra flavitincta SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 20, "1852," p. 34, pi. 48, pub. Dec., 

1853 Santa Fe de Bogotd. 
Chiromachaeris flaveola BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 305, 1884 Bucara- 

manga (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 315, 1888 

Bogota, Bucaramanga; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 

23, 1910 Bogota and Bucaramanga. 
Manacus manacus abditivus (not of BANGS) STONE, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad., 1899, p. 306 Honda. 
Manacus manacus flaveolus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 486, 

1917 Honda and Chicoral, upper Magdalena Valley (spec, examined). 

Range : Arid Tropical Zone of the upper Magdalena Valley, in 
eastern Colombia. 

2: Colombia (Bogota 2). 

Manacus manacus bangs! Chapman? BANGS'S MANAKIN. 

1 Manacus manacus flaveolus CASSIN: Nearest to M. m. abditivus, but the 
white portions of the plumage tinged with pale yellowish; rump slate olive instead 
of slate gray; abdomen olive gray. Wing (adult male) 49-53; tail 27-31. 

The wing tip in this race is somewhat longer than in M. m. abditivus, thus 
more like the Pacific forms. Males from Bogota and Chicoral (near Girardot) are 
strongly tinged with yellow (about naphthalene or sulphur yellow), and have the 
"chin-beard" hardly more developed than in M. m. manacus, while those from 
Honda in the latter respect resemble M. m. abditivus, which they also approach 
in their less yellowish coloring. 

Material examined. Bogota 14; Bucaramanga i; Chicoral, Coello River, 
Tolima 4; Honda i; within twenty miles of Honda 5. 

*Manacus manacus bangsi CHAPMAN: Very similar to M. m. leucochlamys, 
but posterior under parts darker gray, this color sharply defined against the white 
chest, and "chin- beard" less elongated; female much darker green underneath 
than the neighboring races, and in coloration much like M. m. gutturosus, from 
which it is, of course, easily distinguished by its much shorter tail, narrower, less 
falcate outer primaries, and rather longer wing tip. Wing (adult male) 52-53; 
tail 25^-27- 

This race differs from M. m. abditivus, in the male sex, by shorter tail, more 
pointed wing, and much darker gray, strongly defined abdominal area, while in 



70 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Manacus manacus bangsi CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 625, 
1914 Barbacoas, Narino, Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 486, 1917 Bar- 
bacoas. 

Range: Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast of southwestern 
Colombia (Barbacoas, state of Narino). 

*Manacus manacus leucochlamys Chapman. 1 WEST ECUADORIAN 

MANAKIN. 

Manacus manacus leucochlamys CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 
626, 1914 Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem I.e., 55, p. 535, 1926 Esmeraldas, 
Manavi, and Bucay. 

Manacus manacus maximus CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 7, 1924 
Alamor, prov. Loja, southwestern Ecuador; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
55. P- 535. X 9 2 6 Naranjo, Bucay, Chimbo, Rios Chimbo and Coco, Rio 
Jubones, La Chonta, Santa Rosa, and Alamor. 

Chiromachaeris manacus (not Pipra manacus LINNAEUS) SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 28, p. 89, 1860 Nanegal; p. 279 Babahoyo; p. 296 Esmeraldas; 
BERLEPSCH and TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1883, p. 559 Chimbo; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 313, 1888 part, spec, m-p, Santa Rita, Nanegal, 
Ecuador; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 488, 1898 Paramba, Cachavf, 
Chimbo; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 
!5> J 899 part, Rfo Peripa; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 709 "Archidona," 
errore, = western Ecuador. 

Manacus manacus manacus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., i, p. 34, 1899 
part, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

Manacus manacus MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Armee Mes. Arc MeYid. 
Equat., 9, p. B6i, 1911 part, Gualea. 

the development of the gular feathers it is intermediate between M. m. abditivus 
and M. m. leucochlamys. The deep slate gray belly reminds one of M. m. gut- 
turosus, from which it can easily be told, however, by much shorter tail, nar- 
rower, less falcate outer primaries, and longer wing tip (fully 10 mm. long). 
Material examined. Colombia: Barbacoas, Narino 5. 

1 Manacus manacus leucochlamys CHAPMAN: Male similar to M. m. interior, 
but with shorter tail; white nuchal collar wider; black dorsal area more restricted; 
slate gray of upper tail coverts spreading all over the rump ; posterior under parts 
on average more whitish; wing tip and "chin- beard" as in M. m. interior. 

Further subdivision of the west-Ecuadorian race seems to me impracticable, 
though males from Chimbo and southwards are as a rule somewhat whiter be- 
neath, certain specimens recalling M. m. trinitatis. I do not find any constant 
difference in dimensions between skins from the north and south, although it 
must be admitted that two from Alamor have the wings one or two millimeters 
longer than any other example seen by me. 

Length of wing (adult males). Prov. Esmeraldas (San Javier, Paramba, 
etc.) 51-55 (twelve); Gualea 53-55 (three); Bucay 52-54 (four); Chimbo 53-55 
(three); Ana Maria, Quevedo, prov. Guayas 54; Alamor, prov. Loja, 56, 57 (two). 

An interesting individual variant, secured by G. Flemming at Paramba, on 
January 8, 1900, together with normally colored males of leucochlamys, is pre- 
served in the collection of the Tring Museum. This bird has the white areas of 
the plumage even more strongly tinged with yellowish than flaveolus, while rump, 
upper tail coverts and abdomen are light olive green. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador (Esmeraldas to Alamor) 40. 



IQ29- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 71 

Chiromachaeris manacus abditivus (not of BANGS) HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, 
Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 1910 part, western Ecuador. 

Ranges: Western Ecuador, from Esmeraldas south to the 
province of Loja. 

2 : Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo, prov. Guayas i ; Pambilar, prov. 
Esmeraldas i). 

*Manacus manacus gutturosus (Desmarest). DESMAREST'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra gutturosa DESMAREST, Hist. Nat. Tang., Manakins et Todiers, livr. 
6, pi. 58, 1806 no locality specified. 

Pipra manacus (not of LINNAEUS) WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), p. 432, 
1831 southeastern Brazil; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 
446, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; EULER, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 89, 1867 
(nest and eggs descr.). 

Chiromachaeris gutturosa(us) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 130, 1868 Rio de 
Janeiro, Sapitiba, Registo do Sai, and Ypanema, Sao Paulo; REINHARDT, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 455 Lagda Santa and Sete 
Lagdas, Minas Geraes; HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 305 Sao Paulo; CABA- 
NIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; PELZELN, Nunq. 
Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
*4. P- 3 I 3 1888 Bahia, "Novo" Friburgo, "Rio Claro, Goyaz," Sao Paulo, 
Brazil; BOUCARD and BERLEPSCH, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 45, 1892 
Porto Real, Rio; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 209, 1899 Sao Sebastiao, 
Iguape\ Piquete, and Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 
Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 302, 
1907 part, Jaboticabal, Cachoeira, Piquete, Sao Sebastiao, Iguape', Rio 
Feio, Avanhandava, Barretos, and Ubatuba (Sao Paulo), Ourinho (Parana), 
Marianna (Minas Geraes), and Porto Cachoeiro (Espirito Santo); LIMA, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 Ilhe"os to Belmonte, Bahia; PINTO 
PEIXOTO, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 262, 1924 Monte 
Serrat, Itatiaya; HOLT, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 57, p. 309, 1928 near 
Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 

Chiromachaeris manacus gutturosus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 
9, p. 23, 1910 Bahia to Sao Paulo. 

Manacus manacus gutturosus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool., i, p. 36, 1899 
southeastern Brazil; DABBENE, Bol. Soc. Physis, i, p. 435, 1914 Santa 
Ana, Misiones BERTONI, El Hornero, i, p. 257, 1919 Puerto Bertoni, 
Paraguay. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Bahia to 
Parana, and adjacent parts of eastern Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni) 
and northeastern Argentina (Misiones). 1 

9: Brazil (Bahia i; Santo Amaro, Bahia 7; Rio de Janeiro i). 

'In addition to our own, the following specimens have been examined: Bahia 
9; Victoria, Espirito Santo 2; Rio de Janeiro (Sapitiba, Rio) 5; Sao Paulo (various 
localities) 16. 



72 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 
Manacus vitellinus vitellinus (Gould}. GOULD'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra vitellina GOULD, P.Z.S.Lond., II, p. 103, Dec., 1843 Panama; idem 
in HINDS, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, Birds, p. 41, pi. 21, 1843 Panama; 
LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 69, 1847 Panama. 

Chiroxiphia vitellina LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 
Lion Hill, Panama Railroad. 

Chiromachaeris vitellina(us) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 
362 Lion Hill, Panama; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 315, 1888 
part, spec, a-k, "Nicaragua," "Veragua," Paraiso Station, Panama; SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 114, 1890 "Veraguas," Lion 
Hill, Obispo, and Paraiso Station, Panama; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 6, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Dari6n; 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 1910 part, Panama. 

Manacus vitellina(us) BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 22, 1900 
Loma del Le6n, Panama; THAYER and BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
46, p. 217, 1906 Sabana de Panama; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 732, 1907 Panama and adjacent parts of Colombia; STONE, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 70, p. 268, 1918 Gatun, Panama (nest and 
eggs descr.); HALLINAN, Auk, 41, p. 318, 1924 Rio Algarroba, Gorgona, 
Rio Velasquez, and Corozal, Panama. 

Manacus vitellinus vitellinus BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 214, 1922 Rio Esnape and Jesusito, Darie'n. 

Range: Eastern Panama, from the Panama Railroad east to 
Darie'n. 1 

* Manacus vitellinus viridiventris Griscom* GREEN-BELLIED 

MANAKIN. 

Manacus vitellinus viridiventris GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 179, 

1929 "Jiminez" [=Jim6nez], above Buenaventura, Pacific Colombia 

(type), and Cana, extreme eastern Panama. 
Chiromachaeris vitellina (us) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 517 

part, Cauca; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 315, 1888 part, spec. 

1, m, Cauca; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 1910 part, 

'Its occurence in western Panama (Veraguas) requires confirmation. 
Material examined. Panama: near Panama City 9; Panama Railroad 2; 
Loma del Le6n 9; Esnape i, Jesusito, Dari6n 5. 

* Manacus vitellinus viridiventris GRISCOM: Very similar to M. v. vitellinus, but 
male with breast and abdomen more solidly and darker green, near Warbler green; 
female above decidedly darker (between warbler green and olive green), and under 
parts more uniform warbler green, without pyrite yellow suffusion along the middle 
of the belly. Wing 53-55, (female) 54-56; tail 28-30; bill 10. 

I do not find any constant difference in the color of the yellow portions of the 
plumage between vitellinus and viridiventris, though a few males of the latter 
slightly diverge in the direction of M. v. milleri. 

According to Griscom (I.e.), specimens from Cana (upper Tuyra, Darie'n), 
while intermediate, are nearer to the present form than to typical vitellinus. 

Material examined. Colombia: Noanamd 6, N6vita 4, San Jos6 I, Buena- 
ventura, Choc6 I ; Florida, Cauca I ; Cauca Seca 2 ; Rio Frio, Cauca, I ; Rio Lima, 
Cauca i. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 73 

western Colombia; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1141 Noanama and 
N6vita, Choco, Colombia. 

Manacus vitellinus vitellinus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 36, p. 487, 
1917 Alto Bonito, Dabeiba, Rfo Sucio, Quibd6 (Rfo Atrato), Juntas de 
Tamana, N6vita, Noanama, Buenaventura, San Jos, Los Cisneros 
(Choc6), Rio Frio, Guengu6, and Cauca Seca (upper Cauca), Colombia. 

Range: Western Colombia (Pacific coast and upper Cauca 
Valley) and north to extreme eastern Darien (Cana, upper Tuyra 
River). 

2: Colombia (San Jose" i, Buenaventura i). 

Manacus vitellinus milleri Chapman. 1 MILLER'S MANAKIN. 

Manacus vitellinus milleri CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 34, p. 645, 
1915 Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca; idem, I.e., 36, p. 487, 1917 Puerto 
Valdivia. 

Chiromachaeris ritellina (not Pipra viteUina GOULD) SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 517, pi. 42, fig. 10 (egg) part, Remedies. 

Range: Northern Colombia, in the lower Cauca Valley and 
adjacent districts (Remedies, Rio Ite"). 

*Manacus aurantiacus (Salvin). 2 SALVIN'S MANAKIN. 

Chiromachaeris aurantiaca SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 200 Mina de 
Chorcha and Bugaba, Chiriqui, Panama; ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Las Trojas, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 316, 1888 Bugaba, Mina de Chorcha, Chiriqui, and Veragua; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. 115, pi. 41, figs, I, 
2, 1890 Bugaba, Mina de Chorcha; CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. en Costa Rica, 
1890-91, p. 26, 1893 Palmar, Lagarto, Boruca, Terraba, and Buenos 
Aires, Costa Rica; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 1910 
Chiriqui and Costa Rica. 

1 Manacus vitellinus milleri CHAPMAN: Differs from M. v. vitellinus, in the 
male sex, by reason of much paler, lemon chrome (instead of between light cad- 
mium and cadmium yellow) throat and foreneck, deepening into empire yellow or 
light cadmium on auriculars, sides of neck, and nuchal collar, and much lighter, 
pale olive yellow rather than pyrite yellow or warbler green abdomen, while the 
females are merely somewhat paler greenish on the anterior lower parts. Wing 
5 2 -53. (female) 53-56; tail 27-30. 

It is rather singular that this well-marked race lives side by side with M. 
manacus abditivus, although the intermediate nature of its characters would seem 
to favor the theory that M. manacus and M. vitellinus are subspecifically related, 
inasmuch as representatives of the two groups otherwise replace each other 
geographically. The problem of their relationship is one of unusual interest and 
may have some bearing on the origin of specific units. 

Material examined. Colombia: Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca 7. 

^Manacus aurantiacus (SALVIN) almost certainly is merely a northern repre- 
sentative of M. vitellinus, but more information about the distribution of the 
two "species" in southern Central America (western Panama) is needed before 
the use of trinomials seems advisable. 



74 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Manacus aurantiaca(us) BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 365, 1901 Divala, Panama; 
RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 734, 1907 western Panama 
and Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Boruca, El Pozo, Paso 
Real, and Lagarto de Te'rraba, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 683, 1910 southwestern Costa Rica (nest and eggs descr.). 

Range: Southwestern Costa Rica (north to Las Trojas) and 
western Panama (Chiriqui and Veraguas). 1 

6: Costa Rica (Buenos Aires i, Boruca 3, Te'rraba 2). 

*Manacus cerritus Peters. 2 ALMIRANTE MANAKIN. 

Manacus cerritus PETERS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 10, p. 9, 1927 Almirante 
Bay, northwestern Panama. 

Range: Caribbean slope of northwestern Panama (Almirante 
Bay). 

i: Panama (Changuinola i). 

*Manacus candei (Parzudaki). CANDE'S MANAKIN. 

Pipra candei PARZUDAKI, Rev. Zool., 4, p. 306, 1841 Truxillo, Honduras; 
idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, pi. 45, 1843 Truxillo. 

Manacus candei SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, p. 299, pi. 121, 1856 C6rdoba, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico; SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., i, p. 558, 
1869 Vera Cruz; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 730, 
1907 southeastern Mexico to Costa Rica (monog., full bibliography); 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 684, 1910 northern portion of 
Caribbean Costa Rica (habits); PETERS, Auk, 30, p. 375, 1913 Xcopen 
and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 23, 
1919 San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua. 

Manacus candaei SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, i, p. 124, 1859 Honduras, 
Guatemala (Lake Pete"n), and Mexico (C6rdoba, Vera Cruz); RICHMOND, 
Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 509, 1893 Rfo Escondido, Nicaragua (hab- 
its); DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 101, 1907 
Puerto Barrios, Guatemala. 

Chiromachaeris candaei SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 314, 1888 
Honduras, Guatemala, British Honduras, Costa Rica; SALVIN and GOD- 
MAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 114, 1890 Mexico to Costa Rica. 

'Although Sclater records both M. vitellinus and M. aurantiacus from "Vera- 
gua (Arc6)," Mr. Ludlow Griscom (in litt.) found only the latter form in the 
lowland forests throughout that province. 

1 Manacus cerritus PETERS: Adult male nearest to M. v. vitellinus, but breast and 
abdomen mainly lemon chrome, though slightly shaded with greenish, especially 
on flanks and under tail coverts; median upper wing coverts pale yellow at base 
instead of uniform black; yellow nuchal collar wider and black dorsal area corres- 
pondingly less extensive; wing slightly longer. Wing 54-56; tail 35; bill 9. 

By the yellow belly, lesser amount of black on the back, and partly yellow 
median upper wing coverts, this form approaches M. aurantiacus, but agrees with 
M. vitellinus in the deep black wings and tail without greenish edges and in the 
cadmium yellow instead of orange color of the nuchal collar, sides of head, throat, 
and chest. Like M . aurantiacus, it is probably a geographical race of M. vitellinus. 

Material examined. Panama: Changuinola i. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 75 

Chiromachaeris candei HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 23, 

1910 eastern Mexico to Costa Rica. 
Manacus candei electilis BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 106, 1903 

Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico (in states of Vera Cruz, Tabasco, 
and Chiapas, and territory of Quintana Roo) , south through Guate- 
mala, British Honduras, Honduras, and Nicaragua to northeastern 
Costa Rica. 

7: Guatemala (Puerto Barrios i, unspecified 2); Nicaragua 
(San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua 4). 

Manacus coronatus (Boucard). 1 BOUCARD'S MANAKIN. 

Chiromachaeris coronata BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 178, pi. 17 Colom- 
bia = Bogota (type in Paris Museum examined) ; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 316, 1888 Bogota; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 
9, p. 23, 1910 Bogota. 

Range: Colombia (Bogota). 

Genus NEOPIPO Sclater and Salvin. 

Neopipo SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1869, p. 438 type by orig. desig. 
Neopipo rubicunda SCLATER and SALVIN = Pipra cinnamomea LAWRENCE. 

Neopipo cinnamomea cinnamomea (Lawrence). CINNAMON MANAKIN. 
Pipra ? cinnamomea LAWRENCE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, p. 429 
"Upper Amazon." 

1 Manacus coronatus (BOUCARD): Crown glossy black; forehead, cheeks, 
orbital region, auriculars, and nuchal collar lemon yellow (about the same shade 
as the abdomen of M. candei); back, wings and tail glossy black; chin white, 
slightly tinged with yellowish; throat and foreneck dull black, the whitish bases 
of the feathers showing through in the middle of the lower throat and suggesting 
an irregular pale patch; remainder of under parts dark gray, indistinctly flam- 
mulated with whitish. Bill horn brown, whitish below. Wing 57; tail 28; bill 10. 

The type, a skin of the well-known Bogota "make," is still unique in the 
Paris Museum. In structural characters, this singular bird stands somewhat 
between Pipra and Manacus. There is but a faint suggestion of the "beard," 
so conspicuous a feature in Manacus, the feathers of the chin being hardly more 
elongated than in Pipra erythrocephala. The outer primaries are neither so broad 
and straight as in Pipra nor strongly attenuated and incurved as in Manacus, 
but merely show a distinct sinuation along the inner web, while the tip is very 
slightly bent inwards. The wing is longer than in Manacus, but the tail about 
the same proportion. The bill is larger, particularly when viewed from below, 
than in Manacus, and its color, especially the pale lower mandible, also reminds 
one of Pipra. The gray uropygium, save for a few edges, is replaced by the black 
of the back, which is very nearly as strongly glossed with metallic blue as in 
Pipra erythrocephala, instead of being opaque (dull) as in Manacus. The markings 
of breast and abdomen give an abnormal impression. The feathers have a dingy 
white mesial stripe laterally margined with dark gray, these edges forming in 
places a kind of ill-defined streaking. I have little doubt this supposed species is 
nothing but a hybrid between Manacus manacus (subsp.) and one of the yellow- 
headed varieties of Pipra erythrocephala. 



76 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Neopipo rubicunda SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1869, p. 438, pi. 30, 
fig. 3 Chamicuros, Peru (type examined). 

Neopipo cinnamomea SCLATER and SALVIN, P. Z. S. Lond., 1873, p. 283 
Xeberos and Chamicuros, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. PeY., 2, p. 346, 1884 
same localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 303, 1888 part, 
spec, a-e, Chamicuros, Peru and Sarayacu, Ecuador; HELLMAYR, Nov. 
Zool., 14, p. 361, 1907; I.e., 17, p. 308, 1910 Humaytha, Rio Madeira; 
idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 24, 1910 part, eastern Ecuador, 
Peru, and western Brazil; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 536, 
1926 Rfo Suno, Ecuador. 

Neopipo cinnamomea cinnamomea HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 20, p. 247, 1913 
(range, characters); idem, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 65, 1920 
Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, Peru. 

Range : Upper Amazonia, from eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu, Rio 
Suno) and eastern Peru (Chamicuros, Xeberos [=Jeveros], dept. 
Loreto; Yahuarmayo, Carabaya, dept. Puno) east to western Brazil 
(Humaytha, left bank of the Rio Madeira). 1 

Neopipo cinnamomea helenae McConnell.* HELENA'S MANAKIN. 

Neopipo helenae McCoNNELL, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 27, p. 105, 1911 Ituri- 
bisce, British Guiana (type examined); CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 262, pi. 4, fig. i, 1921 Ituribisi and Makauria Rivers. 

Neopipo cinnamomea (not of LAWRENCE) SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 301 Cama- 
cusa, Brit. Guiana (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 303, 1888 part, spec. f,g, Camacusa; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 138, 
1908 Ipousin, Approuague River, French Guiana (spec, examined); 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 24, 1910 part, "Cayenne" 
and British Guiana. 

Neopipo cinnamomea helenae HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 20, pp. 246, 247, 1913 
British and French Guiana (char., crit.). 

Range: French and British Guiana. 

'Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu I. Peru: Chamicuros 3, Yahuar- 
mayo I. Brazil: Humaythd, Rio Madeira I. 

1 Neopipo cinnamomea helenae McCoNNELL : Very close to N. c. cinnamomea, 
but upper back duller, less cinnamomeous, with a grayish cast; lores grayish white 
instead of buff; sides of head pale grayish olive, not deep buff; under parts on 
average paler. Wing 50-52; tail 36-38; bill 7-8. 

Three adult males have a large yellow crown patch, tipped with olive gray, 
while in the single female examined there is but a small cinnamon vertical spot to 
be seen. I have little doubt that the same sexual difference obtains in typical 
cinnamomea, although no female examples have been available for comparison. 
The coloration of the lower parts is not diagnostic. A male from Ipousin has the 
throat paler buffy than any other specimen seen (though by no means grayish 
white), but the type and another from Camacusa do not differ in this respect 
from typical cinnamomea. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Ipousin, Approuague River i. British 
Guiana: Ituribisce River (type) i, Camacusa 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 77 

Genus MASSORNIS Oberholser. 

Schiffornis (not of BONAPARTE, 1854) DES MURS in CASTELNAU, Expect. Am6r. 
Sud, Ois., livr. 18, p. 66 June, 1856 type by monotypy Schiffornis major 
DES MURS. 

Massornis OBERHOLSER, Auk, 37, p. 455, 1920 type by orig. desig. Schiffornis 
major DES MURS. 

Massornis major (Des Murs). 1 GREATER MANAKIN. 

Schiffornis major DES MuRS 1 in CASTELNAU, Expe"d. Amei. Sud, Ois., livr. 18, 
p. 66, pi. 18, fig. 2, June, 1856 Sarayacu, Peru (type in Paris Museum 
examined); HARTLAUB, Journ. Orn., 5, p. 47, 1857 (German translation 
of original description); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 190 
Nauta, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 284 Nauta; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, 
p. 352, 1884 Sarayacu and Nauta; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 323, 1888 "Oyapoc, Cayenne," Nauta and Samiria, Peru; IHERING, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 Rio Jurua (spec, examined); idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 304, 1907 Rio Jurua; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, 
p. 12, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 139, 
1908 "Oyapoc, Cayenne" (ex SCLATER); HELLMAYR, I.e., 14, p. 362, 1907 
Borba, Rio Madeira (crit.); idem, I.e., 17, p. 310, 1910 Calama, Santa 
Izabel (Rio Preto), Jamarysinho (Rio Machados), Rio Madeira; idem in 
WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 25, 1910 Amazonia; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 371, 1914 Bom Lugar, Rio Purus. 

Hcteropelma rufum PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 124, 185, Sept., 1868 Borba, 
Rio Madeira, and Rio Amajau, Rio Negro (spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined). 

Schiffornis rufa SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 323, 1888 Rio Amajau; 
SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 1913 lower Jamunda; idem, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 371, 1914 Rio Jamunda, Faro. 

Range: Northern Brazil, on both sides of the lower Amazon, 
east to the Tapajoz (Santare'm) and Jamundd (Faro), north to the 
Rio Negro, south to the Rio Machados; and eastern Peru (Nauta, 
Samiria; Sarayacu, lower Ucayali).* 



supposed two species are merely individual variants, both gray-capped 
and rufous-capped specimens, together with every possible intermediate stage, 
being found on the Rio Amajau, Rio Madeira, at Santare'm, along the Rio 
SolimSes, and in eastern Peru. 

Material examined. Brazil: Santare'm 4; Rio Amajau (Rio Negro) 4; Rio 
Madeira, Borba 3, Calama 2; Santa Izabel, Rio Preto I ; Jamarysinho, Rio Macha- 
dos i; Rio Jurud I; Fonte B6a, Rio Solimoes 3. Peru: Sarayacu (the type) I, 
Nauta i, Samiria 2. 

^Schiffornis major BONAPARTE (Ateneo Italiano, a, No. n, p. 314, 1854; 
Consp. Voluc. Anisod., p. 4, 1854) is a nomen nudum. 

J The locality "Oyapoc, Cayenne" is open to doubt. 



78 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Genus SCHIFFORNIS Bonaparte. 

Schiffornis BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 314 (=Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 4), 1854 type virtually by monotypy Muscicapa turdina 
WIED.I 

Heteropelma (not of WESMAEL, 1840) BONAPARTE, I.e., p. 314 ( =Consp. Voluc. 
Anisod., p. 4), 1854 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, 1855, p. 56) "Pipra 
unicolor MENETR." = Heteropelma unicolor BONAPARTE. 

Scoiothorus OBERHOLSER, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 208 new name 
for Heteropelma BONAPARTE nee WESMAEL. 

Schiffornis virescens (Lafresnaye) . GREENISH MANAKIN. 

Muscicapa virescens (not of TEMMINCK, 1824) WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, 
(2), p. 802, 1831 Arrayal da Conquista, southern Bahia. 

Ptil[oMoris] virescens LAFRESNAYE, 2 Rev. Zool., i, p. 238, 1838 type from 
"Bre"sil" (= Rio de Janeiro), coll. DELALANDE, in Paris Museum examined. 

Heteropelma unicolor BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 314 ( =Consp. 
Voluc. Anisod., p. 4), 1854 new name for Ptilochloris virescens LA- 
FRESNAYE. 

Muscicapa viridis PUCHERAN,* Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, livr. 3, p. 370, 
1855 tv P e fr m "Bresil," coll. A. DE SAINT-HILAIRE, in Paris Museum 
examined. 

Pipra morenoana BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, No. i, p. 104, 1901 
Djaguarasapa, Paraguay. 

Heteropelma virescens SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 467, 1860 southeastern 
Brazil; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 124, Sept., 1868 Ypanemd, Sao Paulo 
and Curytiba, Parand; idem, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 90, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; BERLEPSCH 
and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 139, 1885 Taquara and LinhaPiraja, 
Rio Grande do Sul; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 321, 1888 Brazil; 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 237, 1889 Arrayal da Conquista, 
Bahia (note on Wied's type) ; IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 127, 1899 [Taquara do] Mundo Novo; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 210, 1899 Iguap6, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo 
and Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Scotothorus unicolor OBERHOLSER, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, pp. 208, 
209 (nomencl.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 303, 1907 
Campos do Jordao, Ubatuba, Alto da Serra, Jundiahy, Itatiba, ItararS, 
Itapura, Iguap6, and Sao Paulo, Est. Sao Paulo; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, 

^ee OBERHOLSER, Auk, 45, p. 454, 1920. 

^Ptilochloris virescens being independently described as a new species, there is 
no reason for rejecting the specific name, which is by no means affected by the 
earlier Muscicapa virescens TEMMINCK. The case would be quite different if 
Lafresnaye had merely transferred Muscicapa virescens WIED to the genus 
Ptilochloris. 

'Muscicapa viridis LESSON (Trait6 d'Orn., p. 384, 1831 Bresil, coll. SAINT- 
HILAIRE) is a nomen nudum. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 79 

Gen. Av., Pait 9, p. 27, pi. i, fig. 7, 1910 Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul; 
CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 601 Sapucay, Paraguay; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 313, 1910 Alto Parand, Paraguay; 
BERTONI, Fauna Parag., p. 58, 1913 Alto Parana; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 178, 1926 Cara Pintada, Vermelho, Therezina, 
Candido de Abreu, and Salto Guayra, Parana; HOLT, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 57, p. 309, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from extreme 
southern Bahia (Cidade da Conquista) south to Rio Grande do Sul, 
and Paraguay. 1 

Schiffornis turdinus turdinus (Wied)* THRUSH-LIKE MANAKIN. 

Muscicapa turdina WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 817, 1831 eastern 
Brazil (the type, now in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, is from Bahia). 

Muscicapa rufo-olivacea LAFRESNAYE, Mag. Zool., 3, cl. 2, text to pi. 13 [p. 3], 
1833 no locality given. 

Ptilochloris rufo-olivaceus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., i, p. 238, 1838; idem, l.c., 
10, p. 185, 1847 Brazil. 

Heteropelma turdinum SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 467, 1860 southeastern 
Brazil; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 124, 1868 "Brazil" = Bahia (spec, in 
Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 319, 1888 
Bahia; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 236, 1889 Bahia (note 
on Wied's type). 

Scotothorus turdinus IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 302, 1907 
Bahia. 

Scotothorus turdinus turdinus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 
26, 1910 Bahia. 

Scotothorus turdinus amazonum (not of SCLATER) LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, 
(2), p. 100, 1920 Ilhe'os to Belmonte, southern Bahia. 

Range: Eastern Brazil, in the southern section of the state of 
Bahia (exact limits unknown). 

Schiffornis turdinus wallacii (Sclater and Salvin). 3 WALLACE'S 
MANAKIN. 



species of which fifteen specimens from Minas Geraes (Sao Francisco) 
to Rio Grande do Sul have been examined is perhaps subspecifically related to 
the S. turdinus group, but until we acquire a better knowledge of their ranges it 
is impossible to say whether S. virescens and 5. /. turdinus, both recorded from 
Bahia, live side by side or inhabit different areas. 

*This is the largest form of the genus, the wing ranging from 96 to 102 mm., 
with strong, heavy bill. In coloration, it is nearest to S. t. amazonus, but paler 
below, with a slight brownish tinge on throat and foreneck. 

Five trade skins from Bahia examined. 

^Schiffornis turdinus wallacii (SCLATER and SALVIN): Very close to 5. /. 
amazonus, but upper parts more greenish, with very little, if any, rufescent tinge 



8o FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Heteropelma wallacii SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 579 Pard 
(type in British Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
319, pi. 20, 1888 part, spec, a, Pard; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 196, 1910 Surinam; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 1907 Para. 

Heteropelma surinamensis PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 197, 
1910 Surinam. 

Scotothorus amazonum wallacii HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 363, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Pard; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 139, 320, 1908 
Oyapock and Saint Jean du Maroni, French Guiana; BANGS and PENARD, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 73, 1918 Paramaribo, Surinam. 

Scotothorus turdinus wallacii HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 311, 1910 Para 
district, Saint Jean du Maroni (French Guiana), and near Paramaribo, 
Surinam (char., crit.); idem in WYTSMAN, Gen Av., Part 9, p. 26, 1910 
Para; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 90, 
1912 Para and Santo Antonio, Para; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
80, p. 168, 1928 Pard. 

Scotothorus turdinus olivaceus (not of RIDGWAY) HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. 
Av., Part 9, p. 26, 1910 part, Cayenne. 

Scotothorus wallacii SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 370, 1914 Para, 
Providencia, Ananindeua, Rio Tocantins (Alcobaga), Rio Xingu (Vic- 
toria), Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Rio Jamunda (Faro); 
idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Tury-assu, 
Maranhao. 

Range: Northern Brazil, on the lower Amazon, from northern 
Maranhao west to the Xingu and Jamunda rivers, north to French 
and Dutch Guiana. 

Schiffornis turdinus olivaceus (Ridgway). 1 OLIVACEOUS MANAKIN. 

Scotothorus olivaceus RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 118, 1906 
Rfo Mato, Caura, Venezuela; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 264, 
1921 British Guiana (numerous localities). 

Heteropelma amazonum ? (not of SCLATER) SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 301 Bartica 
Grove, Camacusa, Carimang River, and Roraima, British Guiana (spec, 
examined). 

on the crown; ventral surface paler, more grayish olive; the throat but slightly, 
if at all, shaded with brownish. 

Two specimens from French and Dutch Guiana appear to agree with topo- 
types. 

Material examined. Brazil: Para (the type) i, Santo Antonio do Prata, 
Pard 5. French Guiana: Saint Jean du Maroni i. Dutch Guiana: near Para- 
maribo (authentic specimen of H. surinamensis) I. 

^Schiffornis turdinus olivaceus (RIDGWAY): Somewhat intermediate between 
S. t. wallacii and S. t. amazonus; differing from the former by more brownish olive 
back, and much more brownish throat and f oreneck ; from the latter by slightly 
paler back, less cinnamomeous pileum, and more grayish (less olivaceous) belly. 

Material examined. Venezuela: La Pricion, Caura i; Nicare, Caura i; Rfo 
Yurudn (Carnegie Museum, No. 33866) i. British Guiana: Caramang River i, 
Bartica Grove I, Camacusa 3, Roraima I, unspecified 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 81 

Heteropelma wallacii (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., 14, p. 319, 1888 part, spec, b-j, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Roraima. 
Scotothorus wallacei BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 54, 1902 

Nicare and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela (spec, examined). 
Scotothorus turdinus olivaceus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av. f Part 9, p. 

26, 1910 part, eastern Venezuela (Caura district) and British Guiana; 

idem, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 311, 1910 Caura Valley, Venezuela, and British 

Guiana; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 249, 1916 Caura 

Valley. 
Heteropelma flavigula PENARD and PENARD, 1 Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 196, 1910 

British Guiana. 

Range: Eastern Venezuela (Mato River, La Pricion and Nicare, 
Caura River; Rio Yurudn) and British Guiana. 

*Schiffornis turdinus amazonus (Sclater). AMAZONIAN MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma amazonum SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 466, 1860 Chamicuros, 
Rk> Huallaga, Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 125, 1868 Marabitanas, 
Rio Xie", Borba, Villa Maria and Engenho do Gama, Brazil (spec, in 
Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 
186 Cosnipata, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas; 
idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 350, 1884 Yurimaguas; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 320, 1888 part, spec, b-d, f-j, Sarayacu (Ecuador), Chami- 
curos, River Ucayali, and Cosnipata (Peru); BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 368 La Gloria, Vitoc. Peru. 

Schiffornis turdinus intercedens TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 113, 
1928 Hyutanahan, Rio Punis, Brazil. 

Heteropelma wallacii (not of SCLATER and SALVIN, 1867) SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 283 Chamicuros; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, p. 539 
Soriano, Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 351, 1884 Soriano and Chamicuros, 
Peru. 

Scotothorus amazonum BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 54, 1902 
Nericagua and Munduapo, upper Orinoco, Venezuela (spec, examined) ; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 371, 1914 Bom Lugar, Rio Punis. 

Scotothorus amazonum amazonum HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 361, 1907 
Humaytha, Rio Madeira. 

Scotothorus turdinus amazonum HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 26, 1910 (range); idem, Nov. Zool., 17, pp. 310, 311, 1910 Calama, 
Allianca, Borba, Rio Madeira and Maroins, Rio Machados (crit., range); 
CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., a, p. 249, 1916 Munduapo and 
Nericagua, Orinoco River. 

Scotothorus turdinus amazonus SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 12, 1908 
Bom Lugar, Rio Punis; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 537, 
1926 Zamora, Sabanilla, lower Sumaco, Macas, San Jose', and below San 
Jos6, Ecuador. 



on a single specimen in the Georgetown Museum, no doubt an indi- 
vidual variant, with scattered yellowish feathers on pileum and throat. 



82 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from the upper stretches of the Ori- 
noco in Venezuela (Munduapo, Nericagua) and eastern Ecuador 
through eastern Peru and western Brazil south to the Urubamba 
Valley and western Matto Grosso, east to the Rio Negro and Rio 
Madeira. 1 

i: Peru (Huachipa, dept. Hudnuco i). 

Schiffornis turdinus steinbachi Todd* STEINBACH'S MANAKIN. 

Schiffornis turdinus steinbachi TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 41, p. 113, 1928 

Rio Yapacani, Provence del Sara, Bolivia. 
Scotothorus amazonum (not of SCLATER) BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, Ornis, 

13, p. 114, 1906 Chontapunco and Rio Cadena, Marcapata, Peru. 
Schiffornis turdinus amazonum HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 

65, 1920 Chaquimayo, Carabaya, Peru. 

Range: Northern Bolivia and extreme southeastern Peru 
(Marcapata Valley and northern slope of Sierra de Carabaya, 
dept. Puno). 

Schiffornis turdinus rosenbergi (Hartert). 3 ROSENBERG'S MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma rosenbergi HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 489, 1898 Cachabi, prov. 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum examined) ; SALVADORI and 
FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 Rio Peripa. 



from eastern Ecuador, Venezuela, and the upper Rio Negro (Marabi- 
tanas, Rio Xi) agree well together, being brownish olive above, with the crown 
more or less rufescent, while the under parts are decidedly olivaceous, washed 
with brownish on throat and foreneck. Specimens from the Rio Madeira and its 
headwaters in Matto Grosso are as a rule more olive, less brownish on the dorsal 
surface, and somewhat paler, more grayish olive on the belly. Apart from certain 
individuals, which closely approach 5. t. wallacii, they appear to be inseparable 
from Peruvian skins. If the present race requires subdivision, it is the birds from 
north of the Maran6n that should be separated. By naming S. t. intercedens, Mr. 
Todd, it seems to me, has merely redescribed typical amazonus. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Munduapo 2; Nericagua i. Ecuador: 
Sarayacu 2. Brazil: Rio Xi6 i; Marabitanas, Rio Negro 5; Rio Madeira, Borba 
5, Calama 2, Allianca i, Humaytha 4; Maroins, Rio Machados 2; Villa Maria 
[=Sao Luiz de Caceres] i, Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore", Matto Grosso I. 
Peru: Chamicuros, i; Huachipa I. 

1 Schiffornis turdinus steinbachi TODD: Closely similar to S. t. amazonus, but 
brown of the throat and chest deeper, more strongly contrasted with the rest of 
the lower parts, which are more greenish (olive) than in amazonus ; upper parts 
slightly less brownish. 

Material examined. Bolivia, Yungas of Cochabamba: Rio San Mateo 3, 
Juntas i. Peru: Chaquimayo, Carabaya I. 

^Schiffornis turdinus rosenbergi (HARTERT) : Closely similar to S. t. amazonus, 
but on average smaller; upper and under parts more uniform as well as more 
greenish olive; the rufescent tinge on the crown barely suggested; the throat but 
faintly shaded with brownish; outer aspect of the wings less rufous. Wing 85-88; 
tail 63-68; bill 13-14- 

Material examined. Ecuador: Cachavi (the type) i, Rio Verde 2, Lita I, 
Paramba l, Cachyjacu I, Mindo I, Chimbo I ; La Puente, prov. del Oro I ; Alamor, 
prov. Loja I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 83 

Heteropelma wattacii (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1877, P- 33 2 Palmar, near Santa Rosa, prov. del Oro, Ecuador. 

Heteropelma amazonum (not of SCLATER, 1860) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 320, 1888 part, spec, e, Balzar. 

Scotothorus turdinus rosenbergi HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 
26, 1910 western Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 
487, 1917 Choc6, above N6vita, and Barbacoas, Colombia; idem, I.e., 
55, p. 537, 1926 Esmeraldas, Mindo, Chimbo, La Puente, and Alamor, 
Ecuador. 

Range: Western Ecuador and western Colombia (north to 
Choc6). 

Schiffornis turdinus stenorhynchus (Sdater and Salvin). 1 SLENDER- 
BILLED MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma stenorhynchum SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1868, pp. 628, 
632, pub. April, 1869 San Esteban, Venezuela (type in British Museum 
examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 320, 1888 San Esteban; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 116, 1890 part, 
Venezuela. 

Heteropelma amazonum (not of SCLATER) WYATT, Ibis, 1871, p. 334 Naranjo, 
west of Bucaramanga, Colombia. 

Heteropelma verae-pacis (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) ALLEN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 13, p. 155, 1900 Bonda and Cacagualito, Santa Marta region. 

Scotothorus turdinus stenorhynchus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 27, 1910 part, Venezuela and Colombia; idem and SEILERN, Arch. 
Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 87, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, 
Venezuela; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 488, 1917 El Con- 
suelo, above Honda, Magdalena Valley, Colombia (spec, examined). 

Scotothorus amazonus stenorhynchus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
4, p. 762, 1907 part, Colombia and western Venezuela. 

Schiffornis amazonus stenorhynchus TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
J 4> P- 333. 1 9 22 Bonda, Las Vegas, Don Diego, Pueblo Viejo, and Tucu- 
rinca, Santa Marta region, Colombia, 

l Schiffornis turdinus stenorhynchus (SCLATER and SALVIN): Allied to S. t. 
amazonus, but larger, with slenderer and paler (horn brown rather than blackish) 
bill; upper parts much more brownish (Dresden brown to Saccardo's umber), 
pileum more strongly tinged with rufescent; breast and abdomen much paler 
grayish olive. From 5. t. verae-pacis it may be distinguished by larger size, slenderer 
bill; much more brownish upper surface, with Brussels brown pileum; much paler 
and grayer (grayish olive instead of citrine drab or buffy olive)lower parts, and 
by having the throat and chest more decidedly tinged with tawny olive or cin- 
namomeous. Wing 90-97, (female) 89-92; tail 64-72, (female) 63-64; bill 14-15. 

Certain specimens, in size, closely approach S. t. turdinus. 

Material examined. Venezuela: San Esteban (the types) 2, Cumbre de 
Valencia, Carabobo i ; El Hacha, Bolivar Railroad, Lara i ; Lagunita de Aroa, 
Lara 2 ; Azulita, Merida I. Colombia, Santa Marta region: Bonda 2, Las Vegas 
4, Don Diego 2, Pueblo Viejo I, Tucurinca i; El Consuelo, above Honda, Mag- 
dalena Valley I. 



84 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Northern Venezuela (in states of Carabobo, Lara, and 
MeYida) and eastern Colombia (Santa Marta region; Magdalena 
Valley, south to El Consuelo, above Honda). 

Schiffornis turdinus panamensis subsp. nov. 1 PANAMA MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma verapacis (not H. verae-pacis SCLATER and SALVIN) LAWRENCE, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 463, 1862 Panama (spec, examined). 

Heteropelma verae-pacis SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1883, p. 424 Panama; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 320, 1888 part, spec, r, Panama. 

Heteropelma stenorhynchum (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) SALVIN and GOD- 
MAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 116, 1890 part, Panama. 

Scotothorus amazonus stenorhynchus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
4, p. 762, 1907 part, Frijole Station and Panama City, Panama. 

Scotothorus turdinus stenorhynchus HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 27, 1910 part, Panama; BANGS and BARBOUR Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, P- 215, 1922 Mount Sapo, Rio Esnape, and Jesusito, Darie"n (spec. 
examined). 

Range: Lower Tropical Zone of eastern Panama from the 
Canal Zone east to the Rio Sambu. 

Schiffornis turdinus furvus (Ridgway). 2 SWARTY MANAKIN. 

Scotothorus furvus RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 118, 1906 Boquete 
de Chitra, Veraguas, Panama; idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
761, 1907 "Pacific slope of western Panama." 

l Schiffornis turdinus panamensis subsp. nov. 

Type from El Real, Rio Tuyra, eastern Panama, in American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. No. 135027. Adult female. December 29, 1914. 
W. B. Richardson. 

Characters. Most nearly related to S. turdinus stenorhynchus and about the 
same size, but immediately recognizable by its much more saturated coloration; 
upper parts much darker and more rufescent (Brussels brown to raw umber 
instead of Dresden brown to Saccardo's umber), the edges to the wings deeper, 
more auburn, and the crown more rufous (cinnamon brown to Argus brown rather 
than Brussels brown); throat and chest much darker, buckthorn or antique 
brown rather than tawny olive; breast and abdomen slightly more olivaceous; 
bill as a rule stouter. Wing 90-96, (female) 85-92 ; tail 64-72, (female) 60-65; bill 



Remarks. Although heretofore united with 5. /. stenorhynchus, of north- 
western South America, this form proves to be easily separable by its much 
darker coloring, the deep tawny brown throat and chest, strongly contrasting 
with the olivaceous abdomen, being the most striking feature. Three specimens 
from the Panama Railroad, collected by McLeannan, agree precisely with a series 
from Darie'n. 

Material examined. Panama: Panama Railroad 3; El Real, Rio Tuyra 7, 
Tapalisa (400 ft.) I, Chepigana I ; Mount Sapo 3, Rio Esnape I, Jesusito, Darin i. 

^Schiffornis turdinus furvus (RIDGWAY): Nearest to S. t. verae-pacis, but 
somewhat darker, more tawny olive above, with the crown slightly more rufes- 
cent; under parts likewise deeper, throat and foreneck more strongly tinged with 
brownish. In coloration not unlike S. t. rosenbergi, but much larger, with heavier, 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 85 

Heteropelma verae pacis (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1870, p. 200 part, Castillo and Calovevora, Veragua; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 320, 1888 part, spec, l-o, Calovevora, Veragua; SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 116, 1890 part, Chitra, 
Castillo, and Calovevora, Veragua. 

Scotothorus turdinus furous HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 26, 
191 o Veragua. 

Range: Western Panama (Veraguas, except coastal forests of 
Pacific slope), extending east to the upper Tropical Zone of Mount 
Tacarcuna, in eastern Panama. 

*Schiffornis turdinus verae-pacis (Sclater and Salvin). BROWN 
MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma verae-pacis SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 300, 1860 
Choctum, Vera Paz, Guatemala; SCLATER, I.e., p. 467 Guatemala; 
SALVIN, I.e., 1870, p. 200 part, Bugaba and Volcan de Chiriqui; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 320, 1888 part, spec, a-k, p, q, Choctum, Vera 
Paz, Yzabel, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Volcan de Chiriquf, and Bugaba; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 116, 1890 part, 
southern Mexico to Chiriqui (excl. Veraguan localities). 

Scotothorus verae-pacis verae-pacis RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, 
p. 758, 1907 southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, western and central 
Honduras (monog., full bibliography). 

Scotothorus verae-pacis DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Cm. Sen, 
i, p. 101, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
22, p. 32, 1909 Costa Rica (crit.); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, 
p. 677, 1910 Costa Rica (numerous localities, habits, crit.). 

Scotothorus verae pacis dumicola BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 103, 
1903 Divala, Chiriqui (type examined); idem, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 
El Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 759, 1907 coast of British Honduras to Panama. 

stronger bill; crown, throat, and chest as a rule more rufescent. Wing 90-95, 
(female) 86-90; tail 68-75, (female) 62-67; bill 14-16. 

In the light of the splendid series supplied by the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, this race proves to be much less distinct from 5. t. verae-pacis, of 
Central America, than was supposed by its describer who based his diagnosis 
upon a single example. Ten skins obtained by H. E. Anthony, D. S. Ball, and 
W. B. Richardson in the upper Tropical Zone of Mount Tacarcuna, eastern 
Panama, at altitudes of from 3600 to 4600 feet, are evidently inseparable from a 
topo-typical Veraguan series, though averaging slightly larger. They are, however, 
very different from 5. t. panamensis, which Richardson secured on the Rio Tuyra 
and even at Tapalisa (400 ft.), on the lower slopes of Mount Tacarcuna, because 
of much larger, blacker bill and decidedly greenish olive (not brownish) coloration. 
The upper parts vary between dark citrine and medal bronze, with the crown 
hardly more reddish than the back, and the wing edgings are duller, Prput's brown 
rather than auburn, while the ventral surface ranges from dull citrine to dark 
citrine, with a slight olive tawny or medal bronze tinge on the anterior parts. 

Material examined. Panama, Veraguas: Santa Fe" (1600 to 2200 ft.) 4, 
Guaval, Rio Calovevora 7; Mount Tacarcuna (3600 to 4600 ft.), Daridn 10. 



86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Scotothorus turdinus verae-pacis HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 
p. 26, 1910 Guatemala to Chiriquf. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, in state of Vera Cruz (Playa 
Vicente), and southwards through Guatemala, British Honduras, 
Honduras, and Costa Rica to western Panama (including the coastal 
forests of western Veraguas). 1 

4: Guatemala (Vera Paz i, Los Amates, Izabal i); Costa Rica 
(Tuis i, Boruca i). 

Genus SAPAYOA Hartert. 2 

Sapayoa HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 10, p. 117, 1903 type by orig. desig. Sapayoa 
aenigma HARTERT. 

*Sapayoa aenigma Hartert. 3 ENIGMA MANAKIN. 

Sapayoa aenigma HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 10, p. 117, 1903 Rfo Sapayo, prov. 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum examined; = female); 
HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 28, pi. i, figs. 5, 8, 1910 
Rio Sapayo; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1141 Novita and Noanama, 
Choc6, Pacific Colombia (descr. of adult male and young) ; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 488, 1917 Baud6, Noanama, and Barbacoas, 
Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 538, 1926 (range); BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 215, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darie"n; GRISCOM, 1. c., 
69, p. 1 80, 1929 Cana Darie"n. 

Range : Tropical Zone of the Pacific coast from eastern Panama 
(Mount Sapo and Cana, Daridn) to northwestern Ecuador (Prov. 
Esmeraldas). 

i: Panama (Mount Sapo i). 

1 There is so much individual variation within the same locality that the dis- 
crimination of more than one form in Central America seems impracticable. Birds 
from the coastal forests of western Veraguas very slightly approach 5. /. furvus. 

Material examined. Guatemala (Choctum, Los Amates) 4; Manatee Lagoon, 
British Honduras 5; San Pedro Sula, Honduras 3; Costa Rica 17; Divala, Chiri- 
quf (including the type of S. v. dumicola) 2; Cerro Montosa, Veraguas 3; Wilcox 
Camp, San Lorenzo River, Veraguas 3. 

*Sapayoa HARTERT. 

Superficially resembling Schiffornis, but easily distinguished by much wider, 
more depressed, distinctly uncinate bill, with more numerous, stronger as well as 
more rigid rictal bristles; circular, entirely exposed nostrils; much shorter, slen- 
derer tarsus, with its upper half feathered, etc. 

'Sapayoa aenigma HARTERT: General coloration light olive green, more 
yellowish green underneath; wings and tail dusky, exteriorly edged with color of 
back; adult male with a large, semiconcealed yellow crown patch. Wing 81-82, 
(female) 79-82; tail 61-66, (female) 59; bill 15. 

Material examined. Panama: Mount Sapo 4. Colombia: N6vita, Rio 
Tamana I, Noanama, Rfo San Juan, Choc6 3. Ecuador: Rfo Sapayo, prov. 
Esmeraldas (the type) i. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 87 

Genus NEOPELMA Sclater. 

Neopelma SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 467, 1860 type by monotypy Mus- 
cicapa aurifrons WIED. 

Neopelma aurifrons (Wied). WIED'S MANAKIN. 

Muscicapa aurifrons WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 829, 1831 "Cam- 
amu, southern Bahia" (type in American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, examined). 

Muscicapa brevipes WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 831, 1831 south- 
eastern Brazil (type in American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
examined; =juv.). 

Muscicapa luteocephala (not of LESSON, 1830) LAFRESNAYE, Mag. Zool., 3, 
cl. 2, pi. 13, 1833 no locality given (the type examined in the Paris 
Museum is from Minas Geraes, coll. A. de Saint-Hilaire) ; HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 327, 1906 (crit.). 

Euscarthmus aurifrons BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 489, 1856 
"Bahia" (ex WIED). 

Heteropelma aurifrons SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 467, 1860 part, Brazil; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 125, 1868 Ypanema, Sao Paulo (spec, 
examined); idem, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Neopelma aurifrons SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 323, 1888 Brazil; 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 237, 1889 (crit. notes on Wied's 
types); IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 210, 1899 Santo Amaro and 
Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 304, 1907 Alto da Serra, 
Itatiba, and Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., 
Part 9, p. 28, pi. i, fig. 9, 1910 southeastern Brazil; HOLT, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 57, p. 309, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Sao Paulo 
north to Rio de Janeiro, southern Minas Geraes, and (according to 
Wied) even to southern Bahia (Camamu, south of Bahia City). 1 

J The type of M. luteocephala LAFR. agrees with specimens from Rio and Sao 
Paulo. I am not so certain, however, that M. aurifrons of Wied is quite the same. 
The original example courteously lent by Dr. F. M. Chapman has slightly longer 
wings, a much larger bill, and the upper part of the head distinctly tinged with 
grayish, which I never noticed in southern specimens. The type of M. brevipes 
is a very young bird, with undeveloped bill, partly in the downy juvenile plumage, 
without trace of the yellow vertical patch, as has already been pointed out by the 
late J. A. Allen, and judging from the grayish forehead, I should unhesitatingly 
refer it to the same form as the type of M. aurifrons. 

Thirteen specimens (Minas, Rio, Sao Paulo) measure as follows: wing 65-68, 
(female) 62-64; tail 58-60, (female) 55-57; bill 10. 

Type of M. aurifrons Wied: wing 70; tail 56; bill 1 1. 

Material examined. Bahia: Camamu (type of M. aurifrons) i. Minas 
Geraes (type of M. luteocephala) I. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo I. Sao 
Paulo: Ipanema 9, Victoria 2. "Brazil" (type of M. brevipes) i. 



88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Neopelma sulphureiventer (Hellmayr). 1 SULPHUR-BELLIED MAN- 
AKIN. 

Scotothorus sulphureiventer HELLMAYR, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges., 53, pp. 202, 
203, 1903 [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso (type )and San 
Mateo, Bolivia. 

Heteropelma chrysocephalum PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 125, 185, 1868 
part, descr. of supposed jun. and hab. Matto Grosso (spec, examined); 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 322, 1888 Matto Grosso; HELLMAYR 
in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 27, 1910 Matto Grosso and northern 
Bolivia. 

Range: Southwestern Brazil, in western Matto Grosso (Villa 
Bella de Matto Grosso), and northern Bolivia (Rio San Mateo; 
Todos Santos, Rio Chapare"). 

4: Bolivia (Todos Santos, Rio Chapare' 4). 

*Neopelma chrysocephalum (Pelzeln).* ORANGE-CRESTED MANAKIN. 

Heteropelma chrysocephalum PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 125, 185, 1868 part, 
descr. of adult and hab. San Carlos, Rio Guainia, Venezuela (type), 
Marabitanas, Rio Negro, and Rio Iganna, Brazil (spec, examined). 

Heteropelma igniceps SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1871, p. 750, pub. March, 1872 
Oyapoc, "Cayenne"; idem, I.e., 1881, p. 214 Essequibo and Corentyne 
River, common on the "Rupumini" [=Rupununi] Savannahs, British 
Guiana; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 301 Camacusa and Roraima; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 322, pi. 22, 1888 Oyapoc, Essequibo, Camacusa. 

Elaenea aurifrons (not Muscicapa aurifrons WIED) CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 701, 1848 British Guiana. 

Scotothorus chrysocephalus HELLMAYR, Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges., 53, pp. 202, 
203, 1903 (char., syn., range); BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 321, 1908 
(nomencl.); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 27, pi. i, fig. 3, 
1910 "Cayenne," British Guiana, and upper Rio Negro. 

Scotothorus igniceps BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 139, 1908 Oyapoc, 
French Guiana. 

1 Neopelma sulphureiventer (HELLMAYR): Nearly allied to N. aurifrons, and 
crown patch of the same lemon chrome shade, but somewhat larger, with much 
stronger feet and bill; upper mandible blackish instead of horn color; under parts 
much paler and less greenish, being sulphur yellow, tinged with pale grayish 
olive on throat and chest. Wing 70-74, (female) 66-69; tail 57-61, (female) 54- 
57; bill 11-12^- 

Material examined. Brazil, Matto Grosso: Villa Bella de Matto Grosso 3. 
Bolivia: Todos Santos, Rfo Chapare' 4, Rio San Mateo I . 

* Neopelma chrysocephalum (PELZELN) : Nearly related to N. sulphureiventer, 
but with shorter tail; crown patch much larger and darker, deep cadmium yellow 
instead of lemon chrome; lateral portions of crown shaded with dark ashy; throat 
and foreneck paler, more grayish white. Wing (adult males) 67-72; tail 49-54; 
bill II-I2K- 

Material examined. British Guiana: Camacusa I, Rfo Rupununi 9, un- 
specified i. Venezuela: San Carlos, Rio Guainia (the type )i. Brazil: Rio 
Iganna [=Rio Isana] r, Marabitanas, Rio Negro i. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 89 

Ncopelma chrysocephalum BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 73, 1918 Lelydorp, Surinam. 

Neopelma chrysocephala CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 265, 1921 British 
Guiana (numerous localities). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil 
(Rio Iganna [=Rio Isana] and Marabitanas, upper Rio Negro), 
and extreme southern Venezuela (San Carlos, Rio Guainia). 

5: British Guiana (Rio Rupununi 4, unspecified i). 

*Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye). 1 YELLOW-CRESTED MANAKIN. 

Tyrannula pallescens LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 57, 1853 
Bahia. 

Heteropelma flavicapillum SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 466, 1860 south- 
eastern Brazil; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 125, 1868 Nas Lages and Rio 
das Pedras (Sao Paulo), Goyaz, and Engenho do Cap. Gama, Matto 
Grosso (spec, examined); REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 321 Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 321, pi. 21, 1888 Bahia and "Rio," Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 5, p. 109, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Heteropelma chrysocephalum (lapsu) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 125, 1868 
part, Sao Vicente, Matto Grosso (spec, examined). 

Scotothorus pallescens HELLMAYR, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges., 53, pp. 202, 203, 
204, 1903 (char., crit., range); IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 303, 1907 
Bahia (range); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 27, 1910 
(range); REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 76, 
1910; p. 166, 1925 Cachoeira, Rio Parnahyba, Maranhao, and Sao 
Martin, Piauhy (spec, examined); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
371, 1914 Serra de Paituna [Monte Alegre) and Maranhao (spec, ex- 
amined). 

Neopelma pallescens HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 55, 1908 Goyaz, Rio 
Thesouras, and Rio Araguaya, Goyaz; idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 335, 1929 Rosario, Miritiba, and Tranqueira, Maranhao. 

Range: Campo region of eastern and central Brazil, from 
Matto Grosso, northern Sao Paulo, and Minas Geraes through 

1 Neopelma pallescens (LAFRESNAYE) is readily distinguished among its af- 
fines by its large size, pale dingy grayish throat and breast, and very pale yellow- 
ish abdomen. The vertical crest is bright lemon chrome, as in N. aurifrons. 
Wing 77-83, (female) 72-76; tail 64-70, (female) 61-64; bill 12-13. 

Two adults from the Rio Tapaj6z (Santar^m, Itaituba) agree in coloration 
and size with specimens from eastern Brazil. 

Material examined. Sao Paulo: Nas Lages I, Rio das Pedras 2. Matto 
Grosso: Engenho do Gama i, Sao Vicente I. Goyaz: Goyaz City 7, Rio The- 
souras i, Rio Araguaya 2. Minas Geraes: Rio das Velhas, near Lag6a Santa 6, 
Agua Suja, near Bagagem I, Rio Jordao, near Araguary I. Bahia: Santo Amaro 
2, unspecified 6. Piauhy: Sao Martin, Rio Parnahyba 2. Maranhao: Cachoeira, 
Rio Parnahyba I, Tranqueira 3, Miritiba I, Rosario I. Para: Serra de Paituna, 
near Monte Alegre i (Mus. Goeldi, No. 5966. July 22, 1908. E. Snethlage); 
Santarem I ; Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z I . 



QO FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Goyaz and Bahia north to Piauhy and Maranhao, and even to the 
lower Amazon (Santare"m; Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; Serra de Paituna, 
near Monte Alegre). 1 

13: Brazil, Minas Geraes (Rio das Velhas, near Lag6a Santa 
6); Bahia (Santo Amaro 2, unspecified i); Maranhao (Rosario i, 
Tranqueira 3). 

Genus HETEROCERCUS Sclater.' 

Heterocercus SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 245, 1862 type by mono- 
typy Elaenia linteata STRICKLAND. 

Heterocercus linteatus (Strickland)* FIRE-CROWNED MANAKIN. 

Elaenia linteata STRICKLAND, Contrib. Orn., 1850, Illust. Orn., p. 121-15, pi- 
[63], left fig. part, descr. of alleged male, "Upper branches of the Amazon 
River." 

Heterocercus linteatus SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 245, 1862 "Upper 
Amazon"; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 125, 1868 Borba, Rio Madeira 
(descr. of female; spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
324, 1888 "Upper Amazons"; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 289, 
1907 "Monte Alegre"; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 362, 1907 Humay- 
tha, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 312, 1910 Allianca, Rio Madeira, 
and Maroins, Rio Machados; idem in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 30, 
1910 (range); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 504, 1908 Goyana, Ilha 
do Papageio, Ilha do Coata, and Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z; idem, I.e., 61, 
p. 525, 1913 Islands of the Tapaj6z, Santa Julia, Rio Iriri, and Cussary; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 372, 1914 "Monte Alegre" [?=Cussary], 
Rio Iriri (Santa Julia), Rio Jamauchim (Viragao), Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana, 
Villa Braga, Papagaio, Coata). 

Heterocercus flavivertex (not of PELZELN) RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 
25, 1891 Santare'm. 

Heterocercus lineatus TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 351, 1884 part, descr. 
only (excl. locality "Nauta"); STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, 
p. 47 (type in Coll. Mus. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia). 

Range: Northern Brazil, south of the Amazon, from the Xingu 
west to the Rio Madeira, possibly even to the Javari, south to north- 
ern Matto Grosso (Rio Roosevelt). 4 

x The locality "Rio de Janeiro," sometimes quoted for this species, is unques- 
tionably erroneous. 

*Key to the species; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 327, 1906. 

3 Heterocercus linteatus (STRICKLAND) differs from the other members of the 
genus by having, in the male sex, the upper part and sides of the head deep black, 
and the crown patch fiery red instead of yellow or orange. Besides, the upper 
parts are of a much duller, more brownish olive, which also serves to distinguish 
the female from the allied species. 

Material examined. Brazil: Goyana, Rio Tapaj6z 2; Rio Madeira, Borba 
3, Allianca i, Humaytha 4; Maroins, Rio Machados 5. 

4 The record from "Monte Alegre," north bank of the Amazon, is open to 
doubt (see Snethlage, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 1913). 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 91 

Heterocercus flavivertex Pelzeln. YELLOW-CROWNED MANAKIN. 

Heterocercus flavivertex PELZELN, Orn. Bras., a, pp. 125, 186, Sept., 1868 
Rio Negro, Marabitanas, Rio Xi6, Rio Icanna, Rio Vaup6, and Barcellos, 
Brazil (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 325, 1888 
part, spec, a-g, Rio Negro and "Oyapoc, Cayenne"; BERLEPSCH and 
HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 54, 1902 Maipures and Perico, Rio Orinoco, 
Venezuela (spec, examined); BERLEPSCH, I.e., 15, p. 139, 1908 "Oyapoc, 
Cayenne" (ex SCLATER); HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 
30, pi. I, fig. 6, 1910 (range); CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., a, 
p. 249, 1916 Maipures and Perico, Rio Orinoco. 

Elaenia linteata STRICKLAND, Contrib. Orn., 1850, Illust. Orn., p. 121-15, pi. 
[63], right fig. part, descr. of alleged female, "Upper branches of the 
Amazon River." 

Heterocercus angostwae BERLEPSCH and LEVERKUHN, Ornis, 6, p. 19, 1890 
"Angostura," Rfo Orinoco, Venezuela (type in Berlin Museum examined; 
= female). 

Range: Northwestern Brazil, in state of Amazonas (on the Rio 
Negro, above the junction of the Rio Branco, and its tributaries), 
and southern Venezuela, on the upper Orinoco (Maipures and 
Perico). 1 

Heterocercus aurantiivertex Sclater and Salvin* ORANGE-CROWNED 
MANAKIN. 

Heterocercus aurantiivertex SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1880, p. 157 
Sarayacu, Ecuador (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 325, pi. 23, 1888 Sarayacu; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, 

'Specimens from the upper Orinoco, including the type of H. angosturae, are 
perfectly similar to Natterer's original series from the Rio Negro. 

The locality "Angostura" [=Ciudad Bolivar] is certainly inaccurate, and 
the occurrence of this species in French Guiana also remains to be confirmed. 
The five skins in the British Museum, labeled "Oyapoc, Cayenne," were obtained 
from Madame Verdey, a natural history dealer of Paris, and are quite different 
in "make" from the ordinary trade skins imported from that colony. 

Material examined. Brazil, Rio Negro: Rio Negro, near the junction of 
the Rio Branco 2, Marabitanas 5, Barcellos I ; Rio Xi6 I ; Rio Icanna [ =Rio Isanaj 
i; Rio Vaup i. Venezuela, upper Rio Orinoco: Maipures 10, Perico 4, "Angos- 
tura" i. "Oyapoc, Cayenne" 5. 

1 Heterocercus aurantiivertex SCLATER and SALVIN: Adult male (female un- 
known) nearly related to, and agreeing with, H. flavivertex in dark gray sides of 
head as well as in olive green forehead and lateral portions of crown; but 
vertical patch bright orange instead of yellow, and breast ochraceous tawny like 
the abdomen, not chestnut. Wing 87; tail 49-50; bill 13. 

This form which, in all probability, is but a western race of H. flavivertex is 
known only from three adult males in the British Museum. A young male from 
Chamicuros, Peru, agrees with them in pale coloration of under parts, but the 
few bright feathers just appearing in the middle of the crown are golden yellow, 
more like H. flavivertex. The proper identification of the Peruvian form must be 
left in abeyance until satisfactory material comes to hand. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu (types) 3. Peru: Chamicuros, 
(o* ) juv., July 27, 1867. E. Bartlett (all in the British Museum). 






92 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

p. 30, 1910 Sarayacu; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 538, 

1 926 Sarayacu. 
(?) Heterocercus linteatus (not of STRICKLAND) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 

Lond., 1873, p. 284 Chamicuros, Peru (spec, examined). 
(?) Heterocercus lineatus TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 351, 1884 part, 

"Nauta" = Chamicuros. 
(?) Heterocercus flaviver lex (not of PELZELN) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 

p. 325, 1888 part, spec, h, i, Chamicuros, Peru. 

Range: Eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu); (?) northern Peru (Chami- 
curos). 

Heterocercus luteocephalus (Lesson). 1 GOLDEN-CRESTED MANAKIN. 

Muscicapa luteocephala LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., p. 392, 1830 locality unknown 

(type in Paris Museum examined); PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 

Paris, 7, p. 374, 1855 South America (descr., crit.). 
Heterocercus luteocephalus HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 326, 1906 (crit.); 

BERLEPSCH, I.e., 15, p. 139, 1908 Cayenne?; HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, 

Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 30, 1910. 

Range: South America (exact locality unknown). 

FAMILY COTINGIDAE. 

CHATTERERS. 
Genus PHOENICIRCUS Swainson. 2 

Phocnicircus SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 491, Feb., 
1832 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, List Gen. Birds, p. 33, 1840) Ampelis 
carnifex LINNAEUS. 

Phoenicercus STRICKLAND, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 7, p. 29, 1841 emendation. 

Phoenicocercus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 236, 1847 emendation. 

Phaenicocercus BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., I, p. 170, 1850 emendation. 

Carnifex SUNDEVALL, Vetenskaps Akad. Handl. for 1835, p. 78, 1836 type 
by monotypy Ampelis carnifex LINNAEUS. 

1 Heterocercus luteocephalus (LESSON): In coloration much like Neopelma 
pallescens, but lateral portions of pileum, postocular region, hind neck and sides 
of neck pure ashy gray, instead of mainly light green, and posterior under parts 
much brighter yellow, more as in Neopelma chrysocephalum. Vertical crest bright 
yellow. 

The type (and only known specimen) of this species appears to be different 
from any Manakin I am acquainted with. Wings and tail being in full molt, 
the measurements, as published elsewhere (Nov. Zpol., 13, p. 326), cannot be 
relied upon. The rectrices, though not full-grown, distinctly exhibit the peculiar 
shape and the same proportions as in other species of Heterocercus, with which 
the bird also agrees in shortness of tarsi and structure of bill. More information 
about this obscure species is much desired. 

*A genus of doubtful affinity, perhaps more nearly related to the Rupicolidae 
or constituting a family by itself. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 93 

*Phoenicircus carnifex (Linnaeus). RED CHATTERER. 

Lanius carnifex LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., loth ed., i, p. 94, 1758 based on 
"The Red Bird from Surinam" EDWARDS, Nat. Hist. Birds, i, p. 39, pi. 39, 
Surinam. 

Cotingarubra MERREM, Av. Rar. Icon., Part i, p. i, pi. i, fig. i (male), 1784 
Surinam. 

Cotinga cuprea MERREM, Av. Rar. Icon., Part i, p. 5, pi. I, fig. 2 (female), 
1 784 Surinam. 

Ampelis coccinea GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 839, 1789 based on 
MERREM, Beytr. Bes. Gesch. V6gel, Part i, p. 6, pi. i, fig. 2, 1784, 
Surinam (=female). 

Phoenicocercus carnifex CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, 
p. 695, 1848 British Guiana; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., a, 
p. 439, 1856 Guiana; BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 
36, 1857 Cayenne; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 
part, Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 131, 1868 Barra do Rio Negro 
[ = Manaos] and Para; LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 385 ten miles from Para; 
C. B. BROWN, Canoe and Camp Life in Brit. Guiana, p. 40, 1876 Car- 
toonie, tributary of Puruni River; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 304 Bartica 
Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit Mus., 14, 
p. 367, 1888 British Guiana (Camacusa, Bartica Grove, Demerara), 
Cayenne, Barra do Rio Negro, Para; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 10, p. 181, 1904 Riviere Carsevenne, French Guiana; IHERING and 
IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 312, 1907 range; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Para and Oure"m, Rio Guama; idem, I.e., 56, p. 529, 
1907 Arumatheua, Rio Tocantins; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 142, 
318, 1908 Cayenne and Carsevenne River, French Guiana; PENARD and 
PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 164, 1910 Surinam; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 354, 1914 Para, Providencia, Ananindeua, Benevides, Peixe- 
Boi, Rio Guama (Our6m), and Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua); CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 291, 1921 numerous localities; YOUNG, Ibis, 
1929, p. 233 Plantation Wales, west Bank, Demerara, British Guiana. 

Ampelis carnifex DESCOURTILZ, Orn. fire's., p. 26, pi. 29, fig. 4, circa 1856 
range imaginary. 

Phoenicircus carnifex HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 
26, No. 2, pp. 34, 91, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio Acara (Para localities); STONE, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 1928 Murutucu, Para. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northern 
Brazil, on the north bank of the Amazon west to Manaos, south of 
that river from the Para region west to the Tapajoz (Santare*m; 
Villa Braga). 1 

*A series from Colonia do Mojuy, Santarm, and a couple from Villa Braga, 
on the left bank of the Tapaj6z, in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, are perfectly 
identical with Guianan specimens. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 3; Tamanoir 12 ; Pied Saut, 
Oyapock I. Surinam I. British Guiana: Groote Creek i, unspecified 4. Brazil: 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

8: British Guiana (Groote Creek i, unspecified i); Brazil, 
state of Para (Para 2, Murutucu i, Providencia i, Utinga 2). 

*Phoenicircus nigricollis Swainson. 1 BLACK-NECKED RED CHATTERER. 

Ampelis carnifcx (not Lanius carnifex LINNAEUS) SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 4, 
pi. 5, 1825 Rio Negro, near Barcellos, Brazil (spec, in Munich Museum 
examined). 

Pipra coccinea (not Ampelis coccinea GMELIN) WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 938 
part, descr. of adult male (ex SPIX) only. 

Phoenicircus nigricollis SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 491, 
Feb., 1832 based on Ampelis carnifex SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 4, pi. 5, 
Barcellos, Rio Negro. 

Ampelis merremii LESSON, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 104, 1839 "Perua." 

Phoenicocercus coccineus (not of GMELIN) BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. 
Bras., 2, p. 438, 1856 "Rio Negro bei Barcellona" (sic). 

Phoenicocercus nigricollis SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 567 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 751 Xeberos, Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, 
p. 131, 1868 Borba (Rio Madeira), Rio Negro below Thomar, Cocuy, 
Marabitanas, and Carvoeiro, Rio Negro (descr. of female) ; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 285 Sarayacu, Xeberos, Chamicuros, Santa 
Cruz, and Pebas, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 374, 1884 Peru- 
vian localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 368, 1888 Pebas, 
Chamicuros, Loretoyacu, Xeberos, and Santa Cruz (Peru), and Rk> Copo- 
taza, Ecuador; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, a, No. 6, p. 
52, 1926 Rio Curua, Xingu; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 
546, 1926 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

Para district (Para, Murutucu, Providencia, Benevides, etc.) 9; Ipitinga, Rio 
Acara 4; Obidos i; Manaos 8; Colonia do Mojuy, Santare'm 9; Villa Braga, Rio 
Tapaj6z 2. 

1 Phoenicircus nigricollis, as a whole, appears to be the western representative 
of the Guianan Red Chatterer. North of the Amazon, the latter evidently does 
not range beyond Manaos, while farther up the Rio Negro, above the junction of 
the Rio Branco, at Carvoeiro, Barcellos, Thomar, etc., we meet with the Black- 
necked form which is the only one found along the Rio Madeira and on the banks 
of the Solimoes. However, on the lower Tapaj6z both species P. carnifex and P. 
nigricollis seem to occur. The Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, has a perfectly typi- 
cal female of nigricollis, collected by S. M. Klages at Villa Braga on November 
28, 1919 (C. M., No. 75136), while another female secured at the same locality 
on December 19, 1919 (C. M., No. 75819) and an adult male are undoubtedly refer- 
able to P. carnifex. Again, on the right bank of the Tapaj6z the same collector ob- 
tained no less than nine specimens, including adults of both sexes and an immature 
male, of P. carnifex at Colonia do Mojuy, Santare'm, whereas farther up the river at 
Miritituba (opposite Itaituba) an adult male and two females of P. nigricollis, 
apparently inseparable from Upper-Amazonian specimens, were taken. Further 
researches are required to show whether the western form is of regular occurence 
in the Tapaj6z Valley. In the meantime, it seems advisable to maintain the specific 
distinctness of the Red Chatterers. 

Material examined. Brazil: Miritituba, Rio Tapaj6z 3; Villa Braga, Rio 
Tapaj6z i; Rio Negro, Carvoeiro i, Barcellos (the type) I, below Thomar I, 
Cocuy i; Manacapuru, Rio Solimoes 3; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes 3; Rio Madeira, 
Calama I, Borba 2. Peru: Chamicuros 3. Ecuador: Rio Copotaza i, Rio 
Pastasa I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 95 

Phoenicocercus carnifex SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 
part, Guia, Rio Negro. 

Phoenicocercus nigrigularis SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 978 

Pebas, Peru. 
Phoenicircus nigricottis ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 74, 1889 Rio 

Napo; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 639, 

1906 note on type; idem, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 316, 1910 Calama, Rio 

Madeira. 

Range : Northern Brazil (east to the junction of the Rio Negro 
and Rio Branco, south of the Amazon to the Rio Tapajoz), eastern 
Peru (dept. Loreto), and eastern Ecuador. 

i: Amazonia (unspecified i). 

Genus LANHSOMA Swainson. 

Laniisoma SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 492, Feb., 1832 
(generic characters; the type species "Lanius arcuatus, Mus. Paris" is a 
nomen nudum here, and was not described until a year later). 

Ptilochloris SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, 2, p. 250, 1837 type by monotypy 
"P. lunatus North. Zool., 2, p. 492. Braz. B. pi. 95. " l 

Laniisoma elegans (Thunberg). SHRIKE-LIKE CHATTERER. 

Ampelis elegans THUNBERG, 1 Dissert. Tullberg Nov. Spec. Ampelis, p. 2, 1823 
Brazil, coll. Freyreiss (types in Upsala Museum examined; descr. of 
immature male and female). 

Muscicapa squamata WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 814, 1831 south- 
eastern Brazil (descr. of female). 

Lanius arcuatus (GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE MS.) LAFRESNAYE, Mag. Zool., 
2, cl. 2, pi. 12, 1833 "du Bre"sil .... rapporte"e au Museum par Lalande" 
= Rio de Janeiro (descr. of immature male). 

Ptilochloris arcuatus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., i, p. 237, 1838 (descr. of im- 
mature male). 

'Evidently a new name for Laniisoma, "P. lunatus" being an obvious misprint 
for arcuatus. Plate 95 (of the "Birds of Brazil and Mexico") referred to by Swain- 
son was never issued. 

Through the good offices of Count Nils Gyldenstolpe, I have been enabled to 
examine the types preserved in the Upsala Museum. The male is a bird in change 
of plumage, the pileum being still partly covered with the fluffy ochraceous-buff 
black- tipped feathers of the juvenile dress (referred to by Thunberg as "crista 
capitis erecta et cervice flava"), traces of which are also to be found on the upper 
back and rump. The greater upper wing coverts, likewise retained from the juve- 
nile plumage, are dusky, broadly tipped with ochraceous tawny ("alae subfas- 
ciatae e maculis brunneis") and apically narrowly edged with blackish. The female, 
in adult dress withplain greenish wing coverts, does not differ from other examples 
of the same sex. Thunberg's statement "cauda rotundata, alis paullo longior" is 
an obvious pen-slip, as may be seen from the appended measurements of the types. 

Male: Wing 101; tail 60; bill 16. 

Female: wing 100; tail 63; bill 17. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Ptilochloris rcmigialis LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., i, p. 237, 1838 no locality 
stated (type now in Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge examined; = adult male); 
idem, I.e., 10, pp. 183, 184, 1847 (crit.). 

Ptilochloris squamata BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 435, 1856 
Brazil (ex WIED); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 Ypanema, Sao 
Paulo; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 317, 1888 Bahia and "Novo" 
Friburgo, Brazil; 1 ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 240, 1889 (Wied's 
type no longer in American Museum); IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 
209, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; 
idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 302, 1907 Piracicaba, Sao Sebastiao and 
Itapura, Sao Paulo. 

Ampclis arcuata DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 26, pi. 29, fig. 3, (mas imm.), 
circa 1855 from the Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro, "to Matto-Grosso" 
(errore). 

Laniisoma squamatum HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 29, pi. i, 
fig. 10, 1910 southeastern Brazil. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia to Sao Paulo. 2 

Laniisoma buckleyi (Sclater and Salvin). 3 BUCKLEY'S SHRIKE-LIKE 
CHATTERER. 

Ptilochloris buckleyi SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1880, p. 158, pi. 16 

Pindo, eastern Ecuador (descr. of female and pullus); SCLATER, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., 14, p. 318, 1888 Pindo. 
Laniisoma arcuatum (not of LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 22, p. 114, 

1854 Quijos, Ecuador. 
Laniisoma buckleyi HELLMAYR in WYTSMAN, Gen. Av., Part 9, p. 29, 1910 

eastern Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 538, 1926 

eastern Ecuador. 

Range: Eastern Ecuador (Pindo; Archidona; Quijos). 

x The localities "Rio Napo" and "Bogota" are doubtless erroneous. 

*Birds from various parts of southern Brazil agree well together. Adult 
males have the pileum coal black, the wings coverts plain olive green, and the fourth 
primary strongly attenuated on the apical portion of the inner web, while the 
three outer remiges, though of normal width, are somewhat pointed at the tip. 
The female, besides lacking the modification of the primaries, differs by reason 
of the less elongated crown feathers being mainly dull green, apically edged with 
sooty, and the much more heavily marked under parts. The type of P. remigialis, 
courteously lent by Mr. Outram Bangs, has fewer olive blackish bars under- 
neath, and is slightly smaller (wing 100, against 102-106; tail 63, against 65-69) 
than four other adult males examined by me. 

Material examined. Bahia 3; Nova Friburgo, Rio i; Rio i; Ipanema, Sao 
Paulo i; "Brazil" (types of A. elegans) 2; unspecified (type of P. remigialis) I. 

'Laniisoma buckleyi (SCLATER and SALVIN) is known from only two females 
and two nestlings. The female differs from the same sex of L. elegans by its more 
greenish crown, the blackish tips being barely suggested by slight dusky edges 
and deeper yellow under parts, with coarser as well as more numerous blackish 
markings. Until the male is discovered, the proper status of this form cannot be 
ascertained. Wing (female) 98; tail 62; bill 17. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Pindo (including the type) 3; Archidona 
(U.S. National Museum, No. 55346. W. Orton) i. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 97 

Genus PHIBALURA Vieillot. 

Phibalura VIEILLOT, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Ele"m., p. 31, 1816 type by mono- 
typy Phibalura flavirostris VIEILLOT. 

Chelidis GLOGER in FRORIEP'S Notizen Geb. Natur- und Heilkunde, 16, p. 
278, 1827 new name for Phibalura VIEILLOT. 

Amphibolura CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 233, 1847 new name for 
Phibalura VIEILLOT. 

Dicranura VAN DER HOEVEN, Handb. Dierk., 3rd ed., 2, p. 733, 1859 new 
name for Phibalura VIEILLOT. 

Psaliurus BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, No. i, p. 105, 1901 type by 
monotypy Psaliurus acevalianus BERTONI = Phibalura flavirostris VIEILLOT. 

*Phibalura flavirostris Vieillot. SWALLOW-TAILED CHATTERER. 

Phibalura flavirostris VIEILLOT, Analyse Nouv. Orn. fil6m., p. 68, 1816 
Brazil; TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 20, pi. 118, 1822 Sao Paulo; 
VIEILLOT (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 97, pi. 74, 1823 Brazil; 
DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Brs., p. 23, pi. 25, fig. I, 1855 Brazil (habits); 
BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 433, 1856 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 131, 1868 Rio de Janeiro, Taipa, Mugy 
das Cruzes, and Campo Largo, Sao Paulo; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
J 4 P- 37 2 . I 888 "Novo" Friburgo, Sao Paulo, Rio Claro, "Goyaz," 
Brazil; BOUCARD and BERLEPSCH, The Humming Bird, 2, p. 45, 1892 
Porto Real, Rio; GOELDI, Ibis, 1894, p. 484 Serra dos Orgaos, Rio de 
Janeiro (nesting habits and eggs descr.); IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio 
Grande do Sul, 16, p. 127, 1899 Colonia de Sao Louren$o, Rio Grande 
do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 215, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 
4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. 
Biaz., i, p. 312, 1907 Alto da Serra, Rineao, Itarar6, and Campos de 
Jordao, Sao Paulo; MIRANDA RIBEIRO, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
J 3i P- 183, 1906 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. 
Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 313, 1910 Misiones; DABBENE, Bol. Soc. 
Physis, i, p. 349, 1914 Paraguay and Misiones; BERTONI, Anal. Soc. 
Cietat. Arg., 75, p. 94, 1913 northern Misiones; idem, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 
1914 Alto Parana; MIRANDA RIBEIRO, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
24, pp. 254, 262, 1923 Itatiaya; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 5, p. 178, 1926 Fazenda Zawadzki and Candido de Abreu, Parana; 
CHAPMAN, Auk, 43, p. 99, 1926 Atten, near Apolobamba, Bolivia; HOLT, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 57, p. 310, 1928 Monte Serrat, Itatiaya. 

Phibalura cristata SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., i, pi. 31, March, 1821 South 
America. 

Pipr a forflcata THUNBERG, Mem. Ac. Sci. St. Pe'tersb., 8, p. 284, pi. 7, fig. 2, 
1822 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Pipr a chrysopogon WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 930 new name for Phibalura flavi- 
rostris VIEILLOT. 

Psaliurus acevalianus BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. I, No. I, p. 105, 
1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio de 
Janeiro to Parand, accidentally in Rio Grande do Sul, and adjacent 
districts of Paraguay and Misiones (Alto Parand) 1 ; also recorded 
from Bolivia (Atten, near Apolobamba, dept. La Paz). J 

3: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (Therezopolis i, Itatiaya i, Porto 
Real i). 

Genus HELIOCHERA Filippi. 

Heliochera FILIPPI, Mus. Mediol., No. I, Animalia Vertebrata. Classis 2, 
(Aves), pp. 12, 31, March, 1847 type by monotypy Ampelis rubrocristata 
LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY. 

Heliochaera SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 520 emendation. 

Heliochoera MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Geog. Arme Mes. Arc Mend. Equat., 
9, p. 864, 1911 emendation. 

*Heliochera rubro-cristata (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny). RED-CRESTED 
CHATTERER. 

A(mpelis) rubro-cristata LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 39, 1837 Ayupaya and Yungas, Bolivia (types in Paris 
Museum examined; descr. of adult and young); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Ame>. 
Me"rid., Ois., p. 297, pi. 31, fig. i, 1839 Chupe', prov. Yungas, and Palca, 
prov. Ayupaya, Bolivia. 

Ampelis rufocristata BOISSONNEAU, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 3, 1840 Santa F6 de 
Bogota. 

Ampelion rubricristatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota. 

Carpornis rubrocristata JARDINE, New Edinb. Philos. Journ., (n.s.), 6, p. 91, 
1856 eastern Cordillera of Ecuador. 

Ampelion rubrocristatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 26, p. 553, 1858 Mates and 
Titiacun, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p. 78, 1860 Lloa; idem, I.e., p. 89, 
1860 Calacali and above Puellaro, Ecuador. 

Heliochera rubrocristata SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 781 
Paramos of Culata and MeYida, Venezuela; WYATT, Ibis, 1871, p. 334 
Pamplona Road and Paramo above Vetas, Santander, Colombia; TAC- 
ZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, p. 540 Maraynioc, Peru; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, I.e., 1874, P- 678 Ccachupata, dept. Cuzco, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, 
I.e., 1879, p. 237 Montana de Pal to, near Tambillo, Peru; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 618 Yungas and Ayupaya, Bolivia; TACZANOWSKI, 
I.e., 1880, p. 203 Cutervo, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 381, 1884 
Peruvian localities; BERLEPSCH and TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1884, p. 
298 Cechce, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 93 San Rafael, Ecuador; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 390, 1888 Bogota, Sierra Nevada de 

1 Material examined. Rio de Janeiro 2, Porto Real i, Therezopolis i, Colonia 
Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos 6, Itatiaya i; Sao Paulo, Mugy das Cruzes I, Campo 
Largo 2. 

'Bolivian birds may prove to be separable when additional material comes to 
hand. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 99 

Santa Marta, Medellin, Santa Elena, San Lucas, Matos, "Yauayacu," 
Quito; SALVIN, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 13, 1895 Cajabamba, Peru; BERLEPSCH 
and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 370 Maraynioc, Peru; HARTERT, 
Nov. Zool., 5, p. 490, 1898 Cayambe Mountain, Ecuador; BANGS, Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 98, 1898 Paramo de Chiruqua and Paramo de 
Macutana, Santa Marta Mts., Colombia; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 17, 1899 Huaca, Pun, Chaupi (Paramo 
of Illiniza), Nanegal, Pelagallo, Pichincha, Frutillas, Lloa, and Papallacta, 
Ecuador; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 152, 1900 Santa Marta 
region; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 714 Pichincha and Papallacta, 
Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 499, 1917 Paramillo, 
coast range west of Popayan, Valle de las Pappas, Laguneta, Santa Isabel, 
El Pinon, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 552, 1926 Yanacocha, Chical, 
Taraguacocha, San Bartolo, Salvias, Oyacachi, Papallacta, and upper 
Sumaco, Ecuador; idem, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 117, p. 101, 1921 Cedro- 
bamba, Occobamba Valley, and Lucma, Urubamba region, Peru; TODD 
and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 332, 1922 Cerro de Caracas, 
Macotama, Paramo de Mamarongo, and Paramo de Chiruqua, Santa 
Marta region, Colombia; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 12, 1925 Bolivia 
(note on types); BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 
Pilon, Ecuador. 

Heliochaera rubrocristata SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 520 
Santa Elena, Colombia. 

Heliochoera rubrocristata MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Gog. Arme"e Mes. Arc 
Me"rid. Equat., 9, p. 664, 1911 Frutillas and Chambo, Ecuador. 

Heliochera rubricristata PIGUET, M6m. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 808, 
1914 Angelopolis, near Medellin, Colombia; LONNBERG and RENDAHL, 
Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 76, 1922 below Lloa, Ecuador. 

Range: Temperate Zone of the Andes from extreme northern 
Colombia (Santa Marta range) and southwestern Venezuela (states 
of Tdchira and MeYida) south through Ecuador and Peru to western 
Bolivia. 1 

21 : Venezuela (Pdramo de Tamd, Tachira 2; Escorial, near 
Me*rida i; Culata, Mdrida i); Colombia (Bogotd 3; Paramillo, 
Western Andes, Antioquia i) ; Ecuador (Chical, province Canar 4) ; 
Peru (Molinopampa i ; mountains east of Balsas 2 ; Hudnuco 
Mountains 5; Panao Mountains, Hudnuco i). 

Heliochera ruf axilla ruf axilla (Tschiidi). TSCHUDI'S CHATTERER. 

Ampelis rufaxilla TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 270, 1844 Peru; idem, 
Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, pi. 7, fig. i, 1846. 

Ampelion rufaxilla TSCHUDI, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 137, 1846 
"Montaflas des mittleren Peru," we suggest Vitoc Valley, dept. Junin. 

'Examination of more than one hundred specimens covering the whole range 
except the Santa Marta region fails to reveal any racial variation in this wide- 
spread species. 



zoo FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Heliochera rufaxilla TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 237 Tambillo; 
idem, I.e., 1882, p. 24 Tamiapampa; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 383, 1884 
Tambillo, Tamiapampa; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 391, 1888 
part, Peru; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 370 
Garita del Sol, Vitoc, dept. Junfn; BANGS and NOBLE, Auk, 35, p. 450, 
1918 Tabaconas, northern Peru. 

Heliochera rufaxilla rufaxilla CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 8, 1924 
Chaupe, northeast of Huancabamba, Peru. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Peru, from dept. of Cajamarca 
(Chaupe, near Huancabamba; Tabaconas; Tambillo; Tamiapampa) 
south to Junin (Vitoc Valley). 1 

Heliochera rufaxilla antioquiae Chapman. 2 ANTIOQUIA CHATTERER. 

Heliochera rufaxilla antioquiae CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 138, p. 8, 
1924 Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia. 

Heliochaera rufaxilla (not of TSCHUDI) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 520 Santa Elena and "Bogota."* 

Heliochera rufaxilla SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 391, 1888 part, 
Santa Elena, Retiro, Medellin, and Antioquia, Colombia; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 500, 1917 San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, and 
Santa Elena, Colombia. 

Range : Subtropical Zone of the Western and Central Andes of 
Colombia. 

Genus DOLIORNIS Taczanowski. 

Doliornis TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, p. 135 type by monotypy 
Doliornis sclateri TACZANOWSKI. 

Doliornis sclateri Taczanowski. SCLATER'S CHATTERER. 

Doliornis sclateri TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, P- !3 6 > pi- 2O Maraynioc, 
Peru; idem, I.e., p. 541 Maraynioc; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 384, 1884 
Maraynioc; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 390, 1888 Maraynioc. 

Range: Temperate Zone of central Peru (Maraynioc, dept. 
Junin). 4 

Material examined. Peru: Tamiapampa i, Garita del Sol, Vitoc i. 

1 Heliochera rufaxilla antioquiae CHAPMAN: Very similar to H. r. rufaxilla, 
but larger and more heavily streaked underneath. Wing 122-124, (female) 120; 
tail 82-84, (female) 78; bill 18-19. 

Material examined. Colombia: Santa Elena 2, Retiro I. 

'The specimen which I have examined in the Paris Museum is by no means 
from "Bogota." It was in a small collection sent by M. Triana containing among 
other things the type of Capita quinticolor and, though no locality is specified on 
the label, it doubtless came from the Western Cordillera. 

4 Material examined. Peru: Maraynioc (including the type) 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 101 

Genus TIJUCA Ferussac. 

Tijuca FERUSSAC, Bull. Sci. Nat., 19, for Nov.-Dec., p. 324, 1829 type by 
monotypy Tijtica atra "LESSON"; LESSON, Cent. Zool., livr. i, p. 30, March, 
1830 type by monotypy Tijuca nigra LESSON. 

Chrysopleryx SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 492, Feb., 
1832 type by orig. desig. Chrysopteryx erythrorhynchus SWAINSON = 
Tijuca atra FERUSSAC. 

Tijuca atra Ferussac. TIJUCA. 

Tijuca atra (LESSON MS.) FERUSSAC, Bull. Sci. Nat., 19, for Nov.-Dec., 

p. 324, 1829 "inter ieur du Br6sil." 
Tijuca nigra LESSON, Cent. Zool., livr. i, p. 31, pi. 6 (male), March, 1830 

"int&ieur du Br6sil"; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 132, 1868 "Bahia"; 

SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 373, 1888 "Novo" Friburgo, Brazil; 

IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, Cat. 

Faun. Braz., I, p. 313, 1907 "Santa Catharina to Rio de Janeiro and 

Bahia"; HOLT, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 57, p. 310, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya 

(song). 
Chrysopteryx erythrorhynchus SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 

2, p. 492, Feb., 1832 interior of Brazil (descr. of male and female). 
Ampelis chrysoptera NORDMANN in ERMAN'S Reise, Naturhist. Atlas, p. 15, 

pi. 10, fig. i, 1835 Brazil (descr. of adult and immature male); DESCOUR- 

TILZ, Orn. Bre^., p. 25, pi. 28, fig. I, circa 1855 "les serras de 1'inte'rieur 

du Bresil" (habits). 
Ptilochloris chrysoptera BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 435, 1856 

"der mehr den sudlichen Gegenden (St. Paulo, St. Catharina) angehort" 

(errore). 

Range: Mountain ranges of southeastern Brazil, in state of 
Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo; Petropolis; Therezopolis ; Colonia 
Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos; Serra do Itatiaya) and adjacent section 
of Minas Geraes (Sao Francisco). 1 

i: Brazil (Therezopolis i). 

Genus AMPELION Cabanis. 

Ampelion CABANIS in TSCHUDI, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 137, 1846 type by 
subs, desig. (GRAY, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Birds, p. 56, 1855)* "Ampelis" 
[=Procnias] cucullata SWAINSON. 

*No reliable record exists for any locality outside the area circumscribed 
above. 

Material examined. Rio de Janeiro: Macieiras, Serra do Itatiaya I (U.S. 
Nat. Museum); Colonia Alpina, Serra dos Orgaos 15 (E. A. Goeldi coll., Zoolog- 
ical Museum, Berne, Switzerland); Petropolis i (adult male, May 3, 1886. J. 
Young. Tring Museum); Therezopolis I; "Rio" trade skins 3. Minas Geraes: 
Sao Francisco, alt. 1580 meters, i (adult male, March 30, 1901. A. Robert. 
Tring Museum). 

*In the Appendix of the same work (p. 147) Gray selected Ampelis rubrocris- 
tata LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, the other species originally included in the 



loa FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Carpornis GRAY (and MITCHELL), Genera Birds, i, p. 279, Dec., 1846 type 
by subs, desig. (GRAY, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Birds, p. 147, 1855) "Am- 
pelis" [ = Procnias] melanocephala SWAINSON. 

Ampdio CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 104, 1859 emendation for 
Ampelion CABANIS. 

*Ampelion cucullatus (Swainson). HOODED BERRY-EATER. 

Procnias cucullata SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., I, pi. 37, April, 1821 Brazil 
(descr. of adult male). 

Ampelis cucullata TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 61, pi. 363 (=adult 
male), 1825 Brazil; DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 26, pi. 29, fig. 2, circa 
1855 Brazil (habits). 

Ampelion cucullatus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 432, 1856 
Nova Friburgo, Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 374, 1888 Rio, 
"Novo" Friburgo, Sao Paulo, Rio Claro, "Goyaz," Pelotas and Lagda dos 
Patos, Rio Grande do Sul; IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 
16, p. 127, 1899 Mundo Novo and Pedras Brancas, Rio Grande do Sul; 
idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 216, 1899 Iguap6 and Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; 
idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., I, p. 
313, 1907 Santo Amaro, Ubatuba, Alto da Serra, and Iguape 1 , Sao 
Paulo; HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 139, 1915 Braco do 
Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo (descr. of female). 

Ampdio cucullatus PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 132, 1868 Campo Largo and 
Rio Grande, near Sao Paulo (descr. of female); HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 
306 Serra do Mar, Sao Paulo; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., ai, p. 266, 
1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; BERLEPSCH and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. 
Orn., 2, p. 140, 1885 Taquara do Mundo Novo and Arroio Grande, Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo south to Rio Grande do Sul. 1 

i : Brazil (Rio i). 

Ampelion melanocephalus (Wied). BLACK-HEADED BERRY-EATER. 

Procnias melanocephalus WIED, Reise Bras., I, p. 168 (8vo ed., p. 166), 
1820 Quartel das Barreiras, road from the Rio Itape'mirim to the Rio 
Itabapuana, southern Espirito Santo; SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., i, pi. 25, 
Feb., 1821 forests of Pitanga, Bahia (descr. of male). 

Turdus melanocephalus VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., 2, p. 647, 1822 
"Bresil," coll. Delalande; PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., 7, livr. 3, p. 
351. 1855 (crit.). 

genus Ampelion, but under the rules there is no justification in reversing his 
earlier action. 

Material examined. Braco do Sul, Espirito Santo i ; Nova Friburgo, Rio 
2 ; Campo Largo, Sao Paulo I ; Rio Grande, near Sao Paulo City 2 ; Santa Catha- 
rina (Aguas Pretas, Serra do Mirador, Laguna, Blumenau) 6; Taquara do Mundo 
Novo, Rio Grande do Sul 7. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 103 

Ampelis viridis TnuNBERG, 1 Dissert. Tullberg Ampelis Nov. Spec., p. 4, 

1823 Brazil, coll. Freyreiss. 
Ampelis melanocephala WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), p. 401, 1830 Das 

Barreiras, Espirito Santo. 
Ampelio(n) melanocephalus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 432, 

1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 132, 1868 Bahia; 

SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 374, 1888 Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. 

Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 241, 1889 note on Wied's type; IHERING, Rev. 

Mus. Paul., 3, p. 216, 1899 Iguape', Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 

1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, I.e., p. 240, 1900 Sao Paulo (egg 

descr.); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., I, p. 313, 1907 Alto da Serra and Iguap^, 

Sao Paulo, and Rio Doce, Espirito Santo; LIMA, Rev. Mus Paul., 12, (2), 

p. 100, 1920 southern Bahia. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia to Sao Paulo. 2 

Genus PORPHYROLAEMA 3 Bonaparte. 

Porphyrolaema BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 315 (=Consp. 
Voluc. Anisod., p. 5), 1854 type by monotypy Cotinga porphyrolaema 
DEVILLE and SCLATER. 

Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema (Deville and Sclater). PURPLE- 
THROATED COTINGA. 

Cotinga porphyrolaema DEVILLE and SCLATER, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 
226, 1852 Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Peru (type in Paris Museum examined); 
SCLATER, Contrib. Orn., 1852, p. 136, pi. 96 Sarayacu; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 191 Sarayacu; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 285 
Sarayacu, Ucayali; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 155 Sarayacu, Ecuador; TAC- 
ZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 386, 1884 Sarayacu, Ucayali; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 386, 1888 River Ucayali and Samiria, Peru, and Sara- 
yacu, Ecuador; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 357, 1914 (range); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 551, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Porphyrolaema phygas BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. 1 1, p. 315 ( =Consp. 
Voluc. Anisod., p. 5), 1854 new name for Cotinga porphyrolaema DEVILLE 
and SCLATER. 

Cotinga (Ampelis) porphyrolaema DES MURS in CASTELNAU, Expe'd. Am6r. 
Sud, Ois., p. 65, 1856 Sarayacu, Peru. 

Range: Eastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru (lower Maran6n 
and Ucayali River), and western Brazil (Rio Punis). 4 

'Except for the obvious lapsus "cauda .... alis multo longior," Thunberg's 
description corresponds to the characters of A . melanocephalus. I am informed by 
Count Gyldenstolpe that the types are no longer to be found in the Upsala Museum. 

'Material examined. Bahia 3; "Rio de Janeiro" i; Iguape 1 , So Paulo I. 

1 Porphyrolaema is easily separable from Cotinga by ks much larger (more 
swollen as well as basally wider) bill and nearly square (not emarginate) tail. 

4 Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2. Peru: Sarayacu (including the 
type) 2, Samiria I. Brazil: Arima, Rio Punis 14. 



104 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Genus COTINGA Brisson. 

Cotinga BRISSON, Ornith., 2, p. 339, 1760 type by tautonomy "Cotinga" 

BRISSON = A mpelis cotinga LINNAEUS. 
Ampelis LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 297, 1766 type by subs. 

desig. (Gray, List Gen. Birds, p. 34, 1840) Ampelis cotinga LINNAEUS. 
Hylocosmia SUNDEVALL, Meth. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., p. 62, 1872 new name 

for Cotinga BRISSON. 

*Cotinga cotinga (Linnaeus). PURPLE-BREASTED COTINGA. 

Ampelis cotinga LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 298, 1766 based on 
"Le Cotinga" BRISSON (Orn., 2, p. 340, pi. 34, fig. i, 1760), "Bre'sil"; 
DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., p. 25, pi. 28, fig. 3, circa 1856 range imaginary; 
CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 105, 1859 Guiana; BATES, Natural- 
ist on the Amazons, I, p. 119, 1863 Vista Alegre, above Cameta, Rio 
Tocantins. 

Ampelis caerulea VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 760, 1822 
based on "Le Cotinga" BRISSON and "Cotinga du Bre'sil" BUFFON, Brazil 
and Cayenne; idem (and Oudart), Galerie Ois., I, (2), p. 183, pi. 116, 
1823 Cayenne and Surinam; CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. 
Guiana, 3, p. 693, 1848 Demerara. 

Cotinga coelestis GRAY, List Gen. Birds, 2nd ed., p. 46, 1841 new name for 
Ampelis cotinga LINNAEUS (excl. ref. DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 188). 

Cotinga caerulea BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 36, 1857 
Cayenne; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 near Para; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 132, 1868 Cachoeira do Rio Xie", Rio Vaupe\ 
Rio Negro, Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos], Para; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 
304 Bartica Grove and Atapurow River, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 382, 1888 Cayenne, Bartica Grove, Atapurow River, 
Carimang River; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25. 1891 Santar^m; 
SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Para; PENARD and PENARD, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 158, 1910 Surinam. 

Cotinga cotinga IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 313, 1907 
range; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 142, 1908 Cayenne; HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. Math.-phys. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 26, No. 2, p. 91, 1912 Para; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 356, 1914 Para and Providencia 
Para district; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 299, 1921 numerous 
localities. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northern 
Brazil (Rio Negro, from Manaos up to the Vaup and Xie rivers; 
Pard and vicinity; Santare"m, Rio Tapajdz). 

3: British Guiana (Mazaruni River 2; unspecified i). 

*Cotinga maculata (Mutter). 1 BANDED COTINGA. 

1 Cotinga maculata (MULLER) is probably conspecific with, and appears to re- 
place, C. cotinga in eastern Brazil. Its range, however, is very imperfectly known, 
and unacquainted with the female as I am, I provisionally accord it full specific 
rank. 

Material examined. Brazil: Bahia 4, "Rio de Janeiro" 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 105 

Ampelis maculatus P. L. S. MULLER, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 147, 1776 based 
on "BUFFON" [ = DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 188] and EDWARDS [=Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 3, pi. 340], Brazil; we suggest Rio de Janeiro. 

Ampelis super ba SHAW (and NODDER), Natur. Misc., 19, No. n, pi. 821, 
July, 1808 based on "Le Cotinga Cordon Bleu" LEVAILLANT (Hist. Nat. 
Ois. Nouv. et Rar. Amerique et Indes, i, pi. 42) and EDWARDS (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 3, pi. 340), Brazil. 

Ampelis cincta KUHL, Buflfoni et Daubentoni Fig. Av. Nom. Syst., p. 4, 
1820 based on "Cotinga du Bresil" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 188, Brazil; 
STRICKLAND, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 8, p. 373, 1842 (crit.); BURMEISTER, 
Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 430, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Ampelis cotinga (not of LINNAEUS) WIED, Reise Brasil., i, p. 275 (8vo ed., 
p. 272), 1820 Vicoza, north of Rio Mucuri, southern Bahia; VIEILLOT, 
Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 761, 1822 Brazil; WIED, Beitr. 
Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), p. 391, 1830 Rio St. Matthaeus (Espirito Santo), 
Mucuri, Rio das Contas, and Rio Jiquirica (Bahia), Brazil. 

Ampelis fasciata (not of THUNBERG, 1823) DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 26, pi. 
29, fig. i, circa 1856 "aux confins de la province de Rio Janeiro pres 
Campos dos Goytacazes .... Morro do Frade; .... Bahia et . . . . Pard." 
("Pard" errore). 

Cotinga catrulea (not Ampelis caerulea VIEILLOT) BONAPARTE, Consp. Av., i, 
p. 175, 1850 Brazil. 

Cotinga cincta SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 383, 1888 Bahia, Brazil; 
IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Fri- 
burgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 314, 1907 Rio Doce, Espirito 
Santo. 

Range: Wooded coast-region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio 
de Janeiro north to southern Bahia. 

i: Brazil (Bahia i). 

*Cotinga amabilis Gould. 1 LOVELY COTINGA. 

Cotinga amabilis GOULD, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 64, pi. 123, July, 1857 Guate- 
mala; SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 125 Vera Paz, Guatemala; 
SALVIN, I.e., 1860, p. 193 Coban, Guatemala; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, 
p. 252, 1860 Orizaba, Vera Cruz, Mexico; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 117, 1868 "San JoseV' Costa Rica; FRANTZIUS, Journ. 
Orn., 17, p. 310, 1869 Orosi, Costa Rica; ZELEDON, An. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Naranjo de Cartago and Birris, Costa Rica; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 384, 1888 Vera Paz, Choctum, and 
Coban (Guatemala), and Costa Rica; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 2, p. 138, 1891 part, Orizaba and Chimalapa, Tehuantepec 
(Mexico), Guatemala, and Costa Rica; BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
39, p. 149, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 781, 1907 southeastern Mexico through Guatemala and Hon- 

1 Cotinga amabilis and the two next species are nearly related to, and probably 
conspecific with, C. maynana, of Upper Amazonia. 



io6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

duras south to eastern Costa Rica (monog.) ; DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 100, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; CAR- 
RIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 676, 1910 Carrillo, Tuis, and Cachi, 
Costa Rica. 

Ampelis amabilis CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 253, 1861 Costa Rica. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz (Orizaba, 
Mirador, Pasa Nueva) and Oaxaca (Chimalapa) and southward 
through Guatemala and Honduras to eastern Costa Rica. 1 

5: Guatemala (Los Amates, Izabal 3; Gualan, Zacapa 2). 

*Cotinga ridgwayi Ridgway. RIDGWAY'S COTINGA. 

Cotinga ridgwayi (ZELED6N MS.) RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 10, p. I, 
pi. 6, fig. 3, 1887 part, type from Pozo Azul, Costa Rica, only; ZELED6N, 
An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Pozo Azul de Pirris; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 384, 1888 part, spec. a,b, Bugaba, Chiriqui; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. 139, 1891 part, 
Pozo Azul, Costa Rica, and Bugaba, western Panama; CHERRIE, Expl. 
Zool. en Costa Rica, 1891-92, p. 37, 1893 Lagarto; BANGS, Proc. New 
Engl. Zool. CL, 3, p. 41, 1902 Bogaba, Chiriqui; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 783, 1907 southwestern Costa Rica and western 
Panama; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 675, 1910 Pozo Azul de 
Pirris, Costa Rica. 

Cotinga amabilis (not of GOULD) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 200 Bugaba, 
Panama. 

Range: Southwestern Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris, Pigres, 
Lagarto) and western Panama (Bugaba and Boquete, Chiriqui). * 

2: Panama (Boquete, Chiriqui 2). 

Cotinga nattererii (Boissonneau). 3 NATTERER'S COTINGA. 

Ampelis nattererii BOISSONNEAU, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 2, 1840 Santa F6 de 
Bogota, Colombia (descr. of adult male). 

'Material examined. Guatemala: Los Amates 3, Gualan 2, Vera Paz 2. 
Honduras: San Pedro i, Los Caminos I. 

*Birds from Boquete agree with topotypes from Pozo Azul, Costa Rica. Two 
specimens adult male and female in the U.S. National Museum, said to be 
from "Isthmus of Panama, May, 1887, W. E. Safford," likewise belong to the 
present species, but the locality is open to doubt. 

*Cotinga nattererii (BOISSONNEAU): Adult male nearest to C. ridgwayi, but 
second primary decidedly longer (almost equaling the third) and apically not 
attenuated; purple of throat and pectoral area darker and narrowly barred with 
blackish; blue pectoral band much wider; female more deeply buff underneath, 
especially anteriorly. Wing (adult male) 107-111, (female) 106-110; tail 66-69, 
(female) 71-75; bill 1^^-15. 

A single adult male from Panama (Chorera) is identical with a series from the 
Pacific coast of Colombia. The only Bogota skin seen by me (U.S. National 
Museum, No. 78,108) differs by the lighter purple of the abdominal area, resem- 
bling in that respect the Costa Rican ridgwayi. In all other particulars, however, 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 107 

Cotinga simoni BERLEPSCH, Ornis, 14, p. 361, Feb., 1907 San Jos, Rio 
Dagua, Colombia (type in Berlepsch Collection examined). 

Cotinga nattereri (i) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota; SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 140, footnote, 1891 (crit.); 
RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 785, 1907 eastern 
Panama (line of Panama Railway) to Bogota, Colombia (monog.); 
HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1146 N6vita, Choc6, Colombia (crit.); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 499, 1917 Iguamiand6, Noana- 
ma, and Barbacoas, Pacific coast, and Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca, 
Colombia, and Esmeraldas, Ecuador; HALLINAN, Auk, 41, p. 319, 1924 
Sosa Hill, Panama; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 551, 1926 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 58, p. 163, 1920 Barro Colorado Island, 
Panama (nesting habits); GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 181, 
1929 El Tigre, Rio Cupe, Dari6n. 

Cotinga amabilis (not of GOULD) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, 
p. 473, 1862 line of Panama Railway. 

Cotinga ridgwayi (not of RIDGWAY) RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 10, p. I, 
1887 part, Bogota; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 384, 1888 part, 
spec, c, "Central America (probably Panama)"; SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 139, 1891 part, Panama Railroad and 
Bogota. 

Cotinga natteri (sic) BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 
212, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien (habits). 

Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Panama (Panama Railroad; 
Darie'n), Colombia (Pacific coast, east to the lower Magdalena 
Valley; occasionally in "Bogota" collections), and northwestern 
Ecuador (Esmeraldas). 

"Cotinga maynana (Linnaeus'). MAYNAS COTINGA. 

Ampelis maynana LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 298, 1766 based on 
"Le Cotinga des Maynas" BRISSON, Orn., 2, p. 341, pi. 34, fig. 2, 1760, 
Maynas, Peru; coll. Godin, in Mus. Reaumur. 

Cotinga maynana SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 Ri Javarri; idem. 
I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., a, p. 133, 
1868 Rio Joanari, right bank of Rio Negro, and Tabatinga, Rio SolimSes, 
Brazil; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 285 Chamicuros and 
Santa Cruz, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 24 Yurimaguas; idem, 
Orn. Per., 2, p. 385, 1884 Peruvian localities; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 386, 1888 Iquitos, Rio Ucayali, Chamicuros, Pebas (Peru), 

it agrees with males from western Colombia, notably in the shape of the second 
primary, the width of the blue pectoral band, and the presence of greenish-black 
bars on throat and abdominal area. From the numerous buffy edges and lateral 
spots on the throat feathers I infer that the bird is not quite adult. Nevertheless 
the examination of a good series from "Bogota" seems desirable. 

Material examined. Panama: Chorera I. Colombia: Bogota I; N6vita, 
Choc6 18; Iguamiand6, Choc6 i; San Jos, Rio Dagua i; El Paillon, near Buena- 
ventura 2. 



io8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Sarayacu and Napo (Ecuador); ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 74, 
1889 Rio Napo; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 714 Upper Napo, Ecuador; 
IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 314, 1907 range; HELL- 
MAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 51, 1907 Tefite, Rio Solimoes; MENEGAUX, Miss. 
Serv. Ge'ogr. Arme'e Mes. Arc MeYid. Equat., 9, p. B 64, 1911 eastern 
Ecuador; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 13, 1908 Bom Lugar, Rio 
Punis; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 356, 1914 Bom Lugar, Rio Punis; 
BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 Sarayacu, Ecua- 
dor; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 551, 1926 Rfo Napo and 
below San Jose" de Sumaco, Ecuador. 

Range: Upper Amazonia, from eastern Ecuador south to 
eastern Peru and east to northwestern Brazil (Teffe" and Tabatinga, 
Rio Solimoes; Rio Joanari, an affluent on the right side of the Rio 
Negro; Rio Punis). 1 

i: Peru (Yurimaguas i). 

*Cotinga cayana (Linnaeus). CAYENNE COTINGA. 

Ampelis cayana LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed. f i, p. 298, 1766 based on 
"Le Cotinga de Cayenne," BRISSON, Orn., 2, p. 344, pi. 34, fig. 3, 1760: 
"Bre"sil et Cayenne, d'ou il a te" envoye" a M. de Re'aumur par M. des 
Essars," type locality therefore Cayenne; LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, 
Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 40, 1837 Yuracares, Bolivia; 
CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 693, 1848 Demerara; 
DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., p. 25, pi. 28, fig. 4, circa 1856 "Maranhao" et 
Para. 

Ampelis cayennensis D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Am^r. M6rid., Ois., p. 297, 1839 
Yuracares, Bolivia (descr. of male). 

Ampelis cajana BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 429, 1856 northern 
Brazil. 

Cotinga cayana SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 191 Peru; idem, 
I.e., 1867, p. 580 Rio Negro; idem, I.e., p. 751 Xeberos, Peru; idem, 
I.e., p. 978 Pebas; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 133, 1868 Borba (Rio 
Madeira), Rio Xie", Rio Vaup6, Cachoeira Sao Jeronimo, Rio Negro, 
Manaos, Para; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 285 Sarayacu, 
Xeberos, Chamicuros, Santa Cruz, and Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 
618 Yuracares, Bolivia; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 384, 1884 
Peruvian localities; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 305 Bartica Grove, British 
Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 385, 1888 Bartica Grove, 
Cayenne, Chyavetas, Sarayacu, Rio Napo; ALLEN, Bull Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 lower Beni, Bolivia; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, 
p. 25, 1891 Santar^m, Rio Tapaj6z; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 
435. I 95 Rio Jurua; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 314, 1907 Rio 
Jurua; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Santo Antonio do 
Prata and Para; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 142, 1908 Cayenne; 

Material examined. Ecuador: Upper Rfo Napo 2, Sarayacu i. Brazil: 
Teffe", Rio Solimoes i; Tabatinga i; Rio Joanari, Rio Negro 4. Peru: Pebas 3, 
Iquitos i, Yurimaguas I. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. IOQ 

HELLMAYR, I.e., 17, p. 316, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; PENARD and 
PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 169, 1910 Surinam; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 35, 91, 1912 Ipitinga and 
Peixe-Boi (Para localities); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 356, 
1914 Para, Mocajatuba, Providencia, Benevides, Santo Antonio do 
Prata, Rio Acara, Rio Tocantins (Mazagao), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim), Rio 
Negro; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 95, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 300, 1921 numerous localities; HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 32, p. 13, 1925 Bolivia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
55. P- 55 1 . 19 26 eastern Ecuador; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, 
p. 169, 1928 Rio Inhangapy, Para. 

Cotinga cayenna C. B. BROWN, Canoe and Camp Life in British Guiana, p. 
395i 1876 near Waipah, Upper Ireng River. 

Cotinga nattereri (not of BOISSONNEAU) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
385, 1888 Bogota. 

Dacnis (lapsu) cayana BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 31, p. 233, 1925 
Sarayacu, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; northern Brazil, 
east to Para, south to the upper Rio Madeira; eastern Colombia 
(not uncommon in native "Bogota" collections); eastern Ecuador; 
eastern Peru; northern Bolivia (Yuracares; lower Beni). 1 

3: British Guiana (Corentyne River i, Demerara River i); 
Peru (Rioja i). 

Genus XIPHOLENA Gloger. 2 

Xipholena GLOGER, Gemeinnutz. Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., i, p-32O, 
1841 generic characters, no species mentioned; type by subs, desig. (Gray, 
Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 56, 1855) Ampdis pompadora LINNAEUS = 
Turdus puniceus PALLAS. 

* Xipholena punicea (Pallas). POMPADOUR CHATTERER. 

Turdus puniceus PALLAS in Vroeg's Catalogue, Adumbrat., p. 2, 1764 "Zuyd 
America," we suggest Surinam. 

Ampelis pompadora LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 298, 1766 based 
on Turdus puniceus PALLAS (I.e.), "Cotinga purpurea" BRISSON (Orn., a, 
P- 347 1 pl- 35i fig- ! r ?6o Cayenne) and "Pompadour" EDWARDS (Glean. 
Nat. Hist., 3, p. 275, pi. 341 Cayenne); HAHN, Vogel aus Asien, etc., 
Lief. 9, pi. 3, 1821 Cayenne, Guiana; SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 
2, p. 90, 1848 upper Takutu River; DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 25, 
pi. 28, fig. 2, circa 1856 "Maranhao et Para" (errore). 

'Material examined. Cayenne 3. British Guiana 7. Brazil: Ipitinga, Rio 
Acara 14; Peixe-Boi i; Pard i; Rio Negro 4; Calama, Rio Madeira I. Colombia: 
"Bogota" 7. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2. Peru: Iquitos 2, Rioja I. 

*The three species of the genus, while obviously geographical representatives, 
differ so much in structure and proportions that I hesitate to treat any of them 
as subspecies. 



no FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

(?) Ampelis grisea BODDAERT, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 43, 1783 based on "Cotinga 
gris de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PL Enl. 699,' Cayenne. 

(?) Ampelis cinerea LATHAM, Ind. Orn., i, p. 367, 1790 based on Lanius 
nengeta var. 0, GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (i), p. 299, 1788: ex "Cotinga gris 
de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PL Enl. 699, and "Varie'te' du Guirarou" 
BUFFON, Cayenne. 

Xipholena pompadora CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
693, 1848 British Guiana; BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, a, 
p. 36, 1857 Cayenne; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exotic Orn., p. 9, 1866 
Cayenne and British Guiana, west to Guia, Rio Negro; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1867, p. 580 Guia, Rio Negro; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 133, 1868 
Borba (Rio Madeira), Barra do Rio Negro [ = Manaos], Rio Xfe, Rio 
Icanna, and Rio Vaupe", Brazil; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 305 Bartica Grove, 
Camacusa, Merume" Mountains, Atapurow River; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 387, 1888 Cayenne, Bartica Grove, Atapurow River, Cama- 
cusa, Maroni River ;!HERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 Riojurud; 
BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 142, 1908 Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, 
Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 170, 1910 Surinam. 

Xipholena punicea IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 314, 1907 
British Guiana and Rio Jurua, Brazil; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 321, 
1908 Cayenne; HELLMAYR, I.e., 17, p. 316, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 357, 1914 Rio Jamunda (Faro) and 
upper Rio Negro; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 302, 1921 numerous 
localities. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northern 
Brazil (east of Man&os north of the Amazon only, but farther west 
also south of that river from the Rio Madeira at least to the Jurud). 2 

4: British Guiana (Demerara River 3, unspecified i). 

* Xipholena lamellipennis (Lafresnaye). LAFRESNAYE'S CHATTERER. 

Ampelis lamellipennis LAFRESNAYE, Mag. Zool., (2), i, cl. 2, pi. 9, 1839 
"1'Ame'rique du Sud," we specify Para. 

Xipholena lamellipennis SCLATER and SALVIN, Exotic Orn., p. 10, 1866 
Para; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
133, 1868 Para; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 389, 1888 Para; 
HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 295, 1905 Igarape"-assii, Para; SNETHLAGE, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Para, Santo Antonio do Prata; REISER, 
Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 100, 1910; I.e., p. 154, 
1925 Miritiba, Maranhao; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. KL, 26, No. 2, pp. 35, 91, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Ipitinga (Para localities); 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 357, 1914 Para, Providencia, Bene- 

'Daubenton's unusually poor figure appears to have been taken from a female 
example of the Pompadour Chatterer. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 5. British Guiana: Deme- 
rara River 5, Bartica Grove 3. Brazil: Rio Negro 5; Borba, Rio Madeira i; 
Rio Jurua I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. in 

vides, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Mazagao, Cameta, Baiao), 
and Rio Tapajtfz (Boim); STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 
1928 Pinheiro, Para. 

Range: Northern Brazil south of the Amazon, from the Tapa- 
j6z to Para and extending east into the northern districts of 
Maranhao (Miritiba). 1 

i: "Brazil" (unspecified i). 

*Xipholena atro-purpurea (Wied). WIED'S CHATTERER. 

Ampelis atro-purpurea WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 262 (8vo ed., p. 260), 1820 
Morro d'Arara, Mucuri River, Espirito Santo. 

Ampelis purpurea LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 57, 1823 
Bahia (descr. of adult and immature male); WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3. (Oi P- 397. J83O Lagda d'Arara, Espirito Santo; BURMEISTER, Syst. 
Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 428, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Xipholena atropurpurea SCLATER and SALVIN, Exotic Orn., p. 9, pi. 5, 1866 
wooded region of eastern Brazil; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 388, 
1888 Pernambuco and Bahia, Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2, p. 241, 1889 Rio Mucuri (note on type); IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, 
p. 156, 1900 Nova Friburgo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 314, 1907 
Bahia and Espirito Santo; LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 
southern Bahia. 

Xipholena purpurea PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 133, 1868 Brazil = Bahia 
(plumages). 

Range: Wooded region of eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco 
south to Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo). 

4: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia 3; Bahia i). 

Genus CARPODECTES Salvin. 2 

Carpodectes SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., "1864," p. 583, pub. April, 1865 type 
Carpodectes nitidus SALVIN. 

Carpodectes nitidus nitidus Salvin. SNOWY COTINGA. 

Carpodectes nitidus SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., "1864," p. 583, pi. 36, pub. April, 
1865 Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 
8, p. 183, 1865 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 117, 1868 Tucur- 
riquf, Costa Rica; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1878, p. 65 San Carlos, Costa 
Rica (descr. of female); RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., I, p. 255, 1878 
Pacuar6, Costa Rica (descr. of young male); idem, I.e., u, p. 544, 1888 

'Material examined. Para district (Para, Igarape'-assu, Ipitinga, Peixe-Boi, 
etc.) 15; Miritiba, Maranhao 2. 

*The three members of the genus, while presenting excellent distinguishing 
characters, are clearly but races of a single specific unit. 



ii2 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pacuar (descr. of imm. male); ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, I, 
p. 118, 1887 Carrillo and Pacuar6; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
389, 1888 Tucurriqui; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, 
p. 140, pi. 42 (male, fenjale), 1891 Nicaragua (Greytown) and Costa 
Rica (Tucurriqui, Pacuare", San Carlos); RICHMOND, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
16, p. 509, 1893 Rio Frio, Costa Rica and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; 
BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 150, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras; 
RIDGWAV, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 788, 1907 Atlantic slope 
of Costa Rica and Nicaragua; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 674, 
1910 Carrillo, Rfo Frio, Guacimo, Lim6n, Reventaz6n, Guapiles, Costa 
Rica; RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 23, 1919 Pacuarito, Costa Rica; 
KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 458, 1928 Almi- 
rante, Panama. 

Range: Caribbean slope of Honduras (Ceiba), Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica, and extreme northern Panama (Almirante Bay). 

*Carpodectes nitidus antoniae Ridgway. ANTONIA'S COTINGA. 

Carpodectes antoniae (ZELED6N MS.) RIDGWAY, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 27, pi. 2 (male), 
Jan., 1884 Pirris, southwestern Costa Rica; idem, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
6, No. 26, "1883," p. 410, April, 1884 Pirris; idem, I.e., 10, p. 20, 1887 
Pirris (descr. of female); ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 
1887 Pozo Azul de Pirris; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 389, 1888 
western Costa Rica; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, 
p. 141, 1891 Pirris; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 41, 1902 
Pedregal, Chiriqui, Panama; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
789, 1907 Pacific slope of Costa Rica and western Panama; CARRIKER, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 674, 1910 Pozo Azul de Piris, Costa Rica. 

Range: Pacific slope of Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris and 
Pigres) and western Panama (Chiriqui). 

i: Costa Rica (Pozo Azul de Pirris i). 

Carpodectes nitidus hopkei Berlepsch. 1 HOPKE'S COTINGA. 

Carpodectes hopkei BERLEPSCH, Orn. Monatsber., 5, p. 174, 1897 San Jose 1 , 
Rio Dagua, Colombia (type examined); HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 611, 
1902 Ventana, Ecuador (spec, examined); HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, 
p. 1147 N6vita, Choc6, Colombia (crit., plumages); CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 499, 1917 Iguamiand6, Choc6, Colombia; idem, 
1-c., 55, p. 552, 1926 Ecuador. 

Range: Pacific coast of Colombia (Novita, Iguamiand6, Rio 
Dagua) and northwestern Ecuador (Ventanas, prov. Esmeraldas). 

1 Carpodectes nitidus hopkei BERLEPSCH: Immediately recognizable from its 
allies by much larger size, black bill, and by the black apical spots on the six 
outer primaries and the central rectrices of the adult males. Wing (male) 158- 
171, (female) 140-145; tail 95-102, (female) 85-90; bill 20-22, (female) 18-20. 

Material examined. Colombia: N6vita, Rio Tamand 13, San Jos4, Rio 
Dagua n. Ecuador: Ventanas, prov. Esmeraldas 3. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 113 

Genus EUCHLORNIS Filippi.* 

Euchlornis FILIPPI, Mus. Mediol., No. i., Anim. Vertebr., Cl. 2, (Aves), pp. 

12, 31, 1847 type Ampelis riefferii BOISSONNEAU. 
Pyrrhorhynchus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, p. 103, 1849 type by 

subs, desig. (SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 166) Ampelis viridis LAFRESNAYE 

and D'ORBIGNY. 
Pyrorhynchus BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 315 (=Consp. Voluc. 

Anisod., p. 5), 1854 emendation of Pyrrhorhynchus LAFRESNAYE. 
Euchlorornis CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 103, 1859 emendation 

of Euchlornis FILIPPI. 

*Euchlornis riefferii melanolaema (Sclater). VENEZUELAN FRUIT- 
EATER. 

Pipreola melanolaema SCLATER, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (2), 17, p. 469, 1856 
"in Venezuela, Caraccas" (type in Paris Museum examined); SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1868, p. 628 Caracas; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 781 
upper wood region of Merida; SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 167 part, Caracas, 
Merida, Venezuela; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 377, 1888 part, 
spec, a-d, Caracas, Merida, Venezuela. 

Euchlornis viridis melanolaema HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 208, 
1915 Silla de Caracas and Andes of Merida. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of northwestern Venezuela, from Ca- 
racas to MeYida. 1 

5: Venezuela, Andes of Merida (El Valle 2, Rio Mucujon 3). 

*Euchlomis riefferii riefferii (Boissonneau). RIEFFER'S FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis riefferii BOISSONNEAU, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 3, 1840 Santa Fde Bogota; 
HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, p. 494, 1849 Colombia. 

Pipreola. riefferi SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 22, p. 113, 1854 Quixos, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 166 Bogota and 
"vicinity of Quito" =eastern Ecuador; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 519 Retiro, Medellin, and Santa Elena, Antioquia; BERLEPSCH 
Journ. Orn., 32, p. 306, 1884 Bucaramanga; idem, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 
184, 1887 Bogota; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 377, 1888 
Bogota, Retiro, Santa Elena, "vicinity of Quito" and "San Lucas, Ecua- 
dor"; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 17, 
1899 Pun, Ecuador; PIGUET, Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Sci. Nat., 5, p. 808, 
1914 Cafetal La Camelia, near Angelopolis, Antioquia. 

*An earlier name is probably Pipreola SWAINSON (Anim. Menag., p. 357, Dec., 
1837 type by monotypy Pipreola chlorolepidota SWAINSON), but as long as the 
genotype has not been identified beyond doubt, it cannot be accepted under the 
present rules of nomenclature. 

*Birds from Merida generally have the upper parts slightly more yellowish 
green, and the whitish apical edges to the lateral rectrices hardly suggested. 

Material examined. North coast mountains, near Caracas (Silla de Caracas 
and Cerro del Avila) 26. Andes of Merida: El Valle 4, Escorial 2, La Hechisera 
2, Rio Mucuj6n 3. 



ii4 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Euchlornis viridis riefferii HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 208, 1915 

Colombia (Bogota, Antioquia). 

Euchlornis riefferi riefferi CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 498, 
1917 Fusugasugd, El Roble, and Subia (Eastern Andes), El Eden and 
Santa Elena (northern Central Andes), Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 549, 
1926 Sabanilla, Macas region, Baeza, below Oyacachi, and upper Sumaco, 
eastern Ecuador. 

Range : Subtropical Zone of eastern Ecuador and northern Cen- 
tral as well as Eastern Andes of Colombia, east to the Venezuelan 
line (Paramo de Tama). 1 

7: Colombia (Bogotd 2; El Eden, East Quindio Andes i; 
Paramo de Tama, Santander 4). 

*Euchlornis riefferii occidentalis Chapman. 2 WEST ANDEAN FRUIT- 
EATER. 

Euchlornis riefferi occidentalis CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 630, 
1914 San Antonio, Western Andes, Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 498, 
1917 San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, La Florida, Cocal, and Almaguer 
(Western Andes), and (?) Salento (west slope of Central Andes), Colom- 
bia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 549, 1926 "Gualea," Verdecocha, and Salvias, 
Ecuador. 

Pipreola melanolaema (not of SCLATER, 1856) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 
67, 1860 Chillanes, above Pallatanga, Ecuador; idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 
167 part, Chillanes and Intaj f=Intac], Ecuador; idem, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 377, 1888 part, spec, e-g, Intac and Chillanes, Ecuador; 
SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 17, 1899 

Nanegal; MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Geogr. Amide Mes. Arc Mend. 
Equat., 9, p. 663, 1911 Canchacoto (above Santo Domingo) and Gualea, 
Ecuador. 



from the Paramo de Tama form the transition to E. r. melanolaema, 
and one of our specimens (an adult male) approaches it very closely. Three adult 
males from the northern section of the Central Andes (Santa Elena, El Eden) and 
one from Pun, northeastern Ecuador agree with the average of Bogota skins. The 
localities "Vicinity of Quito" and "San Lucas, Ecuador," given by Sclater, are 
doubtless incorrect, the only form found on the western slope of the Ecuadorian 
Andes being the dark-headed E. r. occidentalis. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 14; Santa Elena, Antioquia 2; El 
Eden, East Quindio Andes i. Ecuador: Pun i, "near Bafios" 2. 

1 Euchlornis riefferii occidentalis CHAPMAN: Most nearly related to, and agree- 
ing in blackish head with, E. r. melanolaema, but upper parts rather darker (less 
yellowish) green; edges to greater upper wing coverts broader, less sharply defined, 
and wholly green, there being at best a narrow yellowish fringe at the very tip; 
tertials with much more green, this color occupying the whole of the outer web, 
and .the whitish apical edges decidedly narrower. Wing (adult males) 92-95; tail 
70-73; bill 14-15. 

Birds from Ecuador agree with those from Colombia in wing markings, but 
approach E. r. chachapoyas in having the middle as well as the sides of the posterior 
under parts spotted with green. 

Material examined. Colombia: San Antonio 6, Almaguer I. Ecuador: 
above Gualea 2, Mindo i, Nanegal 3, Canchacoto i, "Ambato" I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 115 

Pipreola riefferi (not of BOISSONNEAU) GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 713 
Mindo, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Euchlornis (Pipreola) melanolaema LONNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, 
No. 25, p. 76, 1922 road to Nanegal, near Mindo, and road to Gualea, 
Ecuador. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of western Ecuador and Western 
Andes of Colombia. 1 

3: Colombia (San Antonio i; Almaguer, Cauca i); Ecuador 
(Nanegal i). 

Euchlornis riefferii chachapoyas Hellmayr. 2 CHACHAPOYAS FRUIT- 
EATER. 

Euchlornis viridis chachapoyas HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 206, 
July, 1915 Chachapoyas, northern Peru. 

Pipreola riefferi (not of BOISSONNEAU) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 
24 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 375, 1884 Tamiapampa. 

Pipreola viridis (not of LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBINGY) MENEGAUX, Rev. 
Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 part, Nuevo Loreto, east of Tayabamba, 
Peru (descr. of female; spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Range: Northern Peru, in depts. of Amazonas (Chachapoyas, 
San Pedro, Tamiapampa) and Libertad (Nuevo Loreto, prov. 
Pataz). 

Euchlornis intermedia intermedia (Taczanowski).* INTERMEDIATE 
FRUIT-EATER. 

Pipreola viridis intermedia TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 376, 1884 Maray- 
nioc, dept. Junin, Peru; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, 
p. 370 Chilpes, Vitoc, and Culumachay, Maraynioc, dept. Junin. 

'The northwestern limit of its range cannot at present be defined, and until 
adult males become available for comparison, it will be impossible to decide 
whether a single female from Sal en to (east of Cartago), on the west slope of the 
Central Andes, in the American Museum is referable to occidentalis or riefferii. 

1 Euchlornis riefferii chachapoyas HELLMAYR: Adult male similar to E. r. 
occidentalis, but wings shorter and bill smaller; upper parts deeper, more bluish 
green; yellow collar around the hind neck either complete or interrupted but for 
a short distance in the middle; no plain yellow abdominal line, the median under 
parts being spotted with green like the sides and flanks; tail without any, or 
with mere traces of, white apical edges; female exactly like E. r. occidentalis in 
coloration, but smaller. Wing (adult males) 86 #-91, twice 92, (female) 83; tail 
67-75; bill 12. 

Material examined. Peru: Chachapoyas 12, San Pedro I, Nuevo Loreto 2. 

'Euchlornis intermedia intermedia (TACZANOWSKI) appears to constitute a 
distinct species, as I am led to believe by material recently examined in the Paris 
Museum. It differs from E. riefferii chachapoyas and its northern allies by larger 
size; deep black head all round, with large glossy steel-blue marginal edges; 
bicolored tail, the entire inner web and a distinct subapical band across the outer 
web of the five outer rectrices being black in abrupt contrast to the green of 
the remaining portion, while the median pair is provided with a black subapical 



u6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Ampelis viridis (not of THUNBERG) TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 269, 
1844 Peru; idem, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 135, 1846 Montafias 
of central Peru (descr. of female). 

Pipreola viridis TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, P- 54 Maraynioc, Peru; 
SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 167 part, Junm destrict, Peru; idem, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 378, 1888 part, spec, a, Pumamarca; MENEGAUX, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 part, Cumpang, east of Tayabamba, 
Peru (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Range: Subtropical Zone of central and northern Peru, in depts. 
of Junin (Rumicruz, Maraynioc, Chilpes, Culumachay, Pumamarca) 
and Libertad (Cumpang). 

Euchlornis intermedia signata Hellmayr. 1 D'ORBIGNY'S FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis viridis (not of THUNBERG, 1823) LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. 
Av., I, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 40, 1837 Yungas, Bolivia (type in Paris 
Museum examined; =female); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Ame'r. Mrid., Ois., p. 
298, pi. 31, fig. 2, 1839 Chulumani, Yungas of La Paz, Bolivia. 

Euchlornis riefferii signata HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 199, 
1917 new name for Ampelis viridis LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, preoc- 
cupied; idem, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 13, 1925 Yungas (note on type). 

Pipreola melanolaema (not of SCLATER, 1856) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1873, p. 186 Huasampilla, Peru; SCLATER, I.e., 1873, p. 780 
Huasampilla. 

Pipreola viridis SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 167 part, descr. and hab. Andes of 
Cuzco and Bolivia; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 
Chulumani and Tilotilo, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
378, 1888 part, spec, b-g, Huasampilla, Peru and Tilotilo, Bolivia. 

band (about 12 mm. wide) across the whole width of the feather; very conspicuous 
white apical edges to all of the rectrices and remiges, excepting the two outer- 
most primaries, and by having the under parts (below the black foreneck) densely 
variegated all over with greenish black squamate markings. The female, except 
for lacking the black head, exhibits similar difference. Wing 99, (female) 95; tail 
87, (female) 81; bill 13. 

The late G. A. Baer, in August, 1900, obtained a single adult male in perfect 
plumage at Cumpang, alt. 2400 meters, east of Tayabamba, dept. Libertad, which 
seems to be inseparable from topotypical examples of E. i. intermedia, while in 
the same general region, though at a lower altitude, at Nuevo Loreto, alt. 1200 
meters, a pair of E. r. chachapoyas was secured by the same collector in July, 1900. 
Although there may be a difference in the vertical distribution of the two forms, 
it seems advisable to regard them at least, for the present as specifically 
distinct. 

Material examined. Peru: Rumicruz, alt. 9700 ft., dept. Junin (American 
Museum of Natural History, New York) 2; Cumpang, alt. 2400 meters, dept. 
Libertad (Paris Museum) i. 

Euchlornis intermedia signata HELLMAYR: Similar to E. i. intermedia, but adult 
male with a post-auricular band of lemon chrome across sides of neck, and with 
the middle of the breast and abdomen extensively plain (unmarked) bright yellow; 
female with yellow orbital ring much more conspicuous, lores and upper throat 
strongly suffused with yellowish, etc. Wing 98-100, (female) 91-98; tail 85-87, 
(female) 80-87; bill 13-14. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 117 

Range: Subtropical Zone of southeastern Peru (Huasampilla, 
dept. Cuzco; below Limbani, dept. Puno) and Bolivia (Yungas of 
La Paz and Cochabamba). 1 

Euchlornis lubomirskii ( Taczanowski) * LUBOMIRSKI'S FRUIT-EATER. 

Pipreola lubomirskii TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 236, pi. 22 
Tambillo, dept. Cajamarca, Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 377, 1884 
Tambillo; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 380, 1888 Tambillo; 
GOODFELLOW, Ibis, iQOi, p. 713 Baeza, eastern Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Euchlornis lubomirskii CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 499, 1917 
La Candela, sources of the Magdalena River, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, 
P- 55. X 9 2 6 below Oyacachi, Ecuador. 

(?) Pipreola chlorolepidota (not of SWAINSON) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 
441, 1859 Rio Napo, Ecuador. 

(?) Pipreola formosa (not of HARTLAUB) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
378, 1888 part, spec, f, Rio Napo. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of southern Colombia (La Candela, 
head of the Magdalena Valley), eastern Ecuador (Baeza; below 
Oyacachi), and northern Peru (Tambillo, prov. Jaen). 

Euchlornis jucunda (Sclater). 3 YELLOW-VENTED FRUIT-EATER. 

Pipreola jucunda SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 89, pi. 160, 1860 Cachi- 
Llacta, near Nanegal, Ecuador (descr. of male); idem, Ibis, 1878, p. 171 
Ecuador (monog., descr. of female); TACZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1884, p. 298 Cayandeled; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 

J Two specimens from below Limbani, the male unfortunately immature, 
appear to be inseparable from a Bolivian series, except by smaller size. 

Material examined. Peru: below Limbani, northern Puno 2. Bolivia: 
Chulumani (the type) i; Chaco, near La Paz 3; San Antonio i; Sandillani 7; 
Cocapata 4 ; San Cristobal I ; Incachaca , Cochabamba 6 ; Yungas of Cochabamba i . 

1 Euchlornis lubomirskii (TACZANOWSKI): Differs from the E. riefferii group 
by lacking the yellow band across the sides of the neck and nape, as well as the 
white apical edges to the inner secondaries and lateral rectrices; by having the 
tertials entirely green, including their inner webs, and the lower surface of the 
tail tinged with glaucous. Besides, the head and throat, in the adult male, are even 
deeper black than in E. intermedia, while the middle of the breast and abdomen is 
uniform bright yellow, without any greenish markings. Wing 91-96, (female) 92; 
tail 64-68; bill 14-15. 

E. lubomirskii is nearly related to, and resembles, E. jucunda in the absence 
of white markings on wings and tail, glaucous olive under surface of the rectrices, 
and wholly green tertials, but differs in that the male has the foreneck (like the 
throat) glossy black instead of orange, whereas the female may be distinguished 
by lacking the crescent of orange yellow streaks across the foreneck. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Baeza 6. Peru: Tambillo i. 

'Euchlornis jucunda (SCLATER) : Adult male agreeing with E. pulchra in the 
large, wholly orange bill, in possessing an orange post-auricular band across 
sides of neck and an orange yellow jugular area, as well as in lacking every trace 
of white apical margins to remiges and rectrices; but somewhat smaller; top and 
sides of the head and upper throat (chin) glossy black (instead of dusky green); 



n8 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

p. 381, 1888 Cachi-Llacta, Intac, and "Quito", western Ecuador; 
GOODFELLOW, Ibis, iQOi, p. 713 Nanegal; MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Geog. 
Arm6e Mes. Arc Mend. Equat., 9, p. 863, 1911 Gualea. 

Euchlornis (Pipreola) jucunda LONNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 
25, p. 76, 1922 road to Gualea and Mindo, Ecuador. 

Euchlornis jucunda CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 550, 1926 
"Quito." 

Range: Subtropical Zone of western Ecuador. 

Euchlornis pulchra Hellmayr. 1 BEAUTIFUL FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis elegans (not of THUNBERG, 1823) TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 9, (i), p. 
385, 1843 "ad flumen Tullumayo," dept. Junin, Peru (descr. of male); 
idem, I.e., 10, (i), p. 269, 1844 Peru; idem, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., 
Aves, p. 135, 1846 Peru; HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, p. 494, 
1849 part, Peru. 

Euchlornis pulchra HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. 199, 1917 new 
name for Ampelis elegans TSCHUDI, preoccupied. 

Pipreola elegans SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 172 Peru (descr. of type); TAC- 
ZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 378, 1884 near Achamal, Peru (descr. o* 9); 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 381, 1888 Peru (descr. of male); 
BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 370 Garita del Sol, 
Vitoc, Peru; MENEGAUX, Rev. Prang. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 Cueva Seca, 
Rfo Tocache, Peru (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

blackish border to orange jugular area interrupted in the middle; yellow zone 
along middle of breast and abdomen brighter and much more extensive. Wing 
90-93; tail 60-63; bill 15-16. 

The male of this form stands somewhat between E. pulchra and E. lubomirs- 
kii, and combines the orange yellow post-auricular band and jugular area of the 
former with the glossy black head and extensive bright yellow abdominal zone 
of the latter. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Cayandeled 4, Nanegal i, Gualea 2, Mindo 
2, "Quito" 3. 

1 Euchlornis pulchra HELLMAYR, together with E. lubomirskii and E. jucunda, 
forms a natural group in the genus, and when we shall have acquired a fuller 
knowledge of their ranges and variation, it may be found necessary to merge 
them into a single specific unit. In the male sex, it differs from both of its allies 
by dusky green (instead of glossy black) head and upper throat. On the under 
parts, it is very similar to E. jucunda and, like this species, has on the sides of 
the neck a broad orange yellow post-auricular band, margined posteriorly by 
blackish; however, it can be easily told by the black border to the orange yellow 
jugular area being continuous, and by the much paler as well as much less exten- 
sive yellow abdominal area. The female closely resembles that of E. aureopectus, 
but lacks the yellowish white apical margins to lateral remiges and inner remiges. 
Wing 95 (Cushi Libertad), 101 (Cueva Seca), (female) 93; tail 67-78; bill 14-15. 

An adult male from Cueva Seca, alt. 1800 meters, Libertad, differs from two 
from central Peru (Cushi Libertad and Garita del Sol) by having the blackish 
border to the orange yellow jugular area medially interrupted, and approaches 
in that respect the Ecuadorian E. jucunda. 

Material examined. Peru: Garita del Sol, Vitoc (adult male) i; Chelpes, 
Junm (female) i; Cushi Libertad, alt. 1820 meters, Huanuco (adult male) i; 
Cueva Seca, alt. 1800 meters, Libertad (adult male) I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 119 

Pipreola aureipectus (not of LAFRESNAYE) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, 
p. 24 Achamal, near Chirimoto, Peru. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Peru, in depts. of San Martin (near 
Achamal, Rio Huambo; Cueva Seca, Rio Tocache), Hudnuco 
(Cushi Libertad), and Junin (Rio Tulumayo; Garita del Sol, Vitoc; 
Chelpes). 

Euchlornis aureopectus festiva Todd. 1 TODD'S GOLDEN-BREASTED 
FRUIT-EATER. 

Euchlornis aureipectus festiva TODD, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, p. 211, 1912 

Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum 

examined). 
Pipreola aureipectus (not Ampelis aureopectus LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER, Ibis, 

1878, p. 171 part, Caracas, Venezuela; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 

380, 1888 part, spec, a-g, Caracas, Venezuela. 
Euchlornis aureopectus aureopectus HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 

78, A, Heft 5, p. 94, 1911 La Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo (crit.). 

Range : Subtropical Zone of coast ranges of northern Venezuela, 
in state of Carabobo (Cumbre de Valencia) and Distrito Federal 
(Silla de Caracas; Galipdn, Cerro del Avila). 

*Euchlornis aureopectus aureopectus (Lafresnaye). GOLDEN- 
BREASTED FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis aureo-pectus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 68, 1843 Santa F6 de 
Bogota; idem, Mag. Zool.. (2), 5, cl. 2, pi. 39, 1843 Santa F de Bogota; 
HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, p. 494, 1849 part, Bogota. 

Pipreola aureipectus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota; idem, 
Ibis, 1878, p. 171 part, Antioquia and Bogota, Colombia; idem and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 380 " Antioquia" =Concordia, Colombia; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 380, 1888 part, spec. h,i, Concordia, 
Colombia. 

Euchlornis aureipectus aureipectus TODD, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 8, p. 211 (in 
text), 1912 Bogotd; Guarico and Anzoategui, Lara, Venezuela (spec, 
examined). 

1 Euchlornis aureopectus festiva TODD: Adult male similar to . a. aureopectus, 
but yellow area underneath much larger, extending in a broad zone down to the 
anal region, only the sides of the breast and flanks being spotted or streaked with 
green; female not distinguishable. Size perhaps larger on the average. 

Various specimens show a few narrow yellow cross-bands on the sides of the 
neck, and an adult male from Galipan possesses even a well-defined post-auricular 
band, very nearly as wide as in E. a. decora. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Distrito Federal: Galipan, Cerro del Avila 
19; Silla de Caracas 2; La Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo 15. 

Length of wing in adult males in millimeters: 

E. a. aureopectus. Bogotd, 90, 93, 94; La Palmita, Santander, 88, 90, 90, 90, 
92, 94; Pedregosa, MeYida, 93; Guamito, Trujillo, 92, 92, 96; Anzoategui, Lara, 
90; Guarico, Lara, 90, 94. 

E. a. festiva. Galipan, Cerro del Avila, near Caracas, 89, 90, 91, 91, 94, 94, 
95t 95. 96, 96; Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, 93^, 95, 95, 95, 97, 99. 



i2o FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Ranges: Subtropical Zone of western Venezuela (in states of 
Lara, Trujillo, and Merida) and of the Eastern and Western Andes 
of Colombia (Bogota; La Palmita, Santander; Concordia, Antio- 
quia). 1 

2: Venezuela, MeYida (Pedregosa i; Nevados i). 

Euchlornis aureopectus decora (Bangs). 2 SANTA MARTA FRUIT- 
EATER. 

Pipreola aureipectus decora BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 13, p. 98, 1899 
Chirua, Santa Marta region; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 155, 
1900 Valparaiso and El Libano, Santa Marta region. 

Euchlornis aureopectus decora TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, 
p. 332, 1922 El Libano, Valparaiso, Cincinnati, Las Taguas, Las Vegas, 
San Miguel, and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Santa Marta Range in northern 
Colombia. 

Euchlornis frontalis frontalis Sclater. BOLIVIAN FRUIT-EATER. 

Euchlornis frontalis SCLATER,* P.Z.S.Lond., 26, p. 446, 1858 Bolivia (descr- 
of female; type in Derby Museum, Liverpool). 

Pipreola frontalis SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 169, pi. 6 Tilotilo, Bolivia (descr. 
of male and female); idem and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 Tilo- 
tilo (spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 379, 1888 
part, spec. b,c, Tilotilo; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, 
p. 370 Garita del Sol, Vitoc, dept. Junin. 

*Adult males from the western districts of Venezuela (Gudrico and Anzoa- 
tegui, Lara; Guamito, Trujillo; Pedregosa, M6rida) agree with a series from the 
East Colombian Andes (La Palmita, Santander) in having the bright yellow area 
beneath restricted to throat and foreneck and well defined posteriorly, while the 
rest of the under parts is heavily spotted or streaked with green, leaving but a 
narrow, indistinct unmarked pale yellow abdominal line. Only one male from 
Bogotd and another from La Palmita (Carnegie Museum, No. 55061) approach 
E. a. festiva, being, however, more boldly striped below. 

According to Chapman (Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 551, 1926), the bird 
from Buenavista, Narino, southwestern Colombia, previously recorded as E. 
jucunda (I.e., 36, p. 499, 1917), is probably referable to a form of E. aureopectus. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 4; La Palmita, Santander 9. 
Venezuela: Guarico, Lara 4; Anzoategui, Lara 2; Guamito, Trujillo 6; Pedregosa, 
M6rida i ; Nevados, Mrida I . 

1 Euchlornis aureopectus decora (BANGS): Similar to E. a. aureopectus, but 
somewhat smaller, and adult male with a distinct post-auricular band of bright 
yellow across sides of neck. Wing 83-88, (female) 84; tail 63-67; bill 12-13. Six 
specimens from Valparaiso, El Libano, etc., examined. 

'Pipreola chlorolepidota SWAINSON (Anim. Menag., p. 357, Dec., 1837 Peru) 
appears to have been based on a female of this section, but I cannot make it fit 
either frontalis or squamipectus. The passage "chin with a central stripe of orange 
yellow" would seem to correspond to frontalis, while the description of the under 
parts "yellow, each feather having a green border and an additional blackish 
lunule in the centre, only seen when the feathers are raised" applies better to 
squamipectus. The type, which is unfortunately lost, probably came from northern 
Peru, whence no material is available. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 121 

EuMornis frontalis frontalis CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 187, p. 6, 1925 
Santo Domingo and Rfo Inambari, Carabaya, Peru. 

Range: Southern Peru, in depts. of Junin (Garita del Sol, 
Vitoc) and northern Puno (Santo Domingo and Rio Inambary, 
northern slope of Sierra de Carabaya), and Bolivia (Yungas of La 
Paz and Cochabamba). 1 

Euchlornis frontalis squamipectus Chapman* SCALY-BREASTED 

FRUIT-EATER. 
Euchlornis frontalis squamipectus CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 187, p. 5, 

1925 Zamora, eastern Ecuador; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 

549, 1926 near Macas and Zamora, Ecuador. 
Pipreola frontalis (not of SCLATER) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 379, 

1888 part, spec, a, Pindo, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Range: Eastern Ecuador (Zamora; Pindo; near Macas). 

Euchlornis formosa 3 formosa (Hartlaub}. HANDSOME FRUIT-EATER. 
A mpelis formosa HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, pp. 275, 493, pi. 14, 

fig. i, 1849 Venezuela = Caracas. 
Pipreola formosa SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1869, p. 252 Coast 

Range of Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 168 part, 

Caracas; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 378, 1888 part, spec, c-e, 

Caracas and Puerto Cabello. 
Euchlornis formosa HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 

93, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo (crit.). 

Range: Subtropical Zone of northern Venezuela, from the Dis- 
trito Federal (Caracas region) through Carabobo (La Cumbre de 
Valencia; Las Quiguas )west to Lara (Lagunita de Aroa). 4 

*A single male from Junin (Garita del Sol) agrees with others from more 
southern localities. 

Material. Peru: Garita del Sol, Junin i; Santo Domingo, Puno 4. Bolivia: 
Tilotilo 2; Yungas de Samaipata i. 

1 Euchlornis frontalis squamipectus CHAPMAN: Similar to E. f. frontalis, but 
with decidedly larger (wider) bill; adult male with top and sides of the head 
antique green, much darker than the bright grass-green back, instead of concolor- 
ous with the latter; scarlet throat area less extensive; sides of body more definitely 
barred with green; female with more yellow about the forehead, and entire under 
parts, from bill to tail coverts, yellow regularly barred or lunulated with dark 
green (instead of the upper throat being bright yellow, tinged with scarlet, and 
the breast uniform dark green). Wing (male) 88, (female) 83; tail 62, (female) 
54; bill 11-12. 

Material examined. Ecuador: near Macas i; Zamora (the type) i, Pindo i. 

'The small grayish horn-color bill, the white apical markings to the tertials, 
the scarlet jugular spot, and the absence of the blackish lateral border to the 
orange yellow pectoral area distinguish this rather aberrant species from the 
large- and orange-billed section (E. lubomirskii,jucunda, pulchrd). Its nearest rela- 
tive is perhaps E. sclateri which is, however, much smaller and quite differently 
colored in the male sex. 

^Material examined. Venezuela: La Cumbre de Valencia 42; Las Quiguas 5; 
Lagunita de Aroa, Lara 3. 



122 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Euchlornis formosa rubidior Chapman. 1 TURUMIQUIRE FRUIT-EATER. 

Euchlornis formosa rubidior CHAPMAN, Amer. Mus. Novit., 191, p. 10, 1925 
La Trinidad, near Carapas, Mount Turumiquire, Venezuela. 

Pipreola formosa (not of HARTLAUB) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1868, pp. 1 68, 172 near Caripe"; SCLATER, Ibis, 1878, p. 168 part, descr. 
et hab. Caripe"; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 378, 1888 part, spec. a,b, 
Caripe\ 

Range: Subtropical Zone of northeastern Venezuela, in states 
of Sucre and Monagas (Caripe'; Los Palmales; Santa Ana Valley; 
La Trinidad, near Carapas; Mount Turumiquire). 

*Euchlornis sclateri Cornalia* SCLATER'S FRUIT-EATER. 

Euchlornis sclateri CORNALIA, Contrib. Ornith., 1852, p. 133, pi. 101, 1852 
"Peru" (errore); Quijos, Ecuador, to be regarded as type locality; idem, 
Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 5, p. 107, pi. 4, 1853 "Bolivia" (errore). 

Euchlornis sclateri pallidigula ZIMMER, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 60, 1924 Huachipa, upper Huallaga River, dept. Huanuco, 
Peru. 

Pipreola sclateri SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 22, p. 113, 1854 Quijos, Ecuador 
(crit.); SALVIN, Ibis, 1874, p. 324 Archidona, Ecuador; SCLATER, l.c., 
1878, p. 170 eastern Ecuador (monog.); idem and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1880, p. 155 Sarayacu, Ecuador; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
379, 1888 Sarayacu and Rfo Napo, Ecuador; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 2, p. 74, 1889 Rio Napo. 

Euchlornis sclateri sclateri CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 549, 
1926 Rfo Suno and below San Jose\ Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Ecuador (Quijos; Archidona; 
Sarayacu; Rio Suno; Rio Napo; below San Jose") and Peru (Huachipa 
and Pozuzo, dept. Hudnuco; Rio Perene", dept. Junin). 8 

2 : Peru (Huachipa 2). 

1 Euchlornis formosa rubidior CHAPMAN: Similar to E. f. formosa, but white 
markings on tertials much more restricted, being only about half as wide; remiges, 
except the four outer primaries, distinctly, though narrowly, margined with white 
apically; chest spot of male generally less (not more, as stated by Chapman) 
suffused with orange; female with throat yellowish, spotted or barred with dusky 
greenish (instead of wholly green or very nearly so). Wing 87-90, (female) 87-89; 
tail 65-68; bill n-12. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Santa Ana Valley i; Los Palmales 3; 
mountains inland of Cumana 3. 

*The small size, the parti-colored bill, and the deep green abdomen, sharply 
defined against the red chest, distinguish this species from the rest of the genus. 

*Examination of additional material in the collections at London and Tring 
shows E. s. pallidigula to have been based on individual rather than geographic 
variation. Birds from Pozuzo (Huanuco) and Perene" (Junfn) are, so far as colora- 
tion is concerned, nowise different from a series of Ecuadorian skins. The only 
point of distinction that seems to hold is the slightly shorter wing. Five Peruvian 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 123 

Euchlornis whitelyi (Salvin and Godman). 1 WHITELY'S FRUIT-EATER. 

Pipreola whitelyi SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 449, 1884 Roraima 
(descr. of female); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 304 Roraima; idem. l,c., 1886, 
pp. 500, 502, pi. 12 (male, female) Mount Twek-quay; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 381, 1888 Roraima and Mount Twek-quey. 

Euchlornis whitelyi CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 296, 1921 Mount 
Twek-quey and Roraima. 

Range : Mountains of British Guiana (Roraima and Twek-quey, 
alt. 3000 to 6000 feet). 

*Euchlornis arcuata (Lafresnaye). ARCUATE FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis arcuata LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 98, 1843 "Colombie" = 
Bogota; idem, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, cl. 2, pi. 40 (=male), 1843 Colombia; 
HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), i, p. 494, 1849 Colombia; SCLATER 
and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 Tilotilo, Bolivia. 

Colin go. arcuata JARDINE, Contrib. Orn., 1849, p. 44 west side of Pichincha, 
Ecuador. 

Ampclion arcuatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 Bogota; idem, 
Lc., 26, p. 553, 1858 Matos, Ecuador; idem, I.e., 28, p.8g, 1860 Puellaro, 
Ecuador; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 375, 1888 Bogota, Meiida, 
Intac, Matos, "Quito," Tilotilo (Bolivia); ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2, p. 74, 1889 near Quito; MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6og. Arme'e Mes. 
Arc M6rid. Equat., 9, p. B 63, 1911 Gualea, Ecuador; idem, Rev. Fran?. 
d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 Cumpang, n. e. of Tayabamba, Peru; L#NNBERG 
and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 75, 1922 below Calacali, south- 
west side of Mojanda, and road to Gualea, Ecuador. 

Ampelio arcuatus SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 255, 1862 Matos and 
Bogota; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 781 Upper wood 
region of MeYida, Venezuela; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, P- 54 Maraynioc, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 24 Chachapoyas, Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 
379, 1884 Maraynioc and Chachapoyas, Peru; TACZANOWSKI and BER- 
LEPSCH, P.Z.S.Lond., 1885, p. 93 San Rafael, Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and 
STOLZMANN, I.e., 1896, p. 370 Maraynioc, Peru; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, 
p. 713 Mindo, near Intac, Gualea, and Baeza, Ecuador. 

Pipreola arcuata SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, 
p. 17, 1899 Nanegal, Gualea, and Frutillas, Ecuador. 

Euchlornis arcuata CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 498, 1917 Lagu- 
neta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 548, 1926 Nono, above Gualea, above 

specimens measure: 72, 73, 73, 74, 75, while in eight from Ecuador the figures 
run from 74 to 78. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Suno 2, Rio Napo i, Sarayacu 5. Peru: 
Huachipa, Huanuco 2; Pozuzo, alt. 750 meters, Huanuco (Tring Museum) 2; 
Peren6, Junin (adult male, March 10, 1899. P. O. Simons. British Museum) I. 

*An isolated species with no near ally. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima (the type) I, Mount Twek- 
quey 3. 



124 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Mindo, above Nanegal, below Oyacachi, and upper Suraaco, Ecuador; 
BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 Pilon, Ecuador. 

Range: Upper Subtropical and humid Temperate Zones of the 
Andes, from extreme western Venezuela (Cordillera de MeYida) and 
Colombia (Central and Eastern Andes) to northern Bolivia (dept. 
La Paz). 1 

i: Venezuela (El Valle, Me*rida i). 

Genus AMPELIOIDES Verreaux. 

Ampelioides VERREAUX, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., 3, Bull., p. 5, 1867 
type by monotypy Ampelioides flavitorques VERREAUX = A mpelis cincta 
TSCHUDI. 

Stictornis RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 18, p. 209, 1905 type by orig. 
desig. Ampelis cincta TSCHUDI. 

Ampeleia REICHENOW, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 555, 1913 type by orig. desig. 
Ampelis cincta TSCHUDI. 

*Ampelioides tschudii (Gray). GIRDLED FRUIT-EATER. 

Ampelis cincta (not of KUHL, 1820) TSCHUDI, Arch. Naturg., 9, (i), p. 385, 
1843 "in sylvis Pangoae" = Pangoa, east of Tarma, dept. Junfn, Peru 
(descr. of female); idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 136, 1846 Peru. 

Cotinga tschudii GRAY (and MITCHELL), Genera Birds, i, p. 279, 1846 new 
name for Ampelis cincta TSCHUDI, preoccupied. 

Ampelioides flavitorques VERREAUX, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., 3, Bull., p. 
5, pi. 2, fig. i (=adult male), 1867 Rio Napo, Ecuador (type in Paris 
Museum examined); NEWTON, Ibis, 1868, p. 222 (crit.). 

Ampelio(n) cinctus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, pi. 104 (male, female), 
1855 Bogota (descr.); idem, I.e., 28, p. 67, 1860 Pallatanga, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 28, p. 89, 1860 Nanegal, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. 
Birds, p. 255, 1862 Pallatanga, Bogota; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exotic 
Ornith., p. 172, 1869 syn., range; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p-52O 
Frontino, Colombia; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 380, 1884 descr. 
of type from Peru and spec, from Ecuador and Bogota; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 375, 1888 Pallatanga, Intac, Frontino, Bogota 
(monog.); GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 714 Santo Domingo, Ecuador; 
MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. Ge"ogr. Arm6e Mes. Arc Mdrid. Equat., 9, p. 
864, 1911 Gualea; LSNNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, 
p. 76, 1922 road to Nanegal. 

Ampelioides tschudii HELLMAYR, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., 13, p. no, 1917 
Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia (crit., plumages); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 

*No racial variation is noticeable in a large series from throughout the range. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Culata 3, El Valle 4, "MeYida" 3. Colom- 
bia: Bogotd 7. Ecuador: above Gualea 4, Mindo 4, Intac 2, near Quito 3, 
Baeza 2. Peru: Maraynioc i. Bolivia: Cocapata, dept. La Paz 9. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 125 

Mus. Nat. Hist., 55, p. 548, 1926 Gualea, Salvias, Las Pinas, Zamora, 
below Rio Sardinas, and near Macas, Ecuador. 

Stictornis cinctus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 498, 1917 Las 
Lomitas, San Antonio, and Cocal (Western Andes), Andalucia (Eastern 
Andes), Colombia. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru 
(south to Junin). 1 

2: Peru (Huachipa, dept. Huanuco i); Colombia (Bogota i). 

Genus IODOPLEURA Lesson. 

lodopleura LESSON, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 45, 1839 type by orig. desig. Pardalotus 

pipra LESSON. 
Heliophilus (not of MEIGEN, 1803) DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., livr. 2, p. 22, 

circa 1854 type by monotypy Heliophilus taunaysii DESCOURTILZ = 

Pardalotus pipra LESSON. 

*Iodopleura pipra pipra (Lesson). LESSON'S CHATTERER. 

Pardalotus pipra LESSON, Cent. Zool., p. 81, pi. 26, 1831 "a Trinquemale' sur 
la c6te de Ceylan," coll. Reynaud errore, we suggest Rio de Janeiro. 

Euphone aurora SUNDEVALL, Vetenskaps-Akad. Handl. for 1833, p. 312, pi. 
ii, fig. 5, 1834 Brazil; GYLDENSTOLPE, Ark. Zool., 19, A, No. i, p. 71, 
1926 (crit.). 

Heliophilus taunaysii DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., livr. 2, p. 22, pi. 24, fig. i, 
circa 1854 Brazil (habits). 

lodopleura pipra DES MURS, Icon. Ornith., livr. 12, pi. 71, fig. 2, 1849; BUR- 
MEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 465, 1856 "Lag6a Santa, Minas 
Geraes"; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 392, 1888 "Novo" Friburgo, Rio; HARTERT, 
Katalog Vogels. Senckenb. Mus., p. 106, 1892 "Sao Paulo"; IHERING, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 217, 1899 Sao Paulo (ex HARTERT); idem, I.e., 4, 
p. 157, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz. 
' P- 3 J 5. J 9O7 range; HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 139, 1915 
Brago do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, in states of 
Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (Nova Friburgo, Cantagallo). 2 
i: Brazil ("Rio" skin i). 

'Birds from Colombia (Bogota) average slightly larger than those from more 
southern localities, but do not differ in coloration. Immature birds have the 
greater upper wing coverts tipped with yellow, preceded by a black subapical 
spot. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogotd 4. Ecuador: Santo Domingo 3, 
above Gualea 4, Rio Napo i. Peru: Huachipa i. 

*Its occurrence in Sao Paulo is still to be confirmed, and Burmeister's record 
from Lagda Santa also appears somewhat questionable in view of the fact that 
the Danish collectors failed to find it in Minas Geraes (see Reinhardt, Vidensk. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 321). Four (out of ten) Rio specimens have 



i26 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

lodopleura pipra leucopygia Salvin. 1 WHITE-RUMPED CHATTERER. 

lodopleura leucopygia SALVIN, Ibis, (5), 3, p. 305, 1885 British Guiana 

(types in British Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 

393, pi. 26, 1888 British Guiana; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 304, 

1921 British Guiana. 
lodopleura pipra (not of LESSON) CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. 

Guiana, 3, p. 697, 1848 Demerara, British Guiana. 

Range: British Guiana. 

lodopleura fusca (Vieillot).* DUSKY CHATTERER. 

Ampelis fusca ViEiLLOT, 3 Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 162, 1817 
"Br6sil," errore, hab. subst. Cayenne (auct. BERLEPSCH, 1908). 

Pipra laplacei EYDOUX and GERVAIS, Mag. Zool., 6, cl. 2, pi. 68, 1836 
"Guyane";idem, Voyage Favorite, 5, (2), p. 41, pi. 16, 1839 "Guyane." 

lodopleura fusca SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 305 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 393, 1888 Bartica Grove, Cayenne, 
Demerara; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 143, 1908 Cayenne; PENARD 
and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 171, 1910 interior of Surinam; CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 305, 1921 Makauria River, Demerara, Bartica 
Grove. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana. 
*Iodopleura isabellae Parzudaki* ISABELLA'S CHATTERER. 

traces of a white uropygial band, which is altogether absent in the others. Wing 
57-60, (female) 56. 

Material examined. Rio de Janeiro (trade skins) 10, Cantagallo i, Braco do 
Sul, Espirito Santo I. 

1 lodopleura pipra leucopygia SALVIN: Similar to /. p. pipra, but slightly 
smaller; rump with a well-defined white cross-band (from 5 to 6 mm. wide); 
throat paler, light ochraceous salmon rather than fawn color; sooty edges on 
under parts decidedly narrower; lower tail coverts likewise paler. Wing (two 
unsexed adults) 54, 56; tail 30; bill 7. 

The types (and only known specimens) are trade skins of the characteristic 
"Demerara" preparation. 

* I. fusca is very nearly allied to, and agrees with, the better known I. isabellae 
in large size (wing 73-78; tail 38-42), heavy bill, extensive white uropygial area, 
and lack of salmon color on throat and under tail coverts. It may, however, be 
distinguished by blackish slate (instead of fuscous or fuscous black) upper parts; 
absence of white markings on lores, cheeks, and postocular region; more blackish 
sides of the head; plain fuscous throat, sides of breast, and belly, the flanks 
being but slightly suffused with white. As in 7. isabellae the silky tuft on the sides 
of the breast is violet in the male, white in the female. 

While probably subspecifically related one to another, 7. fusca and I. isabellae 
are doubtless specifically different from 7. pipra. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Bartica Grove 2, Macauria Creek i, 
Demerara 3. 

*Vieillot's description, though none too good, can hardly apply to another 
species of the present genus. 

^lodopleura guttata LESSON (Rev. Zool., 2, p. 45, 1839 "le S&ie'gal?") may be 
an earlier name, though the passage "thorax, flanc et yentre grisatre avec crois- 
sans bruns" hardly fits the present species. The type is obviously lost. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 127 

lodopleurus isabellae PARZUDAKI, Rev. Zool., 10, p. 186, 1847 Rfo Negro, 
"in Venezuela," coll. Thirion (type now in Paris Museum). 

lodopleura isabellae DES MURS, Icx>n. Ornith., livr. 12, text to pi. 71, fig. I, 
1849; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 266, 1857 Rio Javarri and Rio 
Tocantins; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 579 Rio Tocantins; idem, 
I.e., 1867, pp. 751, 758 Xeberos, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 285 Xeberos, 
Chamicuros, Rio Javarri; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 126, 1868 Rio 
Vaup, Brazil; LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 385 Pard; TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1882, p. 24 Yurimaguas; idem, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 388, 1884 
Xeberos, Chamicuros, Rio Javarri, and Yurimaguas, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 393, 1888 Rio Tocantins, Xeberos, Chamicuros, 
Pebas, Rio Copotaza; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 303, 1889 Tarapoto, 
Peru; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Para; HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 91, 1912 Para; 
p. 132, 1912 Island of Maraj6; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 358, 
1914 Pard, Providencia, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Alcobaca); CHAPMAN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 552, 1926 Napo, Ecuador and Barrigon, 
near Villavicencio, Colombia; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 
169, 1928 Pinheiro, Para. 

lodopleura emiliae DES MURS, Icon. Ornith., livr. 12, pi. 71, fig. i, 1849 
figure of type. 

Range: Northern Brazil (Maraj6 Island; Pard; Rio Tocantins; 
Rio Vaup ; Rio Solimoes ; Rio Puriis) ; eastern Peru, north through 
eastern Ecuador to eastern Colombia (Villavicencio). 1 

i : Peru (Yurimaguas i). 

Genus CALYPTURA Swainson. 

Calyptura SWAINSON in RICHARDSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 491, Feb., 
1832 type by orig. desig. Pardalotus cri status VIEILLOT. 

Calyptura cristata (Vieilloi). SHORT-TAILED CHATTERER. 

Pardalotus cristatus VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 24, p. 528, 
1818 "Br6sil, coll. Delalande, jr." =Rio de Janeiro (type in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Pipra tyranulus (sic) WAGLER, Isis, 1830, p. 940 new name for Pardalotus 
cristatus VIEILLOT. 

Calyptura cristata SWAINSON, Ornith. Draw., Part 2, pi. 24, 1834; BURMEISTER, 
Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 448, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio; CAB AMIS, 
Journ. Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 394, 1888 "Novo" Friburgo; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 4, p. 
156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., 
*t P- 3*5. I 97 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

'Material examined. Brazil: Pard i; Benevides, Para 4; Marajo I; Rio 
Tocantins i; Rio Vaup6 5; Arima, Rio Purus 5; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes i. 
Colombia: "Bogota" 2. Ecuador: Rio Copotaza i. Peru: Yurimaguas i; 
Chamicuros 2; Xeberos 2. 



128 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pardalotus coronatus DESCOURTILZ, Orn. fire's., p. 22, pi. 24, fig. 2, circa 1854 
Brazil (habits). 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, in state of Rio 
de Janeiro (Cantagallo, Nova Friburgo). 1 

Genus ATTILA Lesson. 2 

Attila LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 360, end of 1830 type by monotypy 

Attila brasiliensis LESSON = M uscicapa spadicea GMELIN. 
Dasycephaia SWAINSON, Faun. Bor.-Amer., 2, p. 486, Feb., 1832 type by 

subs, desig. (GRAY, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 41, 1855) Tyrannus 

rufescens SWAINSON = Muscicapa spadicea GMELIN. 
Dasyopsis REICHENBACH, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 66, 1850 type by subs, desig. 

(SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 358, 1888) Attila brasiliensis LESSON 

= Muscicapa spadicea GMELIN. 

*Attila spadiceus spadiceus (Gmelin)* POLYMORPHIC ATTILA. 

Muscicapa spadicea GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 937, 1789 based on "Yel- 
low-rumped Flycatcher" Latham, Gen. Syn. Birds, 2, (i), p. 354, Cayenne 
(type in Leverian, now in Vienna Museum examined; = rufous phase). 

x The range of this rare species is very imperfectly known, the only definite 
localities on record being Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, in the hinterland of Rio 
de Janeiro. 

Material examined. Nova Friburgo I ; Rio (trade skins) 6. 

*This genus should probably be included among the Tyrannidae. 

3 Attila spadiceus spadiceus (GMELIN) offers an almost unique example of 
polymorphic variation or mutation. Not less than twelve names have been pro- 
posed for the various types of coloration, which, in the light of nearly one hundred 
specimens from the Guianan-Amazonian subregion, prove to be merely phases of 
a single taxonomic unit. The principal stages may be characterized as follows: 

(a) Upper parts decidedly green, varying from dull olive citrine to serpentine 
green; rump clear yellow; wing bands rather indistinct, varying from buffy olive 
to dark olive buff and buffy citrine; secondaries scarcely edged with dull brownish 
exteriorly; tail dusky, frequently with a rusty cast; throat and chest citrine of 
different shades, more or less variegated with grayish or yellowish streaks; belly 
white, anteriorly streaked with gray; flanks and under tail coverts more or less 
tinged with lemon yellow or pale greenish yellow; under wing coverts pale greenish 
yellow. This is the variation described as A . brasiliensis, A . viridescens, A . wighti, 
and A. neoxenus. 

(b) The green of the head, throat, and chest is replaced by gray, and this 
color also invades, to a varying degree, the dorsal plumage, while the yellowish 
of the flanks and under wing coverts inclines to a paler tint. This is the stage 
described as A. spodiostethus. 

(c) Upper parts brown, varying through every imaginable shade from medal 
bronze to deep raw umber; wing bands decidedly rufescent, tawny olive to cin- 
namomeous; tertials and edges of secondaries brown or rufous brown like the 
back; rump buffy or primuline yellow; tail distinctly rufescent; throat and chest 
without any green or yellow, being dull gray, streaked with brown; flanks, under 
tail and wing coverts tinged with buffy or ochraceous. Specimens of this color- 
type were named D. uropygialis. 

(d) The entire plumage is invaded by a rufous pigment; the upper parts, 
including the inner secondaries, deep cinnamon or Prout's brown; the wing bars 
and the tail tawny; the rump buffy yellow to ochraceous tawny; the sides of the 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 129 

Tyrannus rufescens SWAINSON, Quart. Journ. Sci., Litt., Arts Roy. Inst., 20, 
No. 40, p. 278, Jan., 1826 locality unknown (=rufous phase). 

AUila brasiliensis LESSON, Trait d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 360, end of 1830 "Brgsil," 
errore (the type examined in the Paris Museum is from Cayenne ; = 
green phase); LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., n, pp. 40, 45, 1848 Cayenne 
(descr. of type); PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, livr. 3, p. 
366, 1855 (type stated to be from Cayenne, not from Brazil); SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 303 Bartica Grove and Camacusa, Brit. Guiana (spec, 
examined); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 328, 1906 Cayenne and British 
Guiana (note on type; variation; descr. of immature plumage) ; BERLEPSCH, 
I.e., 15, p. 141, 1908 Roche- Marie, French Guiana (crit.); PENARD and 
PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 162, 1910 Surinam; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 352, 1914 Benevides, Rio Tocantins (Cameta, Alcobaca), 
Cussary, Monte Alegre, Brazil; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 94, 1916 
Utinga, Para (habits and song descr.). 

head and the ventral surface tawny, paler on the abdomen; under wing coverts 
ochraceous buff or tawny ochraceous. This mutant was described as Muscicapa 
spadicea and AUila rufigularis. 

As long ago as 1906, 1 had called attention to the surprising variation exhibited 
by a series from British Guiana and eastern Venezuela, and four years later I even 
cast doubts on the specific distinctness of A . brasiliensis and A . spadiceus. More 
recently, E. Stresemann insisted on the mutational nature of this variability, and 
the careful study of ample material in the present connection fully corroborates 
his contention. 

"Pure-blooded" specimens of the brasiliensis type, characterized above under 
(a), are relatively rare in comparison with the large number of individuals which, 
by one or more characters, connect them with (b) or (c). To illustrate these facts, 
we will consider an exceptionally instructive series of twenty-four skins from the 
lower Tapaj6z (Santar6m; Diamantina; Colonia do Mojuy; Itaituba; Villa Braga; 
Miritituba; Apacy), kindly forwarded by Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh. Five specimens, including the type of A. viridescens in 
the U. S. National Museum, may be termed typical "brasiliensis," though there 
is some slight variation in the shade of the green parts, in the amount of yellowish 
streaking on the throat, as well as in the width and coloring of the wing bands. In 
three others, the upper parts are tinged with orange citrine; the rump deeper, 
more primuline yellow; the tail and inner secondaries more rufescent; the flanks 
buffy yellow, etc. They mark a decided step in the direction of "uropygialis," 
particularly a female from Santarem (Carnegie Museum, No. 72442), which 
resembles certain individuals of this "phase" also in the coloring of the throat 
and chest. Eight additional specimens may be classed as "uropygialis." They 
are distinctly brown above, although not two are of exactly the same shade. The 
lightest-backed is hardly different from the preceding variety, while the darkest 
(Carnegie Museum, No. 72811), in its deep raw umber dorsal surface, closely 
approaches the "spadiceus" plumage. The majority of these birds lack any 
yellow or greenish tints on the anterior lower parts, the throat and chest being 
dull gray, distinctly or obscurely streaked with brownish olive; others, by their 
more citrine, yellowish-streaked throats, form the transition to the "brasiliensis" 
stage. An adult from Apacy (Carnegie Museum, No. 77759) represents the 
"spodiostethus" plumage, having the head clear gray all round, the throat feathers 
laterally edged with whitish, and just a faint greenish shade across the chest, 
differing from the types of that supposed species only by its hair brown (instead 
of rufescent) tail and brighter green back. There is no doubt that A. obscurus 
was based on an individual of this phase, in which, owing to an influx of phaeo- 
melanin, the greenish of the back and chest has turned to brownish. Three ex- 
amples, finally, are referable to the rufous (spadiceus) variety, for which Strese- 
mann suggests the provisional term "phaeomelanoidism." 

The series fully bears out Stresemann's statement that, as far as the upper 
parts are concerned, an unbroken line can be constructed from the green, brown- 



130 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Dasycephala uropygialis CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 

686, 1848 British Guiana (type in Berlin Museum examined; = immature 

of the brown-backed phase with grayish, brown-streaked anterior under 

parts). 
Attila spadiceus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., n, p. 46, 1848 Cayenne; SCLATER, 

P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 Cayenne; idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 

195, 1862 Cayenne; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 Barra do Rio 

Negro = Manaos (spec, in Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., 14, p. 362, 1888 part, spec, e-g, Iquitos (Peru) and Cayenne; 

BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 142, 1908 Cayenne; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 

Orn., 56, p. 506, 1908 Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z (spec, examined); PENARD 

and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 163, 1910 Surinam; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 

Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 352, 1914 Providencia, Rio Tapaj6z (Santare'm, 

Itaituba), and Obidos; STRESEMANN, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 274, 1925 (crit., 

variation). 
Attila rufigularis PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 96, 170, Sept., 1868 Salto do 

Girao, Rio Madeira (type in Vienna Museum examined; = rufous phase); 

idem, Ibis, 1873, p. 113; IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 311, 1907 

"Matto Grosso" (ex PELZELN); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 353, 

1914 Rio Madeira (ex PELZELN). 

tailed "brasiliensis" to the rufous "spadiceus" stage, while, seen from below, the 
latter seems to be separated by a wide gap. Still, a specimen from Tamanoir, 
French Guiana (Carnegie Museum, No. 62415) is decidedly intermediate, having 
the anterior under parts much less tawny, suffused with yellow; the flanks ex- 
tensively yellow; and the middle of the belly very pale buff (between cartridge 
buff and cream buff). 

The juvenile plumage exhibits much variation in the streaking below, the 
general tone of coloring, and the ruf escence of the tail. The majority of the young 
birds examined by us correspond to the brown-backed "uropygialis" phase, 
while only two are of the "spadiceus" type. Neither the green nor the gray- 
headed variety is represented in the series, which seems to indicate that the 
"brasiliensis" and " spodiostethus" mutants constitute an advanced stage of 
comparatively recent development. 

As to geographic variation, I have not been able to make out any local races. 
Birds from Amazonia (Para to the Peruvian border) appear to be inseparable 
from a Guianan series, and almost every combination of color-characters may be 
found in any locality, whence a sufficient number of specimens is available. Bo- 
livian examples are not different either, so far as I can see. The type of A . neoxenus 
and an adult female from the Rio Surutii are ordinary specimens of the "brasil- 
iensis" phase, and can be matched by various individuals in the series from 
French Guiana and the Tapajoz Valley. The type of A. arizelus, a brown-backed 
example with rufous tail, is very similar to others from Amazonia, particularly 
one from Santare'm, while underneath it is more nearly like a bird from Nova 
Olinda, Rio Purus. A fourth skin from Bolivia (Rio Surutu; Carnegie Museum, 
No. 79591) belongs to the "spodiostethus" phase with gray head and chest, and 
hardly any yellowish on the flanks, but with the back medal bronze (instead of 
green) and the tail conspicuously rufescent. With the scanty material at hand 
it is hardly possible to dispose of the Caribbean form, described as A. wighti from 
a single specimen secured on the Heights of Aripo, Trinidad. In coloration, the 
type cannot be distinguished from average specimens of the "brasiliensis" variety 
from French Guiana and Amazonia, but is slightly larger. Three adults from the 
opposite Venezuelan mainland (Crist6bal Col6n), however, do not differ in size 
from the general run of Guianan birds, with which they also agree in coloration. 
All of them belong to the intermediate type, showing an approach to "uropygialis" 
in the coloring of the dorsal parts, but average more rufous on the tail. An adult 
male from El Hacha, Bolivar Railroad, state of Lara, is closely similar to the type 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 131 

Attila uropygialis PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 Salto do Girao, Rio 
Madeira (spec, examined); SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 304 Bartica Grove, 
Brit. Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 360, 1888 Bartica 
Grove, Carimang River, and Camacusa, Brit. Guiana; BERLEPSCH and 
HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902 Suapure and La Pricion, Caura, 
Venezuela (spec, examined); PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 
161, 1910 British Guiana; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 
2 55i 1916 Caura River (ex BERLEPSCH and HARTERT). 

Attila spodiostethus SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), i, p. 209, 1883 Bartica 
Grove, British Guiana (types in British Museum examined; = grayish 

of A. wighti, both in color and dimensions. Without further evidence, I am not 
prepared to separate the Caribbean race, which does not seem to possess a single 
character of its own. 

WING MEASUREMENTS OF ADULT BIRDS. 

French Guiana. Males: 85, 85, 85, 86, 87, 90. Females: 78, 80, 83. 

Surinam. Female: 83. 

British Guiana. Males: 85, 85, 87, 87, 89. Females: 80, 81, 83, 85, 87. 

Rio Yuruan, Venezuela. Male: 85. 

Caura Valley, Eastern Venezuela. Males: 84, 87, 90. Female: 85. 

Trinidad (type of A. wighti). Male: 93. 

Crist6bal C61on, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela. Male: 89. Females: 84, 85. 

El Hacha, Lara, Venezuela. Male: 92. 

Diamantina, near Santare'm, Brazil (type of A. viridescens) . Male: 84. 

Santare'm, Brazil. Males: 83, 84, 85, 87, 87, 88, 90. Females: 80, 81, 81, 
81, 82, 83, 87. 

Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil. Males: 86, 88. 

Miritituba, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil. Male: 84. 

Apacy, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil. Male: 88. 

Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z, Brazil. Females: 81, 82. 

Benevides, Para, Brazil. Females: 78, 80. 

Manaos, Rio Negro. Female: 82. 

Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira. Males: 85, 82 (type of A. rufigularis). 

Teffe", Rio Solimoes. Female: 80. 

Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Rio Solimoes. Males: 79, 86. Female: 81. 

Tonantins, Rio SolimSes. Males: 86, 86. Female: 78. 

Nova Olinda, Rio Punis. Male: 88. 

Yurimaguas, Peru. Female: 78. 

Rio Yapacani, Bolivia. Males: 84 (type of A.'neoxenus), 91 (type of A. 
arizelus). 

Rio Surutu, Bolivia. Females: 88, 88. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Roche-Marie i; Cayenne (including 
the types of M. spadicea and Attila brasiliensis) 5; Saint Jean du Maroni I ; Tama- 
noir, Mana River 5; Pied Saut, Oyapock 4. Dutch Guiana: Kwata i. British 
Guiana: Bartica Grove (including the types of A. spodiostethus) 5; Caramang 
River 3; Camacusa 3; unspecified (type of D. uropygialis) i. Venezuela: Rfo 
Yurudn i; Suapure, Caura 3; La Pricion, Caura 2; San Pedro, Caura i; Crist6bal 
Col6n, Paria Peninsula 5; El Hacha, Bolivar Railroad, Lara I. Trinidad: Heights 
of Aripo (type of A. wighti) i. Brazil: Benevides, Pari 2; Santare'm 17; Dia- 
mantina, near Santare'm (type of A . viridescens) I ; Itaituba 3 ; Villa Braga 2 ; 
Miritituba i ; Apacy i ; Obidos i ; Manaos i ; Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira (in- 
cluding the type of A. rufigularis) 2; Nova Olinda, Rio Purvis 2; Teff6 I ; SSo Paulo 
de Olivenca, Rio SolimSes 3; Tonantins, Rio SolimSes 3. Peru: Yurimaguas 
i. Bolivia: Rio Yapacani (types of A. arizelus and A. neoxenus) 2; Rio Surutu 2. 



132 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

phase); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 304 Bartica Grove; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 360, 1888 Bartica Grove; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 162, 1910 British Guiana (ex SALVIN and GODMAN). 

Attila citriniventris (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 371, 
1884 part, descr. of juv., Moyobamba, Peru. 

Attila viridescens RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 10, "1887," p. 522, Aug., 
1888 Diamantina, Santare"m (type in U. S. National Museum examined; 
= green phase); CHAPMAN and RIKER, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santare'm. 

Attila brasiliensis brasiliensis HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 329, 1906 
British Guiana, Venezuela (Caura River), and Brazil (Sal to do Girao); 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 315, 1910 Salto do Girao, Rio Madeira; MILLER and 
GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 183, p. 12, 1925 Guiana, Venezuela, and 
northern Brazil (crit.). 

Attila wighti CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., i, p. 191, 1906 Heights 
of Aripo, Trinidad (type now in American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, examined; = green phase). 

Attila spadiceus spadiceus HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 51, 1907 Teff6, 
Rio Solimoes; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 285, 1921 Supenaam and 
lower Mazaruni River; STRESEMANN, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 276, 1925 (range, 
synonymy). 

Attila spadiceus rufigularis HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 315, 1910 Salto do 
Girao, Rio Madeira (crit.). 

Attila surinamensis PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 163, 1910 
Surinam (descr. of an intermediate specimen). 

Attila arizelus TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, p. 169, 1915 Rio Yapacani, 
Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum examined; = intermediate phase). 

Attila neoxenus TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 4, 1917 Rfo Yapacani, 
Bolivia (type in Carnegie Museum examined; = green phase). 

Attila spadiceus uropygialis CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 286, 1921 
numerous localities. 

Attila spadiceus spodiostethus CHUBB, I.e., p. 288, 1921 Ituribisi River, 
Supenaam, and Bartica Grove. 

Attila obscurus SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 267, 1925 Acajutuba, lower 
Rio Negro (= gray-headed phase). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Trinidad; Vene- 
zuela (Rio Yuruan; Suapure, La Pricion, and San Pedro, Caura 
Valley; Crist6bal Colon, Paria Peninsula; El Hacha, Bolivar Rail- 
road, Lara) ; northern Brazil, the whole of the Amazon Valley from 
Para west to the Rio Solimoes, south to the Punis and Madeira 
Rivers; extreme northeastern Peru (Iquitos; Yurimaguas; Moyo- 
bamba) ; and northern Bolivia (Rio Yapacani and Rio Surutii, dept. 
Santa Cruz). 

i: Peru (Yurimaguas i). 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 133 

Attila spadiceus uropygiatus (Wied). 1 WIED'S ATTILA. 

Muscicapa uropygiata WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 868, 1831 Rio 
Doce, Espirito Santo, eastern Brazil (type in American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, examined). 

Myiarchus uropygiatus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 472, 1856 
Rio Doce (ex WIED). 

Attila brasiliensis (not of LESSON) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 
Brazil (spec, examined); idem, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 195, 1862 
Brazil; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 359, 1888 Bahia, Brazil (spec, 
examined); ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 241, 1889 Rio Doce 
(note on type). 

Attila spadiceus (not Muscicapa spadicea GMELIN) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 362, 1888 part, spec, a-d, Bahia (spec, examined). 

Attila brasiliensis uropygiata HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, pp. 329, 330, 1906 
Rio Doce, Rio, and Bahia (crit.); MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. 
Novit., 183, p. 12, 1925 eastern Brazil (crit.). 

Attila uropygiata IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 310, 1907 
Rio, Espirito Santo, and Bahia. 

Attila spadicea uropygiata STRESEMANN, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 277, 1925 eastern 
Brazil, north to Bahia. 

Range: Wooded coast region of southeastern Brazil, in states of 
Bahia (Caravellas), Espirito Santo (Rio Doce), and Rio de Janeiro. 

*Attila spadiceus parvirostris Allen. 2 SMALL-BILLED ATTILA. 

Attila parvirostris ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 153, 1900 Minca, 
Santa Marta Region, Colombia (type in American Museum of Natural 

1 Attila spadiceus uropygiatus (WiED): Similar in coloration to A. s. spadi- 
ceus, but somewhat larger, with stronger, heavier bill. 

The plumage of this form is just as variable as that of its Amazonian repre- 
sentative. Four of the nine specimens examined are in the "brasiliensis" four 
others in the "spadiceus" stage, while the remaining example is of the intermediate 
type. No gray-headed mutant (spodiostethus) appears to be on record from eastern 
Brazil. The smallest individuals are not certainly distinguishable from true 
spadiceus. 

Wing of adults (unsexed). Bahia: 88, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97. Rio 
de Janeiro: 95. 

1 Attila spadiceus parvirostris ALLEN: Similar to A. s. spadiceus, but with 
larger bill, and in the rufous ("spadiceus") phase apparently not distinguishable 
by any other character; normal type of coloration much like the "uropygialis" 
variant, but upper parts brighter rufous brown (Sudan to amber brown), the 
pileum frequently duller, rarely dull citrine; throat and chest strongly washed 
with orange citrine and streaked with dusky, rarely flammulated with grayish, 
buffy citrine and whitish, or yellowish with dark citrine striations; grayish streaks 
on upper abdomen absent or barely suggested. Wing (male) 85-91, (female) 82- 
86; tail 70-73, (female) 66-70; bill 21-22. 

There can be little doubt that A. rufipectus is merely the rufous phase of A. 
parvirostris. The type of A . r. confinis, an immature female, is somewhat darker 
throughout, but this variation is paralleled in the corresponding stage of A. s. 
spadicea. The Santa Marta series, while fairly constant in the coloration of the 
dorsal surface (which is much brighter rufous brown than in any specimen of the 



134 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

History, New York, examined); TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 329, 1922 Minca, Agua Dulce, Don Diego, and Trojas de 
Cataca, Santa Marta Region (crit.; spec, examined). 

Attila rufipectus ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 153, 1900 Las Nubes, 
Santa Marta Region, Colombia (type in American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, examined; = rufous phase). 

Attila rufipectus confinis CORY, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 
289, 1913 Orope, Zulia, Venezuela (= rufous phase). 

Attila idiotes TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, p. 96, 1916 Fundaci6n, 

Santa Marta Region, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum examined); 

idem and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 331, 1922 Fundaci6n 

(crit.). 
Attila rufipectus rufipectus TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 

330, 1922 Las Nubes (note on type). 
Attila brasiliensis parvirostris MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 

183, p. 13, 1925 Santa Marta Region (crit.). 
Attila spadicea parvirostris STRESEMANN, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 277, 1925 Santa 

Marta. 

Range: Tropical Zone of northern Colombia (Santa Marta re- 
gion) and adjacent section of northwestern Venezuela (Orope, Rio 
Zulia, and Guachi, state of Zulia). 

i: Venezuela (Orope, Zulia i). 

Attila spadiceus caniceps Todd. 1 GRAY-HEADED ATTILA. 

Attila caniceps TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 30, p. 4, 1917 Jaraquiel, dept. 
Bolivar, Colombia (type in Carnegie Museum examined). 

Amazonian form), presents the usual amount of variation below. Only one speci- 
men (Carnegie Museum, No. 42208, Minca) recalls, by its grayish and buffy 
citrine streaks on throat and chest, certain individuals from Brazil. The majority 
have these parts strongly washed with orange citrine, differing thereby very 
markedly from A . s. spadiceus. The type of A . parvirostris, however, bridges the 
gap in this respect, being more yellowish on the throat and chest than any other 
in the present series. 

The type of A. idiotes, from Fundaci6n, western base of the Santa Marta 
Mountains, differs by decidedly greenish (somewhat brighter than dull citrine) 
pileum; slightly lighter, less rufous back; and much brighter Picric yellow ground 
color of throat and chest. However, an adult male from Guachi, south of Lake 
Maracaibo, in the coloration of the crown and nape, is halfway between the 
Fundaci6n bird and a male from Don Diego (Carnegie Museum, No. 44470), 
while the stronger yellowish suffusion in the orange citrine of the anterior under 
parts marks another step in the direction of A. idiotes. The type, on the dorsal 
surface, closely resembles specimens from Crist6bal Col6n, Paria Peninsula, dis- 
cussed under A. s. spadiceus, and for the present I am inclined to regard it as an 
extreme variant of A . s. parvirostris with which it agrees in proportions and shape 
of bill. 

Material examined. Venezuela, Zulia: Guachi i; Orope (type of A. r. 
confinis) i. Colombia, Santa Marta region: Las Nubes (type of A. rufipectus) 
i ; Don Diego 3; Minca (including the type of A. parvirostris) 5; Trojas de Cataca 
i; Fundaci6n (type of A. idiotes) i. 

1 Attila spadiceus caniceps TODD: Closely similar to A. s. sclateri, of eastern 
Panama, but pileum grayish (instead of greenish like the upper back); throat 






BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 135 

Attila citreopygus citreopygus (not Dasycephala citreopyga BONAPARTE) CHAP- 
MAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 495, 1917 part, Puerto Berrio, 
lower Magdalena, Colombia (spec, examined). 

Attila brasiliensis sclateri (not of LAWRENCE) MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. 
Mus. Novit., 183, p. 12, 1925 part, Puerto Berrio. 

Range: Northern Colombia (Puerto Berrio, lower Magdalena, 
dept. Antioquia; Jaraquiel, dept. Bolivar). 

Attila spadiceus parambae Hartert. 1 PACIFIC ATTILA. 

Attila, braziliensis parambae HARTERT, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., n, p. 39, Dee., 
1900 Paramba, prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum 
examined); idem, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 610, 1902 Paramba, San Javier, and 
Pambflar, Ecuador (spec, examined); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
55. P- 546i 1926 below Mindo, Ecuador. 

Attila sclateri (not of LAWRENCE) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 361, 
1888 part, spec, q, Ecuador; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, a, p. 134, 1891 part, "eastern" Ecuador. 

Attila fuscicauda CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 31, p. 155, 1912 
Gallera, Andes west of Popayan, Colombia. 

Attila brasiliensis parambae CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 495, 
1917 Gallera, Colombia; MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 
183, p. 12, 1925 western Ecuador and Colombia (crit.). 

Attila spadicea parambae STRESEMANN, Journ. Orn., 73, p. 277, 1925 (range). 

Range: Tropical Zone of western Ecuador and western Colom- 
bia, north to the upper Atrato (Quibd6). 

and chest streaked with dull (grayish) white and dusky, the latter tinged with 
dull yellowish citrine. Wing (two males) 87; tail 71, 72; bill 22. 

This form is exceedingly close to A. s. sclateri, but appears to be separable, 
as far as one can judge from two specimens. East Panama birds, as a rule have 
much more yellow on throat and chest, though an adult male from Lorn a del 
Leon (Museum of Comparative Zoology, No. 107265), viewed from below, is 
an exact duplicate of the Puerto Berrio example which, owing to its fresher 
plumage, is somewhat more brightly colored throughout than the worn type. 
On the upper parts, too, caniceps can be matched by various specimens of A. s. 
sclateri, although the latter generally has more brownish suffusion. The grayish 
pileum, however, separates the two Colombian birds from any in the series from 
eastern Panama. 

Material examined. Colombia: Jaraquiel, dept. Bolivar (the type) i; 
Puerto Berrio, lower Magdalena, dept. Antioquia i. 

1 Attila spadiceus parambae HARTERT: Nearest to A. s. sclateri, but pileum 
and back olive green, very rarely tinged with brownish on the lower back; rump 
lemon yellow (without any buff); tail darker, nearest to sepia; wing bands duller, 
varying from olive buff to buff y olive (instead of buckthorn brown) ; under parts 
similar, viz., throat and chest broadly streaked with yellow and citrine, and abdo- 
men white, but sides and flanks greenish yellow, without any buff suffusion. 
Wing 87-93, (female) 82-86; tail 69-73, (female) 65-69; bill 21-23. 

This form shows very little variation and does not seem to have a rufous 

hase, not infrequent in the eastern races A. s. spadiceus and A. s. parvirostris. 
pecimens from Pacific Colombia agree with the Ecuadorian ones. 

Material examined. Ecuador: below Mindo 2; Paramba (including the 
type) 2; Pambflar i; San Javier i. Colombia: Juntas, Rfo Dagua i; Malagita, 
Chocd i; Quibd6, Rio Atrato I. 



136 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Attila spadiceus sclateri Lawrence. 1 SCLATER'S ATTILA. 

Attila sclateri LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 470, 1862 Lion 
Hill, Panama Railroad (types in American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 358 
Isthmus of Panama; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 361, 1888 part, 
spec, m-p, San Pablo, Panama; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., 
Aves, 2, p. 134, 1891 part, San Pablo and Lion Hill, Panama; BANGS, 
Proc. New Eng. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 23, 1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama. 

Attila spadiceus (not Muscicapa spadicea GMELIN) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 327, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Attila citreopygius (not Dasycephala citreopyga BONAPARTE) LAWRENCE, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 7, 1863 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Attila citreopygus citreopygus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
805, 1907 part, eastern Panama (Lion Hill, Frijole, San Pablo, Panama 
City); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 495, 1917 part, Rio 
Salaqui, Colombia (spec, examined); STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
70, p. 269, 1918 Gatiin, Panama; HALLINAN, Auk, 41, p. 319, 1924 Grazes 
Trail, near Corozal, Panama. 

Attila citreopyga citreopyga BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 213, 1922 Mount Sapo. Darie"n (spec, examined). 

Attila brasiliensis sclateri MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 183, p. 
12, 1925 part, northwestern Colombia and eastern Panama (crit.). 

Range: Eastern Panama, from the Canal Zone eastwards, and 
extreme northwestern Colombia (Rio Salaqui). 

* Attila spadiceus citreopygus (Bonaparte}. CITRON-RUMPED ATTILA. 

Dasycephala citreopyga BONAPARTE, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 
657, 1854 Nicaragua; idem, Not. Orn. Coll. Delattre, p. 86, 1854 
Nicaragua. 

Attila citreopygius (a) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 part, Nicaragua; 
idem, Ibis, 1859, p. 438 part, Nicaragua; NUTTING, Proc. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., 6, "1883," p. 385, 1884 Sucuya, Nicaragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 133, 1891 part, Costa Rica and Chiriquf; 

1 Attila spadiceus sclateri LAWRENCE: Most nearly related to A. s. citreopygus, 
but pileum and back olive instead of brown, and blackish streaks restricted to 
anterior part of crown. Wing 86-91, (female) 82-87; tail 69-74, (female) 67-71; 
bill 21-25. 

While the majority from eastern Panama have much less brown above, the 
predominating color of pileum and back being olive or dark citrine, there occur 
certain specimens which, by the Dresden brown tone of the back, are hardly 
distinguishable from the dullest extreme of A. s. citreopygus, as represented in a 
series from Costa Rica. On the other hand, birds from Dari6n (Rio Tuyra; Mount 
Sapo) and a single adult male from the Rfo Salaqui, in extreme northwestern 
Colombia, closely approach A. s. parambae, from which they mainly differ by the 
ochreous tinge on rump and flanks. 

Material examined. Panama: Lion Hill (Loma del Leon) 9; Frijole, Panama 
Railroad i ; San Pablo, Isthmus of Panama I ; Tapalisa I ; El Real, Rio Tuyra I ; 
Mount Sapo, Darie'n I. Colombia: Rio Salaqui i. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 137 

RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 509, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nica- 
ragua. 

Attila sclateri (not of LAWRENCE, 1862) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. 
Y., 8, p. no, 1868 Guaitil, Costa Rica; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p 146 
Santa F6, Veragua and Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 1870 p. 196 
Calovevora, Veragua and Volcan de Chiriquf, Panama; NUTTING, Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., 6, "1883," p. 404, 1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; ZELE- 
o6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Naranjo de Cartago, 
Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 361, 1888 part, spec, a-1, 
Irazii, Tucurriqui, Costa Rica, Volcan de Chiriquf, Calovevora and Santa 
F6, Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 134, 
1891 part, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Chiriqui, and Calovevora, Veragua; 
UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 439 Miravelles, Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 18, 
P- 365, 1901 Divala, Chiriquf; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 40, 
1902 Boquete, Chiriquf. 

Attila tephrocephala (us) RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 118, 1906 
Talamanca, eastern Costa Rica (type in U.S. National Museum examined; 
=gray-headed variant); idem, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 804, 
1907 Talamanca; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 672, 1910 
Talamanca (crit.). 

Attila citreopyga luteola (us) RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 118, 
1906 San Jose", Costa Rica (type in U.S. National Museum examined); 
idem, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 810, 1907 San Carlos, Nicaragua 
and San Jose', Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Pozo del Rio 
Grande, Costa Rica. 

Attila citreopygus citreopygus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
805, 1907 part, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and western Panama (Chiriqui 
and Veragua); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 670, 1910 Costa Rica 
(crit.). 

Attila citreopygia citreopygia BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Boruca and Pozo 
del Rfo Grande, Costa Rica. 

Attila flammulatus citreopygus BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
35, p. 224, 1922 part. 

Attila brasiliensis citreopygus MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 183, 
p. 13, 1925 Pacific side of Canal Zone to Nicaragua (crit.). 

Range: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and western Panama (Chiri- 
qui and Veraguas). 1 

9: Nicaragua (San Ger6nimo, Chinandega i, San Emilio, Lake 
Nicaragua i, Matagalpa i); Costa Rica (Lagarto i, Cabagre i, 
Boca Rio Matina i, Siquirres i, Orosi i, unspecified i). 

'Study of a very large series shows plainly that there is only one form of Attila 
in southern Central America. The "luteolus" type of coloration is not confined 
to any particular area, but occurs, along with ordinary individuals of citreopygus 
and intermediates, both on the Caribbean and Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A 
small series from Nicaragua exhibits the same variation. The type of A . tephro- 
cephala is merely a gray-headed variant, corresponding to the "spodiostetfius" 
phase of the Amazonian A. s. spadiceus. It is approached, in one respect or an- 
other, by several specimens in the Costa Rican series. Birds from western Panama 
(Chiriqui), as a whole, agree very well with those from more northern localities, 



138 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Attila spadiceus flammulatus Lafresnaye. FLAMMULATED ATTILA. 

Attila flammulatus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., n, p. 47, 1848 "Colombia," 
errore; Vera Cruz, Mexico, substituted by BANGS and PENARD, 1922 
(type in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, examined). 

Attila hypoxanthus SALVIN and GoDMAN, 1 Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 
135, 1891 part, type from Vera Paz, Guatemala ( = xanthochroic variant). 

Attila mexicanus NELSON,* Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 172, 1901 Frontera, 
Tabasco (type in U.S. National Museum examined). 

Attila citreopyga salvini RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 118, 1906 
Pasa Nueva, Vera Cruz (type in U.S.National Museum examined); idem, 
Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 807, 1907 southeastern Mexico, 
Guatemala, Honduras, and British Honduras (monog.); DEARBORN, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Sen, i, p. 100, 1907 Los Amates, San Jose", 
Patulul, and Mazatenango, Guatemala; PETERS, Auk, 30, p. 375, 1913 
north of Bacalar and Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo. 

Attila citreopygia(us) (not Dasycephala citreopyga BONAPARTE) SCLATER, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 228, 1857 Santecomapam, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 27, 
p. 41, 1859 part, southern Mexico and Guatemala; idem, I.e., p. 366, 
1859 Jalapa; idem, I.e., p. 383, 1859 Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz; SCLATER 
and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 120 Guatemala; SCLATER, I.e., p. 438 part, 
southern Mexico and Guatemala; SUMICHRAST, Mem. Bost. Soc. N.H., 
x P- 53 6 1869 Vera Cruz; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 
837 Honduras; LAWRENCE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 4, p. 25, 1876 Santa 

though one adult male from Boquete can hardly be told from sclateri of the Canal 
Zone. A single adult male from Veraguas (Nata, Code') is difficult to place, but 
for geographic reasons I refer it to citreopygus rather than to sclateri. 

A. s. citreopygus is a rather variable race, and while generally smaller and 
more olivaceous, less brownish on the head, is sometimes barely distinguishable 
from A . s. flammulatus. 

Material examined. Nicaragua: Sucuya i; Los Sabalos i; Escpndido River 
2; San Ger6nimo, Chinandega i; Matagalpa i; San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua I. 
Costa Rica: Pacuar6 i; Jime'nez i; Boca Rio Matina i; Siquirres i; Orosi i; El 
Hogar 2; La Hondura 2; Carrillo 4; Guayabo 3; Bonilla i; Coliblanco i; La Vija- 
gua i; Cariblanco de Sarapiqui i; "Talamanca" (type of A. tephrocephala) i; San 
Jos6 (type of A . citreopyga luteola) I ; Guaitil i ; Lagartp i ; Cabagre I ; Bebedero 
i ; Miravelles i ; Bolson 3 ; Tenorio i ; Pozo Azul de Pirris i ; Pozo del Rio Grande 
3; Boruca 2; El General i. Panama: Almirante Bay i; Divala 2; Boquete 5; 
El Banco, Chiriqui i; Chiriquf i; Nata, Code" I. 

1 A. hypoxanthus is merely a "xanthochroic" phase, without any white on the 
under parts which are continuously clear yellow, with, however, the usual dusky 
streaks on throat and chest, and ochraceous sides. It is not peculiar to any par- 
ticular area, but represents a purely individual variant. Specimens in this plu- 
mage have been examined from Mazatlan, Sinaloa (A. s. paciflcus), eastern Guate- 
mala (.4. s. flammulatus), Costa Rica- (.4. s. citreopygus), and even French Guiana 
(A. s. spadiceus) I 

*The type (and only available specimen from Tabasco) has the lower throat 
and chest streaked with tawny brown rather than dusky or citrine, and the 
ochraceous tawny color of the sides and flanks more extensive than any other 
specimen. Still I am inclined to attribute these divergencies to individual varia- 
tion, since birds from Guatemala and Honduras are inseparable from typical 
flammulatus, as represented by a series from Vera Cruz, Puebla, and Chiapas, 
and the existence of a distinct form in Tabasco seems hardly possible. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 139 

Efigenia, Oaxaca; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 361, 1888 part, 
spec, a, d-j, Jalapa, Choctum, TCamkhal, and Vera Paz, Guatemala; SAL- 
VIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 133, 1891 part, Jalapa, 
Santa Efigenia, and Guatemala; LANTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci., 16, p. 
221, 1899 Naranjo, Guatemala; BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 
149, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras. 

Attila citreopygus mexicanus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
810, 1907 Frontera, Tabasco (monog.). 

Attila citreopygus gaumeri (not of SAL YIN and GODMAN) RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 811, 1907 part, coast of British Honduras 
(near Manatee Lagoon). 

Attila flammulatus flammulatus BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
35, pp. 223, 224, 1922 Vera Cruz and Puebla, south to Honduras (crit.; 
note on type). 

Attila brasiliensis flammulatus MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 
183, p. 13, 1925 southeastern Mexico to Honduras (crit.). 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz, Puebla, 
Oaxaca (Tehuantepec), Tabasco, Chiapas, and southern Quintana 
Roo, and southward through Guatemala and British Honduras to 
Salvador and Honduras. 1 

7 : Mexico (Santa Efigenia, Tehuantepec, Oaxaca i) ; Guatemala 
(Los Amates, Izabal i, San Jose", Escuintla i, Patulul, Solola i, 
Mazatenango 2); Honduras (San Pedro Sula i). 

x The type of A. flammulatus, supposed to be from "Colombia," proves to be 
identical with A. c. salvini, and aside from its somewhat faded under parts and 
"foxy" back, agrees perfectly with specimens from Vera Cruz in eastern Mexico. 
Birds from Guatemala (Pacific and Caribbean slopes) and Honduras appear to 
be inseparable from those of eastern Mexico, though they possibly average slightly 
deeper, more rufous brown on the upper parts. Three adults from Tehuantepec 
(Cacoprieto and Santa Efigenia) likewise belong here. The majority of the ex- 
amples from British Honduras cannot be distinguished from the general run of 
flammulatus, though one (out of three) from Manatee Lagoon and another from San 
Felipe, Upper Belize River, are more olivaceous above. However, they can be 
matched in this respect by various skins from other localities (Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz, and Honduras). Two adults from southern Quintana Roo, by smaller size 
and reduction of greenish suffusion on foreneck, form the transition to A. s. 
gaumeri, of Yucatan. A small series from Salvador is rather puzzling. They are 
much paler and more cinnamomeous above, and have light ochraceous-tawny 
tails, more like A. s. pacificus, but resemble A. s. flammulatus in their bright 
yellow (instead of ochraceous) rump. It is quite possible that additional material 
may show them to be separable. 

Material examined. Mexico: Vera Cruz, Pasa Nueva (including the type of 
A. c. salrini) 3, Buena vista 2, Jalapa i; Metlaltoyuca, Puebla i; Palenque, Chia- 
pas i ; Frontera, Tabasco (type of A . mexicanus) I ; Cacoprieto, Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca i; Santa Efigenia, Tehuantepec, Oaxaca 2; Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo 
i ; twenty miles north of Bacalar, Quintana Roo i. Guatemala: Vera Paz i; 
pine forests of Choctum 3; Savanna Grande i ; Los Amates, Izabal i ; Escuintla i ; 
San Jos6, Escuintla i; Mazatenango 2; Patulul, Solola i. Salvador: Lake 
Olomega 4; Rio San Miguel i; Hacienda Miraflores, dept. La Paz 2; Hacienda 
Chilata, dept. Sonsonate 3. British Honduras: Toledo District 4; San Felipe, 
Upper Belize River i; Manatee Lagoon 4. Honduras: Ceiba i; Chamelec6n 3; 
Santa Ana i ; San Pedro Sula 2. 



140 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Attila spadiceus gaumeri Salvin and Godman. 1 GAUMER'S ATTILA. 
Attila gaumeri SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 134, 

1891 Tizimfn, Yucatan. 
Attila citreopygius (not Dasycephala citreopyga BONAPARTE) BOUCARD, P.Z.S. 

Lond., 1878, p. 449 Tizimin, Yucatdn; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 

p. 361, 1888 part, spec. b,c, Tizimin; SALVIN, Ibis, 1889, p. 364 Meco, 

Holbox, and Mujeres Islands, Yucatdn (crit.). 
Attila cozumelae (not of RIDGWAY) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 362, 

1888 part, spec, j-n, Holbox, Meco, and Mugeres Islands. 
Attila citreopygus gaumeri RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 

811, 1907 part, Yucatdn, Meco, Holbox, and Mugeres Islands (monog.). 
Attila brasiliensis gaumeri MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 183, p. 

13. *9 2 5 part, Yucatdn; GRISCOM, I.e., 235, p. 15, 1926 Chunyaxche 

and Acomal, Yucatdn. 

Range: Yucatdn, including Holbox, Meco, and Mujeres Islands. 

*Attila spadiceus cozumelae Ridgway.* COZUMEL ATTILA. 

Attila cozumelae RIDGWAY, Descr. New Sp. Birds from Cozumel, p. 3, Feb. 

26, 1885 Cozumel Island; idem, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 3, p. 23, 1885 

Cozumel; idem, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 8, p. 572, 1885 Cozumel (crit.); 

SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 362, 1888 part, spec, a-i, Cozumel; 

SALVIN, Ibis, 1889 p. 364 Cozumel (crit.); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 

Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 134, 1891 Cozumel. 
Attila sp. SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, P- I 9 I Cozumel (crit.; habits). 
Attila citreopygus cozumelae RIDGWAY, U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 812, 

1907 Cozumel (monog.). 
Attila brasiliensis cozumelae MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 183, 

p. 13, 1925 Cozumel. 

Range: Cozumel Island, off Yucatdn. 
i : Cozumel Island. 

Attila spadiceus pacificus nont nov. 3 LAWRENCE'S ATTILA. 

Attila cinnamomeus (not Muscicapa cinnamomea GMELIN) LAWRENCE, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 10, p. 8, 1871 Mazatldn, Sinaloa (types in U.S. 

1 Attila spadiceus gaumeri SALVIN and GODMAN: Very close to A. s. flammu- 
latus, but smaller, with proportionately larger bill; upper parts on average paler; 
throat and chest streaked with grayish instead of with dusky, and barely, if at 
all, tinged with pale sulphur yellowish. Wing 89-92, (female) 83-87; tail 73-81, 
(female) 68-74; bill 24-26. 

Material examined. Yucatdn: Puerto Morelos 2 ;Chichen-Itza i ; unspecified I. 

1 Attila spadiceus cozumelae RIDGWAY: Very similar to A. s. gaumeri, partic- 
ularly below, but rump ochraceous tawny (instead of yellow ocher), and sides, 
axillaries, and under wing coverts deeper, cinnamon buff or ochraceous buff 
(instead of yellowish buff or buff yellow). Wing 89-92, (female) 81-88; tail 72-76, 
(female) 62-73; bill 24-26. 

Material examined. Cozumel Island 9. 

1 Attila spadiceus pacificus HELLMAYR: Nearly allied to A. s. flammulatus, 
but upper parts much lighter and more cinnamomeous (tawny brown or ochra- 



1929. BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 141 

National Museum examined); idem, Mem. Bost. Soc. N.H., 2, p. 285, 
1874 Mazatlan (habits); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
2 . P- I 35i J 89i Santiago (Tepic), Beltran, Hacienda de San Marcos, and 
Tonild (Jalisco), Santiago (Colima), Omiteme, Amula, and Rinc6n (Guer- 
rero), and Juchatengo and Sola (Oaxaca); MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
21 P- SS^i 1905 Sierra de Juan de Lisiarraga, Sinaloa. 

Attila hypoxanthus SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 135, 
1891 part, spec, from Venta de Pelegrino, Guerrero ( = xanthochroic 
variant). 

Attila citreopygus cinnamomeus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, 
p. 809, 1907 Pacific slope of Mexico (monog.). 

Attila flammulatus cinnamomeus BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
35, p. 224, 1922 Pacific slope of Mexico. 

Attila brasiliensis cinnamomeus MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 
I 83, p. 13, 1925 Pacific slope of Mexico (crit.). 

Range: Pacific slope of Mexico, in states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, 
Jalisco, Colima, Guerrero, and western Oaxaca. 

*Attila bolivianus bolivianus Lafresnaye. BOLIVIAN ATTILA. 

Tyrannus rufescens (not of SWAINSON, 1826) LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. 
Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 44, 1837 Guarayos, Bolivia (types in 
Paris Museum examined); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Amer. M6rid., Ois., p. 308, 
1839 Guarayos, Moxos, and Chiquitos, Bolivia. 

Attila bolivianus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., II, p. 46, 1848 new name for 
Tyrannus rufescens LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, preoccupied; HELLMAYR, 
Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 52, p. 97, 1902 (crit., synon.); idem, Nov. Zool., 
*3. P- 33. 1906 Guarayos, Bolivia (crit.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 310, 1907 part, Bolivia and Matto Grosso; SNETHLAGE, 
Journ. Orn., 56, p. 13, 1908 Cachoeira, Rio Purus (spec, examined); 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 353, 1914 Cachoeira, Rio Purus. 

Attila validus PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 96, 169, 1868 Villa Maria [=Sao 
Luiz de Caceres], Engenho do Gama, and [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso, 
Matto Grosso (spec, in Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 364, 1888 Matto Grosso and Bolivia; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Attila bolivianus bolivianus HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 316, 1910 (range, 
crit.); idem, I.e., 32, p. 21, 1925 Guarayos, Bolivia, Matto Grosso, and 
Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, Peru (crit.). 

ceous brown), even the pileum often cinnamomeous like the back; rump and tail 
coverts ochraceous or yellow ocher; tail uniform ochraceous tawny, without 
any brownish or dusky shade; foreneck and chest very slightly, if at all, tinged 
with sulphur yellow; sides and flanks as a rule deeper ochraceous tawny. 

This well-marked race had to be renamed, since Lawrence's specific term 
turned out to be preoccupied in the genus by Muscicapa cinnamomea Gmelin, 
an earlier name for Attila thamnophiloides (Spix). 

Material examined. Sinaloa: "Mazatlan" (the types) 2. Jalisco: San 
Sebastian 2. Guerrero: Omilteme i; Acahuizotla i; Egido Nuevo i; Coquillo 
i ; Coyuca i ; Papayo 6. 



142 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Southwestern Brazil, in state of Matto Grosso (Cha- 
pada; Descalvados; Sao Luiz de Caceres; Engenho do Gama and 
Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Rio Guapore"), and lowlands of eastern 
Bolivia (Chiquitos; Moxos; Guarayos; mouth of Rio San Antonio, 
Rio Espirito Santo; Buena vista, dept. Santa Cruz), north to the 
upper Purus (Cachoeira) and Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali, eastern Peru. 1 

i: Bolivia (Buena vista, dept. Santa Cruz i). 

Attila bolivianus nattereri Hellmayr. 2 NATTERER'S ATTILA. 

Attila nattereri HELLMAYR, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 52, p. 95, 1902 
Borba, Rio Madeira (type) and Para, Brazil; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 311, 1907 (range); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 526, 
1913 Monte Alegre (Cussary?) and Faro; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
353, 1914 Monte Alegre and Faro (Rio Jamunda). 

Attila bolivianus (not of LAFRESNAYE) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 
Borba and Para (spec, examined); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 310, 1907 part, Borba and Para. 

Attila bolivianus nattereri HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, pp. 315, 316, 1910 
Borba, Rio Madeira (range); idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math- 
phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 91, 1912 Para. 

Range: Northern Brazil, on the banks of the lower Amazon, 
from Pard to Borba, Rio Madeira. 

*Attila rufus (Vieillot). GRAY-THROATED ATTILA. 

Muscicapa cinerea (not of P. L. S. MULLER, 1776) GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), 
p. 933, 1789 based on "Le Gobe-mouche roux, de Cayenne" BRISSON, 
Orn., 6, Suppl., p. 51, pi. 3, fig. 3, 1760, Cayenne (errore); SPIX, Av. Bras., 
2, p. 19, pi. 26, fig. 2, 1825 "in sylvis Brasiliae" (spec, in Munich Museum 
examined); WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 853, 1831 southeastern 
Brazil. 

'Birds from Bolivia (bolivianus) and Matto Grosso (validus) agree well to- 
gether, although the latter are on average slightly paler above, with the pileum 
somewhat more grayish. A single specimen from the Rio Purus (Cachoeira) 
resembles those from Matto Grosso, whereas a male from Sarayacu, Peru, in its 
brownish head, is more like the types from Guarayos. 

Material examined. Brazil: Descalvados i; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso 3; 
Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore 1 i; Sao Luiz de Caceres 5; Cachoeira, Rio Purus 
i. Bolivia: Guarayos (the types) 3; mouth of Rio San Antonio, Rio Espirito 
Santo i; Buenavista I. Peru: Sarayacu, Ucayali I. 

1 Attila bolivianus nattereri HELLMAYR: Similar to A. b. bolivianus, but smaller 
and much darker throughout; pileum sepia rather than Dresden brown; sides of 
the head cinnamon brown rather than buckthorn brown; back and margins to 
rectrices much more deeply colored and more olivaceous, less cinnamomeous; 
rump, tail, and under parts much deeper rufous. Wing 91-93 (against 94-100, in 
A. b. bolivianus); tail 76-81; bill 23-25. 

Material examined. Brazil: Para i; "Monte Alegre", lower Amazon 2; 
Borba, Rio Madeira (the types) 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 143 

Tyrannus rufus VIEILLOT,* Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 35, p. 87, 
1819 "le Bre"sil, d'ou il a 6t6 apporte" par M. Delalande fils"=Rio de 
Janeiro (types in Paris Museum examined). 

Attila griseigularis BERLEPSCH, Ibis, (5), 3, p. 290, 1885 "Santa Catharina, 
Brazil (?)" (type in Berlepsch Collection examined); HOLT, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 57, p. 310, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya. 

Tyrannus cinereus SWAINSON, Quart. Journ. Sci., Litt., and Arts Roy. Inst., 
20, No. 40, p. 278, Jan., 1826 Brazil. 

Attila rufus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., u, p. 46, 1848 Brazil. 

Dasycephala cinerea BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 85, 1856 
Brazil; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 86, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Attila cinereus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 southern Brazil; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 95, 1868 Sapitiba, Registo do Sai, Rio de 
Janeiro, Mattodentro and Ypanema, Sao Paulo, and Paranagua, Parana 
(spec, examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 363, 1888 Bahia 
and Sao Paulo, Brazil; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 214, 1899 part, 
Iguape", Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova 
Friburgo, Rio; EULER, I.e., p. 54, 1900 Brazil (nest and eggs descr.); 
HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 651, 1906 
southeastern Brazil (variation, crit.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 310, 1907 Cachoeira, Iguap6, Ubatuba (Sao Paulo), Porto 
Cachoeiro (Espirito Santo), Bahia and Joinville (Santa Catharina); LIMA, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 Ilhe"os to Belmonte, southern 
Bahia; MIRANDA RIBEIRO, Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 24, p. 254, 
1923 Monte-Serrat, Itatiaya; PINTO-PEIXOTO, I.e., p. 262, 1923 
Itatiaya. 

Attila cinerea PELZELN, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 291, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia to Santa Catharina. 2 

2: Brazil (Bahia i; Rio de Janeiro i). 

Examination of the types (Nos. 3843-44, of the mounted bird collection) 
shows the description to be inaccurate in several respects, the back being amber 
brown (passing into ochraceous tawny on the rump) and by no means "brun 
verdatre," while the central rectrices do not differ in color from the lateral ones. 
In other words, they agree in every way with specimens from Rio de Janeiro and 
Sao Paulo, which the adult bird (No. 3844) further resembles in having the entire 
throat and foreneck whitish gray, streaked with dusky. 

*Birds from Rio de Janeiro (including the types) and Sao Paulo agree very 
well together, the throat and foreneck being grayish white, streaked with dusky, 
and the remainder of the under parts nearly uniform tawny, the abdomen but 
little paler than the breast. The type of A. griseigularis, purchased from a dealer 
and said to be from "Santa Catharina," merely differs by having the middle of 
the belly much paler, almost lemon yellow. In this respect, it is closely matched 
by an adult male from Paranagua, Parana, and in my revision of Spix's types 
(Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 652, 1906) I have, accordingly, 
proposed to separate the birds from extreme southern Brazil under Berlepsch's 
term. However, an adult from Joinville, Santa Catharina, examined since does 
not bear out this difference, and seems to be indistinguishable from Rio examples. 
Bahia skins, which Count Berlepsch, when describing A. griseigularis, took for 



144 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Attila citriniventris Sclater. 1 CITRON-BELLIED ATTILA. 

Atlila citriniventris SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 40, 1859 Rfo Ucayali, 
eastern Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 Rio Vaupe\ Brazil 
(spec, examined); TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 371, 1884 part, descr. 
of type only, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 363, 1888 upper 
Peruvian Amazon; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 303, 1889 Shanusi, 
near Yurimaguas, Peru (spec, examined). 

Range: Upper Amazonia, in eastern Ecuador, northeastern 
Peru (Rio Ucayali; Shanusi, near Yurimaguas, lower Huallaga), and 
northwestern Brazil (Rio Vaupe", an affluent of the upper Rio 
Negro). 

Attila phoenicurus Pelzeln. 2 RUFOUS-TAILED ATTILA. 

Attila phoenicurus (NATTERER MS.) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 96, 171, Sept., 
1868 banks of the Rio Parahyba near Mattodentro (Sao Paulo), Cury- 
tiba (Parand), Goyaz, and [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso (Matto Grosso); 
I select Mattodentro as type locality (spec, in Vienna Museum examined) ; 
HELLMAYR, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 52, p. 97, 1902 (crit.); IHERING, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 350, March, 1905 Ubatuba, Sao Paulo (spec. 
examined); idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 311, 1907 Ubatuba. 

typical cinereus, have the grayish gular area restricted to the chin and upper 
throat, and were it not for a Rio specimen, which is practically identical, I would 
not hesitate to discriminate a northern race. More satisfactory and properly 
labeled material is required in order to determine any possible local forms. 

Material examined. Bahia (trade skins) 5. Rio de Janeiro (including the 
types) 8; Sapitiba, Rio 2; Registo do Sai, Rio i; Ipanemd, Sao Paulo i; IguapS, 
Sao Paulo i ; Paranagua, Parana i ; Joinville, Santa Catharina I ; "Santa Cathanna 
(?)" (type of A. griseigularis) i. 

1 Attila citriniventris SCLATER: Nearest to Bahia specimens of A. rufus in 
having merely the chin and upper throat grayish white, and the pileum including 
the hind neck gray with dusky shaft-streaks; but much smaller, with differently 
shaped bill (shorter, wider at base, and more constricted apically); chest only 
tawny ochraceous; breast and abdomen medially yellow, tinged with ochraceous 
tawny along flanks and on under tail coverts. Wing ( 9 ad., Yurimaguas) 82, 
(o"imm., Rio Vaup<) 85; tail 63, (Rio VaupS) 72; bill i8tf, (Rio Vaup6) 20. 

The Rio Vaup6 bird differs from the two others by reason of longer tail, 
darker (less yellowish) rump, more brownish pileum and sides of head, buffy 
whitish (instead of grayish) upper throat, and darker abdomen. 

A little-known species of uncertain affinities, of which more material is much 
desired. 

Material examined. Peru: Shanusi, near Yurimaguas i. Ecuador: "Ori- 
ente" (unspecified) i. Brazil: Rio Vaup6 I. 

1 Attila phoenicurus PELZELN, a very distinct species, is immediately recogniz- 
able by the strongly defined grayish brown hood embracing the top and sides of 
the head, the chestnut cinnamon back, and the somewhat paler under parts. The 
bill, though variable in shape, is much shorter than in any other species, and leads 
to the allied genus Casiornis. Wing (five males) 91-95, (two females) 88, 92; tail 
77-85; bill 17-19- 

Material examined. Goyaz City i ; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso, Matto 
Grosso i ; Curityba, Parand 4; Mattodentro, Sao Paulo (type) i, all in the Vienna 
Museum; Ubatuba, Sao Paulo (Museu Paulista, No. 5475) I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 145 

Range: Southern Brazil, in states of Matto Grosso (Villa Bella 
de Matto Grosso), Goyaz (Goyaz City), Sao Paulo (Mattodentro 
and Ubatuba), and Parana (Curityba). 

*Attila cinnamomeus cinnamomeus (Gmelin). CINNAMOMEOUS 
Am LA. 

Muscicapa cinnamomea GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 937, 1789 based on 
"Cinnamon Flycatcher" LATHAM, Gen. Syn. Birds, 2, (i), p. 354, Cayenne. 1 

Muscicapa thamnophiloides SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 19, pi. 26, fig. 2, 1825 "in 
lotis sylvaticis fl. Amazonum" (type in Munich Museum examined). 

Tyrannus rutilus LESSON, ficho du Monde Sav., n, 2nd sem., No. n, p. 254, 
1844 Cayenne, French Guiana; idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeVSque, 20, 
(Descr. Mammif. et Ois.), p. 310, 1847 Cayenne. 

Attila rutilus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., n, p. 47, 1848 French Guiana (ex 
Lesson). 

Lanius unirufus (CuviER MS.) PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, 
p. 332, 1855 Cayenne (type in Paris Museum examined); HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 330, 1906 (crit.). 

Thamnophilus strenuus SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 173, 1862 
Cayenne. 

Dasycephala thamnophiloides CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 222, 1847 
part, excl. ref. to SWAINSON and D'ORBIGNY; idem in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen 
Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 686, 1848 coastal forests of British Guiana; BUR- 
MEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 86, 1856 in part. 

Dasycephala cinnamomea BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 35, 
1857 Cayenne. 

AUila thamnophiloides SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 interior of 
Brazil; idem and SALVIN, I.e., 1866, p. 187 Sarayacu, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1867, p. 577 Mexiana; idem I.e., 1873, p. 285 Sarayacu, Peru (crit.); 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 Borba, Rio Madeira, and Cayenne 
(spec, examined); LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 385 Para; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. 
Per., 2, p. 372, 1884 Sarayacu, Peru; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 304 British 
Guiana (ex SCHOMBURGK); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 364, 1888 
Demerara, Cayenne, Mexiana, Elvira, Samiria, Sarayacu, Ucayali; 
GOELDI, Ibis, 1897, p. 161 Amapa, northern Para; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 
2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 651, 1906 note on Spix's type (crit.); 
idem, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 13, 1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; idem, l.c., 14, 
p. 364, 1907 Borba, Rio Madeira; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 311, 1907 range; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 

'Although the type, formerly in the Leverian Museum, appears to be lost, 
Latham's description fits Attila thamnophiloides in every detail except for the 
statement that the wing coverts are tipped with yellow, which may be due to a 
pen-slip or to the faded condition of the specimen. It will be noticed that Latham 
places it next to the "Yellow-rumped Flycatcher" [= Attila s. spadiceus,] for 
which he gives as patria "Inhabits Cayenne, with the last" [= Cinnamon Fly- 
catcher], the two only species of Attila known to occur in French Guiana. 



146 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Amapa, Para, Maraj6, Monte Alegre (food); idem, I.e., 56, p. 506, 
1908 Goyana, Rio Tapaj6z; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 142, 1908 
Cayenne and Approuague, French Guiana; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, 
p. 315, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 160, 1910 Surinam (nest and egg descr.); HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 34, 91, 1912 Ipitinga, 
Rio Acara; p. 120, 1912 Mexiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 
1913 (ecology); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 353, 1914 Pard, Quati-puni, 
Cussary, Rio Tapaj6z (Goyana), Amapa, Maraj6 (Sao Natal), Rio Jary 
(Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Arumanduba, Monte Alegre, Rio Jamundd 
(Faro); BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 71, 1918 
vicinity of Paramaribo and Javaweg, Surinam; CHUBB, Birds Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 289, 1921 Ituribisi River, Supenaam, Mazaruni River, 
Bartica, Bonasika River, Abary River, Anarika River; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 64, 1926 Tury-assii, Maranhao; 
STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 1928 Rio Inhangapy, Para. 

Attila thamnophiloides thamnophiloides HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 344, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and the whole 
valley of the Amazon, including its tributaries, from northern 
Maranhao (Tury-assii) west to northeastern Peru (Elvira and Sa- 
miria, Rio Maranon; Sarayacu, Ucayali; Lagunas, lower Huallaga). 1 

3: Dutch Guiana (vicinity of Paramaribo i); Brazil (Tury- 
assu, Maranhao i); Peru (Lagunas, lower Huallaga i). 

Attila cinnamomeus torridus Sclater* FRASER'S ATTILA. 

Attila torridus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 280, 1860 Babahoyo, Ecuador; 
SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1878, p. 139 Santa Rosa, Ecuador; TACZA- 
NOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 372, 1884 Babahoyo; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 365, 1888 Babahoyo, San Lucas, and Santa Rita, Ecuador; 
SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 
Vinces and Rfo Peripa; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 6n, 1902 San 
Javier and Pambflar, prov. Esmeraldas (spec, examined) ; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 546, 1926 Esmeraldas, Manavi, Daule, La 
Chonta, and Alamor, Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of western Ecuador, from Esmeraldas to 
Loja (Alamor). 

Genus CASIORNIS Des Murs. 

Casiornis (BONAPARTE MS.) DES MURS in CASTELNAU, Exp. AmeY. Sud, Ois., 
p. 55, June, 1856 type by monotypy Casiornis typus DES MURS. 

Examination of thirty-nine specimens from Guiana and Amazonia fails to 
reveal any geographic variation. Peruvian birds, by paler rump and posterior 
under parts, form the transition to A. c. torridus. 

8 Attila c. torridus differs from the typical race by much lighter coloration 
and blacker wing coverts, with much narrower, paler apical margins. 

Material examined. Ecuador, prov. Esmeraldas: Pambflar 3, San Javier 3. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 147 

*Casiornis rufa (Vieillot). RUFOUS CASIORNIS. 

ThamnophHus ruftis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e'd., 3, p. 316, 
1816 based on "Batara roxo" AZARA, No. 218 [ =No. 217 in Walckenaer- 
Sonnini's French edition], Paraguay. 

Thamnophilus rutilus (not of VIEILLOT, 1816) VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Me'th., 
Orn., 2, p. 747, 1822 based on "Batara roxo" AZARA erroneously quoted 
as No. 215 Paraguay. 

(?) Muscicapa rubra VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 22, p. 457, 
1818 based on "Suiriri roxo" AZARA, No. 188, Paraguay. 

Dasycephala haematodes CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 222, 1847 

Brazil. 
Tyrannula rufula HARTLAUB, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 4, p. 6, 1852 Brazil. 

Casiornis typus (BONAPARTE MS.) DES MURS in CASTELNAU, Exp. Amer. 
Sud, Ois., p. 55, pi. 18, fig. I, 1856 Goyaz (type in Paris Museum ex- 
amined). 

Tyrannus rufus LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 
7, el. 2, p. 44, 1837 Yungas and Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Tyrannus thamnophiloides (not Muscicapa thamnophUoides SPIX) D'ORBIGNY, 
Voyage Amer. M6rid., Ois., p. 308, 1839 Yungas and Chiquitos, Bolivia. 

Dasycephala rubra BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 3, p. 86, 1856 "St. 
Paulo, St. Catharina, Montevideo" (errore). 

Casiornis rubra SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 41, 1859 (synonymy); PELZELN, 
Orn. Bras., 2, p. 96, 1868 Porto do Rio Parana (Sao Paulo), Goyaz and 
Ponte Alta (Goyaz), Engenho do Gama (Matto Grosso), Brazil; REIN- 
HARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 361 Faz. Mocambo 
and Faz. Roca (Minas Geraes), Batataes (Sao Paulo), Catalao (Goyaz); 
SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 Yungas and Chiquitos, 
Bolivia; SCLATER and HUDSON, Arg. Orn., i, p. 163, 1888 Campo Colo- 
rado, Oran, Salta; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 365, 1888 Goyaz, 
Brazil, and Oran, Argentina; KERR, Ibis, 1892, p. 131 near Fortin 
Donovan, lower Pilcomayo; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus., N.H., 5, p. no, 
1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; SALVADORI, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, 
No. 208, p. ii, 1895 Baranquera la Novia and Colonia Risso, Paraguay; 
idem, I.e., 12, No. 292, p. 17, 1897 San Francisco, Bolivian Chaco; idem, 
l.c., 15, No. 378, p. 7, 1900 Uruciim, Matto Grosso; BRUCH, Rev. Mus. 
La Plata, n, p. 256, 1904 Oran, Salta; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 311, 1907 Jaboticabal, Rincao, Avanhandava, Bebe- 
douro, and Itapura, Sao Paulo; GRANT, Ibis, 1911, p. 125 Puerto San 
Juan, Paraguay; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Asunci6n. 

Casiornis rufa rufa HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 56, 1908 Goyaz, Rio 
Thesouras, Rio Araguaya, and Fazenda Esperanca, Goyaz; DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 312, 1910 Oran, Salta, 
and lower Pilcomayo; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 22, 1925 Yungas, 
Bolivia (crit.). 

Casiornis rufus CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 606 Sapucay, Paraguay. 



148 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Casiornis rufus rufus DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 
33, p. 322, 1912 San Rafael, Paraguay. 

Casiornis rufa SNBTHLAGE, Journ. Ornith., 61, p. 526, 1913 Monte Alegre; 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 354, 1914 Monte Alegre, lower Amazon; 
WETMORE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 133, p. 294, 1926 Las Palmas, Chaco, 
and west of Puerto Pinasco and eastern bank of Rio Paraguay, Paraguay; 
HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 344, 1929 
Barra do Corda, Maranhao. 

Range: Northern Argentina (Chaco, Salta, and Jujuy); Para- 
guay; eastern Bolivia, and the interior of the Brazilian table-land, 
from northern Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso through western Minas 
Geraes and Goyaz north to Maranhao (Barra do Corda) and Lower 
Amazonia (Monte Alegre). 1 

19: Argentina, prov. Jujuy (Rio Lavallen i, Ledesma i); Bolivia 
(Buenavista, dept. Santa Cruz 4); Brazil (Bauru, Sao Paulo 3; 
Chapada 2, Urucum de Corumbd 2, Piraputanga, Matto Grosso 3; 
Barra do Corda, Maranhao 3). 

*Casiornis fusca Sclater and Salvin. DUSKY CASIORNIS. 

Casiornis fusca SCLATER and SALVIN, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., pp. 57, 159, 1873 
Bahia (type in British Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
*4. P- 366, 1888 Bahia; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 
312, 1907 Bahia; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Pard, 
Santo Antonio do Prata; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 354, 1914 Pard, 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Xingu (Vic- 
toria), and Rio Tapaj6z (Boim); REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. 
Wiss. Wien, 76, pp. 70, 154, 1910, 1925 Pao de Can6a and Santa Rita, 
Rio Preto, Bahia, and Lag6a Missao, near Parnagua, and above Pintados, 
Rio Parnahyba, Piauhy; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, 
No. 6, pp. 44, 64, 1926 Ceard and MaranhSo (Anil, Sao Bento); STONE, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 1928 Rio Muraiteua, Para; HELL- 
MAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 344, 1929 Maranhao, 
Piauhy, and Ceara. 

Casiornis rufa fusca HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 
26, No. 2, p. 91, 1912 Para, Santo Antonio do Prata, state of Para. 

Range: Northeastern Brazil, in states of Bahia, Ceard, Piauhy, 
Maranhao, and Para, extending along the south bank of the Amazon 
as far west as the Tapajoz (Boim). 2 

'Birds from Jujuy and Bolivia are generally somewhat paler on the belly, but 
the difference is trifling and not quite constant. No material is available from the 
type locality. Forty-five specimens examined. 

1 Although representing its ally in the greater part of its range, C. fusca can- 
not well be treated as a subspecies of C. rufa, since both are known to occur on 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 149 

13: Brazil (Jud, near Iguatii, Ceara 8; Ibiapaba, Piauhy 3; 
Fazenda Inhuma, Alto Parnahyba, Maranhao i; Sao Bento, 
Maranhao i . 

Genus LANIOCERA Lesson. 1 

Laniocera LESSON, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 353, 1840 type by monotypy Laniocera 
sanguinaria LESSON = A mpelis hypopyrrha VIEILLOT. 

Aulea (SCHIFF MS.) BONAPARTE, Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 314 ( = Consp. 
Voluc. Anisod., p. 4), 1854 type by subs, desig. (GRAY, Cat Gen. Subgen. 
Birds, p. 56, 1855) Ampelis hypopyrrha VIEILLOT. 

Aulia CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 101, 1859 emendation of 
Aulea BONAPARTE. 

*Laniocera hypopyrrha (Vieillot). CINEREOUS MOURNER. 

Ampelis hypopyrra (sic) VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. e"d., 8, p. 
164, 1817 "la Guyane" = Cayenne. 

Ampelis hypopyrrha VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 762, 
1 822 Cayenne. 

Muscicapa sibilatrix WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 810, 1831 forest 
road of Capitao Filisberto, near Ilh^os, southern Bahia. 

Laniocera sanguinaria LESSON, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 353, 1840 hab. ign. (descr. 
juv.). 

Lipangus hypopyrrhus HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 3, 1846 (descr. juv.); 
idem, I.e., p. in, 1846 (crit.). 

Ptilochloris hypopyrrhus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 9, pp. 43, 239, 1846 (crit.). 
Lipangus later alis GRAY and MITCHELL, Genera Birds, i, pi. 60, 1847. 

Lipaugus sibilatrix BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 422, 1856 
Brazil (ex WIED). 

Aulia hypopyrrha CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 101, 1859 Bogota; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 123, 1868 Bahia; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 303 
Bartica Grove and Camacusa, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 354, 1888 Bahia, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Chyavetas and 
Santa Cruz (Peru), Sarayacu (Ecuador); ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2, p. 239, 1889 note on Wied's types in American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Para; 
PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 158, 1910 interior of Surinam. 

the lower Amazon, while recently the latter species was discovered even at Barra 
do Corda, in the heart of the area occupied by C. fusca in the state of Maranhao. 
Material examined. Bahia (including the type) 3; Rio Preto, Bahia 4; Jud, 
Ceard 8 ; Ibiapaba, Piauhy 3 ; Sao Luiz i , Miritiba 3, Fazenda Inhuma i , Sao Bento, 
Maranhao i ; Benevides, Para i ; Santar6m, Rio Tapaj6z 3. 

'In spite of its exaspidean tarsus and the extensive cohesion of the toes I 
cannot but feel that the affinities of this genus are with Lipaugus and Rhytip- 
terna, and not with the Pipridae. 



150 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Lipaugus hypopyrrhus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 211 Brazil, Amazonia, 
Nova Grenada; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exot. Orn., p. 6, 1866 south- 
eastern Brazil. 

Lipaugus lateralis SCLATER and SALVIN, Exot. Orn., p. 6, 1866 Brazil sept. 
et Valle Amazonum; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, pp. 751, 757 Chyavetas, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 285 Chyavetas and Santa Cruz, Peru. 

Aulia lateralis PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 124, 1868 Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 369, 1884 Chyavetas, Santa Cruz. 

Laniocera hypopyrrha BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 57, 1902 
Nericagua, Orinoco River, and Suapure, La Pricion, La Uni6n, and 
Nicare, Caura River, Venezuela; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 
1905 Rio Jurud; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 309, 1907 Rio Jurud 
(range); BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 141, 1908 Ipousin, R. Ap- 
prouague, and Cayenne, French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 
505, 1908 Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; p. 529, 1908 Arumatheua, Rio Tocan- 
tins; idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 351, 1914 Pard, Apehti, Santo Antonio 
do Prata, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Tamucury, Rio Tapaj6z (Itai- 
tuba), Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da Cachoeira), Obidos; CHERRIE, Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 250, 1916 Nericagua, Orinoco, and Caura 
Valley, Venezuela; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 
73, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Lelydorp, and Javaweg, Surinam; 
LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 Ilhos to Belmonte, southern 
Bahia; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 281, 1921 numerous localities; 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 545, 1926 Sarayacu, Ecuador. 

Laniocera hypopyrra HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 364, 1906 Santo An- 
tonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 14, p. 364, 1907 Borba, Rio Madeira; 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 314, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. 
Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 34, 90, 1912 Peixe-Boi, Pard 
(Pard localities); STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 1928 Pard. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; southern Vene- 
zuela (Orinoco-Caura basin), and all over Amazonia, from Pard 
west to the eastern slopes of the Andes in Colombia ("Bogota^'), 
Ecuador (Sarayacu), and Peru (Chyavetas; Santa Cruz, Rio Hual- 
laga; Puerto Bermudez, Ucayali drainage basin), and south to the 
Rio Madeira and northern Bolivia (Rio San Mateo, Yungas of 
Cochabamba); also in eastern Brazil (southern Bahia). 1 

i: Peru (Puerto Bermudez, Rio Pichis, dept. Junin i). 

'Specimens from Guiana and various parts of Amazonia agree well together. 
Birds from Bahia are slightly larger (wing 112-114, against 105-111 mm.) and 
apparently more tinged with olivaceous; but with only three old skins before me, 
I cannot be certain whether these rather trifling differences justify the recognition 
of a separate race, L. hypopyrrha sibilatrix (WiED). 

Material examined. French Guiana: Ipousin, Approuague River i. British 
Guiana: Bartica Grove 4, Camacusa i, Caramang River i. Venezuela: Nerica- 
gua, Orinoco River i; Caura Valley 20. Colombia: "Bogotd" 3. Brazil: Santo 
Antonio do Prata i; Peixe-Boi, Pard 2; Borba, Rio Madeira i; Calama, Rio 
Madeira i; Marabitanas, Rio Negro 3; Bahia 3. Peru: Puerto Bermudez i. 
Bolivia: San Mateo I. 



IQ2Q. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 15! 

*Laniocera rufescens rufescens (Sclater). RUFESCENT MOURNER. 

Lipaugus rufescens SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, "1857," p. 276, pub. Jan., 
1858 Coban, Guatemala 1 (type in Derby Museum, Liverpool); idem and 
SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 124 Coban; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 211 
Guatemala; idem and SALVIN, I.e., 1864, p. 361 Panama Railroad; idem, 
Exot. Orn., pp. 5, 6, pi. 3, 1866 Veragua and Panama; LAWRENCE, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 330, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama; idem, I.e., 9, 
p. n 6, 1868 Barranca and Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; SALVIN, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 203 occurrence in Guatemala questioned; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 
149 Santa F6, Veragua. 

Aulia rufescens SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 519 Remedies, 
Antioquia (?); ZELEDON, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Pozo 
Azul de Pirns, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 355, 1888 
Santa F6, Chepo, Panama, and (?) Remedies, Colombia; SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. 130, 1891 Coban, Honduras, 
Costa Rica, Panama, and (?) Colombia; UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 439 
Volcan de Miravelles, Costa Rica. 

Laniocerca rufescens RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 10, p. 589, 1888 Rio 
Segovia, Honduras (crit.). 

Laniocera rufescens RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 508, 1893 Rio 
Escondido, Nicaragua (crit.); BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 13, 
1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 
4. P- 765, 1907 part, Guatemala to Panama and (?) Colombia (monog.); 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 677, 1910 Cariblanco de Sarapi- 
qui and La Vijagua, Costa Rica; BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 215, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darien; GRISCOM, I.e., 69, p. 181, 
1929 El Real, Darien. 

Range: Guatemala (Coban, Vera Paz) and southward through 
Honduras (Rio Segovia), Nicaragua (Rio Escondido; San Emilio, 
Lake Nicaragua), and Costa Rica to Panama (Santa Fe de Veragua; 
Panama Railroad; El Real and Mount Sapo, Darie'n), and possibly 
northern Colombia (Remedies, Antioquia). 2 

3: Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua 2); Costa Rica 
Reventazon i). 

Laniocera rufescens tertia (Hartert). 3 ECUADORIAN RUFESCENT 
MOURNER. 

'Although the correctness of this locality given on the authority of Adolphe 
Delattre was subsequently questioned by Sclater and Salvin (Exot. Orn., p. 5), 
two more specimens from Guatemala have since come to hand. 

*Owing to lack of material, I cannot say whether specimens from Colombia 
are really identical with those from Central America. According to the authors 
of the "Biologia" (I.e., p. 131), two birds from Remedies differ from the latter by 
having a grayish tinge on the head, lower back, and throat. 

Material examined. Honduras i; Nicaragua 2; Costa Rica 7; Panama I. 

'Laniocera rufescens tertia (HARTERT): Adult male similar to L. r. rufescens, 
but general coloration decidedly darker, more tinged with chestnut, particularly 
above. Female unknown. 

This rather ill-defined race needs corroboration by a larger series. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Bulun, prov. Esmeraldas 4. 



152 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Aulia tertia HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 609, 1902 Bulun, Ecuador (type in 
Tring Museum examined). 

Laniocera rufescens (not of SCLATER) RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 765, 1907 part, Ecuador. 

Laniocera rufescens tertia CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 545, 
1926 Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of northwestern Ecuador (Bulun, prov. 
Esmeraldas). 

Genus RHYTIPTERNA Reichenbach. 

Rhytipterna Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., pi. 65, 1850 type by subs, desig. 
(GRAY, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Birds, p. 49, 1855) Tyrannus calcaratus 
SWAINSON = Muscicapa simplex LICHTENSTEIN. 

*Rhytipterna simplex simplex (Lichtenstein) . GRAYISH MOURNER. 

Muscicapa simplex LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 53, 1823 
Bahia, Brazil. 

Muscicapa cinerascens SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 16, pi. 21, 1825 Rio de Janeiro; 
HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 648, 1906 (type 
lost). 

Tyrannus calcaratus SWAINSON, Quart. Journ. Sci., Litt., and Arts Roy. Inst., 
20, No. 40, p. 271, Jan., 1826 Bahia; JARDINE and SELBY, Illustr. Orn., 
* pl- 37. April, 1828 no locality stated. 

Muscicapa rustica WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 866, 1831 south- 
eastern Brazil. 

Lipangus simplex HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 3, 1846 (crit.). 

Myiarchus rusticus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 470, 1856 Rio 
de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, and Bahia. 

Lipaugus simplex BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 422, 1856 part, 
Bahia; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 211 Brazil; idem and SALVIN, 
Exotic Orn., p. 6, 1866 Brazil; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 123, 1868 
part, Rio de Janeiro; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 90, 1874 Cantagallo, 
Rio; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 356, 1888 part, spec, k-s, Bahia, 
"Sao Paulo," Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 240, 1889 
southeastern Brazil (note on Wied's types); IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 
214, 1899 "Sao Paulo" (ex SCLATER); idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Canta- 
gallo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 309, 1907 Bahia and Porto Cachoeiro, 
Espirito Santo (range in part); LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 
1920 Ilhe'os to Belmonte, southern Bahia. 

Range: Wooded coast region of southeastern Brazil, from Rio 
de Janeiro north to Bahia. 1 

i: Brazil (Santo Amaro, Bahia). 

^aterial examined. Bahia (trade skins) 6; Santo Amaro, Bahia i; Rio de 
Janeiro 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 153 

*Rhytipterna simplex frederici (Bangs and Penard). 1 AMAZONIAN 
GRAYISH MOURNER. 

Lipaugus simplex frederici BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, 
p. 71, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 343, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 

Lipaugus simplex (not of LICHTENSTEIN) CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen 
Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 694, 1848 British Guiana; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. 
Th. Bras., 2, p. 422, 1856 part, Para; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1866, p. 190 lower Ucayali, Peru; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 123, 1868 
part, Engenho do Gama and [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso (Matto Grosso), 
Salto do Girao and Borba (Rio Madeira), Barra [=Mandos], Pard; 
SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 284 lower Ucayali, Peru; 
TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, P- 54 Monterico, Peru; idem, I.e., 1882, p. 
24 Huambo and Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 370, 1884 
Peruvian localities; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 303 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, 
and Merum6 Mts., British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
356, 1888 part, spec, a-j, Bogota, Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Cayenne, 
Sarayacu (Ecuador), and lower Ucayali, Peru; BERLEPSCH and LEVER- 
KUHN, Ornis, 6, p. 19, 1890 Angostura, Orinoco, Venezuela; RIKER and 
CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Diamantina, near Santar6m, Brazil; 
SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 
Rfo Santiago, Ecuador; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 181, 1904 Mountains of the Upper Carsevenne and Camopi, French 
Guiana; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 315, 1908 same localities; IHER- 
ING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 309, 1907 part, range excl. 
southeastern Brazil; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Pard; 
idem, I.e., 56, p. 505, 1908 Goyana, Rio Tapaj<5z; idem, Bol. Mus. 
Goeldi, 8, p. 351, 1914 Pard, Quati-purti, Rio Guamd (Santa Maria de 
Sao Miguel), Rio Tocantins (Cametd), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Goyana, Villa 
Braga, Villa Nova), Rio Maecuru, Rio Jamundd (Faro); PENARD and 
PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 159, 1910 Surinam; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 36, p. 495, 1917 Florencia, eastern Colombia; SNETHLAGE 
Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 64, 1926 Tury-assu, Maran- 
hao. 

Lipaugus simplex simplex CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 545, 
1926 eastern Ecuador. 

! Lipaugus simplex immundus (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) BERLEPSCH and 

HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 57, 1902 Perico and Nericagua, Rio Orinoco, 
and Suapure and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela. 

l Rhytipterna simplex frederici (BANGS and PENARD): Very similar to R. s. 
simplex, but upper parts decidedly darker, more purely slate gray; breast like- 
wise darker; abdomen less tinged with yellowish; base of lower mandible hardly 
paler than the rest. 

Although single specimens are not always distinguishable, this form is fairly 
separable in a series. Certain individuals from Pard and Maranhao form the 
transition to R. s. simplex. 

Material examined. British Guiana 4. Venezuela: Caura Valley 8. Co- 
lombia: Bogotd 3. Brazil: Tury-assu, Maranhao i; Pard district 4; Itaituba, 
Tapajbz i; Teff6, Rio SolimSes i; Rio Madeira 5; Engenho do Gama, Matto 
Grosso i. 



154 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Lipaugus immundus CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 255, 1916 
La Cascabel, San Feliz River, Orinoco, Venezuela. 

Lipangus simplex HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 295, 1905 Igarap6-assu, 
Para; idem, I.e., 13, p. 364, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, 
I.e., 14, p. 13, 1907 Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; idem, I.e., 14, p. 51, 1907 
Teff6, Rio Solimoes; idem, I.e., 14, p. 364, 1907 Borba, Rio Madeira; 
idem, I.e., 17, p. 314, 1910 Calama, Jamarysinho, and Maroins, Rio 
Madeira; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 
2, p. 90, 1912 Para localities; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 283, 
1921 numerous localities. 

Range: The Guianan- Amazonian forest region, from French, 
Dutch, and British Guiana west through southern Venezuela (valley 
of the Orinoco and its tributaries) to the eastern base of the Andes 
in Colombia and Ecuador, and throughout Amazonia from northern 
Maranhao to eastern Peru and western Matto Grosso (Villa Bella 
and Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore"). 

2: Colombia (Bogota i); Brazil (Tury-assu, Alto de Alegria, 
Maranhao i). 

Rhytipterna immunda (Sclater and Salvin). 1 CAYENNE MOURNER. 

Lipaugus immundus SCLATER and SALVIN, Nomencl. Av. Neotrop., pp. 57, 
159, 1873 "Oyapoc, Cayenne" (types in British Museum examined); 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 357, 1888 Oyapoc; BERLEPSCH, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 141, 1908 Oyapoc (ex SCLATER and SALVIN). 

Range: Supposed to be French Guiana (Oyapock). 

*Rhytipterna holerythra holerythra (Sclater and Salvin). RUFOUS 
MOURNER. 

Lipaugus holeryihrus SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 300, 1860 
Choctum, Vera Paz, Guatemala; idem, Ibis, 1860, p. 400 Vera Paz, 

1 Rhytipterna immunda (Sclater and Salvin) is known only from the two 
original specimens in the British Museum. One is an adult bird, just completing 
its annual molt, with the fourth to the eight primaries and the central pair of 
rectrices in the process of growing, and a number of pinfeathers in the body 
plumage. In coloration it is strikingly similar to Myiarchus phaeonotus, though 
the pileum is not quite so dark, being hardly different from the color of the back, 
and the throat and chest are somewhat dingier grayish (less whitish gray), also 
less sharply contrasted with the pale yellow of the remaining under parts. The 
second specimen is an immature bird in fresh plumage, without traces of molt- 
ing. It has the smaller upper wing coverts conspicuously edged all round with 
buffy white, while those of the greater series merely show exteinal margins of 
rufescent buff; the rectrices (except the outermost pair), too, are exteriorly edged 
with light cinnamon rufous, of which traces may likewise be seen on some of the 
upper tail coverts. 

Both specimens differ, however, from Myiarchus phaeonotus by somewhat 
higher (not so depressed), less ridged and more strongly hooked bill, the serrated 
upper portion of the planta tarsi, and proportionately longer tail. Wing 86; tail 
82, 85; tars. 20; bill 17, 18. 

Its habitat, supposed to be Oyapock, is perhaps open to doubt. 



BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 155 

Guatemala; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 211 Guatemala; idem and 
SALVIN, I.e., 1864, p. 361 Panama Railroad; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 279 
Bluefields River, Nicaragua; idem, Exotic Orn., p. 6, 1866 Guatemala 
and Isthmus of Panama; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 
330, 1862 Panama Railroad; idem. I.e., 9, p. 116, 1868 Angostura, 
Costa Rica; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 Santa F6 de Veragua; 
idem, I.e., 1870, p. 199 Calovevora, Boqueti de Chitra, Chitra, and 
Volcan de Chiriquf; WYATT, Ibis, 1871, p. 334 one day's journey from 
Paturia, Magdalena Valley, Colombia; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1878, p. 
65 San Carlos and Naranjo, Costa Rica; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, 
p. 519 Neche, Antioquia, Colombia; ZELED6N, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa 
Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Talamanca, Las Trojas, Jimenez, and Naranjo de 
Cartago, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 357, 1888 
"southern Mexico" to Remedios and Neche, northern Colombia; SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 131, 1891 "Mexico" to Colombia; 
CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. en Costa Rica, 1890-91, p. 37, 1893 Boruca, Costa 
Rica; RICHMOND, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 16, p. 508, 1893 Rfo Frio, Costa 
Rica and Rfo Escondido, Nicaragua; UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 439 
Miravelles, Costa Rica; BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 365, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; 
idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 149, 1903 Yaruca, Honduras; 
DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 100, 1907 
Los Amates, Guatemala. 
Lipangus holerythrus BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 40, 1902 

Boquete and Volcan de Chiriqui, Panama. 

Lipaugus holerythrus holerythrus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, 
p. 820, 1907 Guatemala to northern Colombia (monog.); CARRIKER, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 669, 1910 Costa Rica; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 36, p. 495, 1917 Alto Bonito, lower Atrato, and Puerto Valdivia, 
lower Cauca, Colombia; BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
65, p. 213, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darin; KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. 
Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 458, 1928 Boquete Trail, Panama; GRISCOM, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 181, 1929 El Tigre, Rio Cupe, Dari&i. 
Range: Guatemala and southwards through Honduras, Nica- 
ragua, Costa Rica, and Panama to northern Colombia (lower Atrato ; 
Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca; Nechi, Remedios, and near Paturia, 
lower Magdalena region). 1 

6: Guatemala (Los Amates i, unspecified i); Costa Rica (Orosi 
2, Boruca i, Lim6n i). 

Rhytipterna holerythra rosenbergi (Hartert). 2 ROSENBERG'S 
MOURNER. 

^irds from northern Colombia (Rfo Nechf) and Darin diverge slightly in the 
direction of R. h. rosenbergi. 

Material examined. Guatemala 3; Chamelec6n, Honduras i; Costa Rica 10; 
Panama 2; Rfo Nechf, Colombia 2. 

^Rhytipterna holerythra rosenbergi (HARTERT) : Similar to R. h. holerythra, but 
much more deeply colored throughout, approaching cinnamon russet above and 
cinnamon chestnut underneath. Wing 97-104; tail 86-94; bill 19-20. 

Material examined. Colombia: Novita 2; Sipi i; Juntas, Rfo Dagua 7. 
Ecuador: Cachavf, prov. Esmeraldas 2. 



156 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Lipaugus holerythrus rosenbergi HARTERT, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 16, p. 12, 
1905 Rio Dagua, western Colombia (type in Tring Museum examined); 
HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1145 N6vita and Sipi, Choc6, Pacific 
Colombia (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 495, 1917 
Los Cisneros, Rfo Dagua, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 546, 1926 western 
Ecuador. 

Lipaugus holerythrus (not of SCLATER and SALVIN) HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, 
p. 489, 1898 Cachabf, Ecuador. 

Range: Pacific coast of Colombia, from the Rio San Juan 
southwards, and northwestern Ecuador (prov. Esmeraldas). 

Genus LIPAUGUS Boie. 

Lipangus (typogr. error) 1 BOIE, Isis, 21, p. 318, 1828 type by subs, desig. 
(GRAY, List Gen. Birds, p. 29, 1840) Muscicapa plumbea LICHTENSTEIN. 

Lathria SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, 2, p. 255, 1837 type by monotypy "Le 
Cotinga cendr6" LEVAILLANT = ^W/>C/W cinerea VIEILLOT. 

Turdampelis LESSON, Echo du Monde Savant, n, 2nd sem., No. 7, p. 156, 
1844 type by monotypy Turdampelis lanioides LESSON. 

"Lipaugus fusco-cinereus (Lajresnaye). DUSKY PIHA. 

Querula fusco-ciner ea LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 291, 1843 "Colombie" 
= Bogota. 

Lipangus fuscocinereus HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 43, 1846 ((crit.). 

Lipaugus fusco-cinereus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota; 
idem, I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 "Rio Napo," Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1861, p. 210 
"Nova Granada"; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exot. Orn., p. 6, 1866 
"Nova Grenada." 

Lathria fusco-cinerea SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 518 Alegria, 
Antioquia, Colombia; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 306, 1884 Bucara- 
manga; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 350, 1888 Bogota and Ale- 
gria, Colombia, and "Baisa" [=Baeza], Ecuador; SALVADORI and FESTA, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 Pun, eastern Ecuador; 
GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 711 Baeza, Ecuador; LONNBERG and REN- 
DAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 75, 1922 Baeza road to Napo, Ecuador; 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 543, 1926 above Loja, above 
Baeza, and upper Sumaco, Ecuador; BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 Huila, Ecuador. 

Lathria fuscocinerea fuscocinerea CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 
494, 1917 Paramillo Trail, above Sal en to, Laguneta, El Roble, and Subia, 
Colombia. 

Lathria fusco-cinerea guayaquilensis RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, 
p. 120, 1906 "Guayaquil, western Ecuador" (errore). 

1 In a footnote the derivation is given as "AtTovyos splendore deficiens." 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 157 

Range: Humid Temperate Zone of eastern Ecuador and of all 
three Andean ranges of Colombia. 1 

4: Colombia (Bogotd 2; Pdramo de Tama, Santander 2). 

*Lipaugus cineraceus (Vieilloi). GRAY SCREAMING PIHA. 

Ampelis cinerea (not of LATHAM, 1790) VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
nouv. d., 8, p. 162, 1817 based on "Le Cotinga cendr6" LEVAILLANT, 
Hist. Nat. Ois. Nouv. et Rares AmeY. et Indes, i, p. 98, pi. 44, 1801, 
Cayenne. 

Ampelis cincracea VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Meth., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 761, 1822 
based on "Le Cotinga cendr6" LEVAILLANT, I.e., p. 98, pi. 44, 1801, 
Cayenne. 

Muscicapa vociferans WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 242 (8vo ed., p. 240), 1820 
Fazenda Pindoba, north of Caravellas, Bahia; idem, I.e., 2, p. 118, 1821 
lower Ilh^os, Bahia. 

Muscicapa plumbea LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 53, 1823 
Bahia, Brazil; WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 806, 1831 Mucuri, 
Alcobaca, road of Cap. Filisberto, Bahia. 

Querula cinerea LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av. f I, in Mag. Zool., 7, 
el. 2, p. 39, 1837 Moxos, Bolivia. 

Querula cineracea D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Ame'r. M6rid., Ois., p. 296, 1839 
Mission de Magdalena, Moxos, Bolivia. 

Lathria cinerea SWAINSON, Natur. Libr., Orn., 10, (Flycatchers), p. 78, pi. 2, 
1838 "southern Brazil"; SALVIN, Cat. Strickland Coll., p. 325, 1882 
Para; idem, Ibis, 1885, p. 302 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merume' Mts., 
and Roraima, Brit. Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 352, 
1888 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merume 1 Mts., Roraima, Cayenne, 
Maroni River, Para, Peruvian Amazon, Sarayacu (Ecuador); RIKER and 
CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santar6m; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 
711 Suyano, Rfo Napo, and near mouth of Coca River, Ecuador; SCHULZ, 
Journ. Orn., 50, p. 361, 1902 (habits); BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. 
Zool., g, p. 57, 1902 Munduapo and Nericagua, Orinoco River, and 
Suapure, La Uni6n, and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; GOELDI, Ibis, 
193> P- 499 Rio Capim; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, 
p. 181, 1904 Lunier River and Camopi, French Guiana; IHERING, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 Rio Jurud; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., I, p. 
309, 1907 Rio Jurua; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 295, 1905 Igarap6- 
assu, Pard; idem, I.e., 13, p. 364, 1906 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para; 
idem, I.e., 14, p. 363, 1907 Humaytha, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, 
p. 314, 1910 Calama and Allianca, Rio Madeira; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Pard, Rio Capim, Santo Antonio do Prata, and 
Castanhal, Para; idem, I.e., 56, p. 13, 1908 Bom Lugar and Monte 

'Specimens from eastern Ecuador are indistinguishable from Colombian skins. 
Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 9; Paramo de Tamd 2. Ecuador: 
Pun i ; Baeza I ; near Bafios 3. 



158 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Verde, Rio Punis; idem, I.e., 56, p. 505, 1908 Bella Vista, Rio Tapaj6z; 
BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 141, 318, 1908 Ipousin and Regina, 
Approuague River, Lunier River, and Camopi, French Guiana; PENARD 
and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 157, 1910 Surinam; HELLMAVR, Ab- 
handl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. KL, 26, No. 2, p. 33, 90, 1912 
Peixe-Boi (Pard localities); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 351, 1914 
numerous localities in the Para district, Rio Tocantins (Mazagao), Rio 
Xingii (Victoria), Rio Tapaj6z (Bella Vista, Villa Braga), Rio Jamauchim 
(Santa Helena), Rio Punis (Bom Lugar, Monte Verde), Obidos, Rio 
Jamunda (Faro), Maranhao; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 
2, p. 254, 1916 Munduapo, Nericagua, Orinoco River (habits, call- 
note); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 74, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHAPMAN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 494, 1917 Florencia, eastern Colombia; 
LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 Ilheos to Belmonte, southern 
Bahia; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 278, 1921 various localities; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 64, 1926 Tury- 
assu, Maranhao; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 1928 
Rio Inhangapy and Castanhal, Para. 

Turdampelis cinereus LESSON, Echo du Monde Savant, n, 2nd sem., No. 7, 
p. 156, 1844 "Guyane;" idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, d. LeVeque, 20, [=Descr. 
Mammif. et Ois], p. 325, 1847 "Guyane." 

Lipangus plumbeus HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 3, 1846 (crit.). 

Lipaugus cineraceus CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
693, 1848 British Guiana; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 
421, 1856 Brazil; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 210 Cayenne, Guiana, 
and Amazon Valley; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exot. Orn., p. 6, 1866 same 
range; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 579 Para; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 284 
Chamicuros, Peru. 

Lipaugus plumbeus PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 122, 1868 Dourado and 
Engenho do Gama (Matto Grosso), Borba (Rio Madeira), Barra do Rio 
Negro [ = Manaos]. 

Lathria plumbea SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 Guanai, 
Yungas, and Mission de Magdalena, Moxos, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 351, 1888 Bahia and Guanai, Bolivia; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 Mapiri, Bolivia. 

Lathria cineracea TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 368, 1884 Chamicuros, 
Peru, and Cayenne; GOELDI, 1897, p. 155 Counany, northern Para; 
HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 12, 1925 Bolivia. 

Lathria vociferans ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 239, 1889 note on 
Wied's types. 

Lathria cinerea cinerea BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 
71, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Lelydorp, Javaweg, and Rijsdijkweg, 
Surinam (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 544, 1926 
Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador. 

Lathria cineracea cineracea HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. 
Ser., 12, p. 342, 1929 Tury-assu, Maranhao. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 159 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and westward 
through southern Venezuela (the Orinoco Valley and its tributaries) 
to eastern Colombia, and south through the whole of Amazonia to 
northern Bolivia and western Matto Grosso, and from Para along 
the wooded coast belt of eastern Brazil to southern Bahia. 1 

17: Dutch Guiana (near Paramaribo 2); British Guiana (Maza- 
runi River 2); Brazil (Serra Grande, Rio Branco 7; Conceigao, Rio 
Branco i; Utinga, Pard i; Tury-assu, Maranhao i); Peru (Moyo- 
bamba i; Rioja i; Puerto Bermiidez, Rio Pichis, dept. Junin i). 

*Lipaugus lanioides (Lesson). 2 CINNAMON-VENTED PIHA. 

Turdampelis lanioides LESSON, ficho du Monde Savant, n, 2nd sem., No. 
7, p. 156, July, 1844 "Br6sil"; idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeV6que, 20, 
[=Descr. Mammif. et Ois.], p. 324, 1847 "Bre'sil." 

Turdampelis rufococcix LESSON, ficho du Monde Savant, n, 2nd sem., No. 
7, p. 156, in text, 1844. 

Turdampelis rufococcyx LESSON, Oeuvr. Buffon, 6d. LeVSque, 20, [ = Descr. 
Mammif. et Ois.], p. 325, in text, 1847. 

Lipaugus virussu PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 122, 184, Sept., 1868 Mat- 
todentro and Ypanema, Sao Paulo (types in Vienna Museum examined). 

Lipangus lanioides HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 3, 1846 (crit,). 

*I do not see my way clear to separate the southern race, Lipaugus cineraceus 
vociferans, lately revived by BANGS and PENARD (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 
71, 1918). The wings of five (unsexed) skins from Bahia measure 119-125, of ten 
adult males from French and British Guiana 116-128; the variation in size is, 
therefore, about the same in the two series. Two of the Bahia skins are slightly 
washed with brownish on the apical portion of the rectrices and inner secondaries, 
which may indicate an approach to the large L. lanioides, of southern Brazil; but 
the remaining specimens are not distinguishable in coloration from the Guianan 
average. Bahia birds have possibly somewhat longer tails (111-117, against 
109-113), though this insignificant difference is likely to disappear in a larger 
series. 

While Peruvian specimens are not markedly different from those of Guiana 
and Venezuela, eight skins from San Mateo, Yungas of Cochabamba, Bolivia, 
may be separable subspecifically on account of their larger size (wing 128-133^; 
tail 116-122, once only 112) and slightly more olivaceous coloring. A single 
example from Sarayacu, Ecuador, however, is similar. 

Material examined. French Guiana 6. British Guiana 6. Dutch Guiana 
3. Venezuela: Caura Valley 15. Colombia: "Bogota" 3. Ecuador: Sarayacu 
I. Brazil: Tury-assu, Maranhao i; Pard district 10; Rio Madeira 3; Rio Branco 
8; Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso i; Bahia 5. Peru (as specified above) 3. 
Bolivia: San Mateo, Yungas of Cochabamba 8. 



gus lanioides (LESSON) is most probably conspecific with L. cineraceus, 
but its range and variation are top little known to admit of a final conclusion. 
It differs from its ally principally in its larger size (wing 132-140; tail 115-122), 
decidedly brownish rump, tail, and wing edgings, and (buffy) brownish gray 
under parts, passing into cinnamomeous on the lower tail coverts. 

Material examined. Espirito Santo: Braco do Sul i. Sao Paulo: Victoria 
2, Mattodentro I, Ipanemd 4. Santa Catharina: Blumenau I, Joinville i. 



160 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Lipaugus plumbeus (not Muscicapa plumbea^ LICHTENSTEIN) SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1861, p. 210 Brazil (diag.; excl. synonymy); SCLATER and SALVIN, 
Exot. Orn., p. 6, 1866 Brazil. 

Lathria virussu CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 90, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 351, 1888 Mattodentro and "Pelotas, 
Rio Grande do Sul," Brazil; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 213, 1899 
Cantagallo; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 Iguap, Sao Paulo 
and Marianna, Minas Geraes. 

Lathria lanioides HELLMAYR, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 12, p. 138, 1915 Braco 
do Sul, near Victoria, Espirito Santo (crit.). 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from Espirito 
Santo and southern Minas Geraes (Marianna) south to Santa Catha- 
rina. 

2: Brazil (Victoria, Sao Paulo i; Joinville, Santa Catharina i). 

Lipaugus streptophorus (Salvin and Godmari). 1 PINK-COLLARED PIHA. 

Lathria streptophora SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), 2, p. 448, pi. 14, 1884 
Roraima, British Guiana (descr. of male); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 303 
Roraima; idem, I.e., 1886, pp. 500, 502 Mount Twekquay, Brit. Guiana 
(descr. of female); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 352, 1888 Ror- 
aima and Twek-quey Mts.; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 280, 1921 
same localities. 

Range: Mountains of British Guiana (Roraima, Twek-quey). 

Lipaugus subalaris Sclater. GRAY-RUMPED PIHA. 

Lipaugus subalaris SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 210 Rio Napo, Ecuador 
(type in British Museum examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, Exot. Orn., p. 
3'6, pi. 2, 1866 Rio Napo. 

Lathria subalaris SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 353, 1888 Rio Napo 
and Sarayacu (Ecuador), "Upper Amazons"; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 15, 1899 San Jos6, Ecuador; CHAPMAN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 544, 1926 Rio Suno and below San Jose", 
Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Ecuador (Rio Napo, Sara- 
yacu, San Jose", Rio Suno). 1 

*Lipaugus cryptolophus cryptolophus (Sclater and Salvin). OLIVA- 
CEOUS PIHA. 

Lathria cryptolopha SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1877, p. 522 "Mongi" 
= Monji, eastern Ecuador (type in British Museum examined); SCLATER. 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 354, 1888 Monji; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus, 
N.H., 36, p. 494, 1917 Andalucia, summit of Eastern Andes, Colombia. 

*An excellent species, in structure nearest to L. cineraceus. Five specimens 
from British Guiana examined. 

'Material examined. Ecuador: Rio Napo I, Sarayacu 2. 



IQ2Q. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. l6l 

Lathria cryptolopha cryptolopha HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Verh. Orn. Ges. 
Bay., 12, p. 90, 1914 El Topo, Rio Pastaza, Ecuador, and Cueva Seca 
and Piquitamba, Rio Tocache, dept. San Martin, Peru (descr. of female) ; 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 544, 1926 Zamora and Sabanilla, 
eastern Ecuador. 

Range : Upper Tropical and Subtropical Zone of eastern Colom- 
bia (Andalucia, alt. 7000 ft., summit of Eastern Andes), eastern 
Ecuador (Monji; Zamora; Sabanilla; El Topo, Rio Pastasa), and 
eastern Peru (Cueva Seca and Piquitamba, Rio Tocache, dept. San 
Martin; Chinchao, dept. Huanuco). 1 

i: Peru (Chinchao, dept. Huanuco i). 

Lipaugus cryptolophus mindoensis (Hellmayr and Seilern). 1 
WESTERN OLIVACEOUS PIHA. 

Lathria crypotolopha (sic) mindoensis HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Verh. Orn. Ges. 
Bay., 12, p. 89, 1914 Mindo, western Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 55, p. 545, 1926 Mindo. 

Range: Western Ecuador (Mindo). 

*Lipaugus unirufus unirufus Sclater. RUFOUS PIHA. 

Lipaugus unirufus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 385, 1859 state of Oaxaca, 
Mexico (type) and Coban, Guatemala; idem and SALVIN, Ibis, 1860, p. 
36 Coban, Guatemala; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 211 Mexico and 
Guatemala; SCLATER and SALVIN, Exotic Orn., pp. i, 6, pi. i, 1866 part, 
Oaxaca and Guatemala; SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., i, p. 558, 
1869 Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Lathria unirufa SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 353, 1888 part, spec, 
a-g, Vera Cruz and Choctum, Guatemala, and British Honduras; SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 129, 1891 part, Vera Cruz 
(Mexico), British Honduras, and Guatemala. 

Lathria unirufa unirufa RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 823, 
1907 southeastern Mexico to Guatemala and British Honduras (monog.); 
BANGS and PETERS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 478, 1927 Presidio, 
Vera Cruz. 

1 Material examined. Ecuador: Monji (the type) i; El Topo, Rio Pastasa, 
alt. 2200 ft., 9 ad., Oct. 21, 1910. M. G. Palmer (Coll. Seilern). Peru, dept. San 
Martin: Cueva Seca, Rio Tocache, alt. 1800 meters, d"ad., Aug., 1900. G. A. 
Baer; Piquitamba, Rio Tocache, alt. 1100 meters, d*ad., Sept., 1900. G. A. Baer 
(Tring Museum); Chinchao, dept. Huanuco, alt. 5700 ft., 9 ad., Nov. 19, 1922. 
J. T. Zimmer (Field Museum). Wing 130-132; tail 105-113; bill 22. 

^Lipaugus cryptolophus mindoensis (HELLMAYR and SEILERN): Adult male 
similar to L. c. cryptolophus, but smaller, and concealed base of black crest feath- 
ers extensively creamy white. Wing 125-126; tail 98-100; bill 22. Female un- 
known. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador: Mindo 2. 



162 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz and 
Tabasco, south to Guatemala and British Honduras. 

i: Guatemala (unspecified i). 

*Lipaugus unirufus castaneotinctus (Harterf). 1 SOUTHERN RUFOUS 
PIHA. 

Lathria unirufus castaneotinctus HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 610, 1902 Rio 
Durango, prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador (type in Tring Museum examined). 

Lathria unirufa clara RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 120, 1906 
Panama (Lion Hill Station?); idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
824, 1907 Nicaragua to northern Colombia (monog.); BANGS, Auk, 24, 
p. 303, 1907 Pozo del Rio Grande, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 668, 1910 Costa Rica (habits); RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 
8, p. 23, 1919 Siquirres, Costa Rica. 

Lathria unirufa castaneotincta HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1144 
N6vita, Sipi, and Rfo Caj6n, Pacific Colombia (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 494, 1917 Atrato River, Baud6, Noanama, 
N6vita, Barbacoas, and Puerto Valdivia, Colombia (crit.); BANGS and 
BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 213, 1922 Mount Sapo, Dari^n 
(crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 544, 1926 Ecuador (ex 
Hartert). 

Lipaugus unirufus (not of SCLATER) CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 
p. 143 Turbo and Rio Truando, Colombia; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 330, 1862 Panama Railway; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 361 Panama Railway; idem, Exotic Orn., pp. i, 
6, 1866 part, Panama; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 Santa F6, 
Veragua; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 279 Bluefields River, Nica- 
ragua; SALVIN, I.e., 1870, p. 199 Bugaba, Panama; idem, Ibis, 1872, p. 
318 Chontales, Nicaragua. 

Lathria unirufa SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 518 Remedios 
and Neche, Antioquia, Colombia; NUTTING, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 6, p. 
404, 1884 Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 
i, p. 118, 1887 Pacuar6, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
353, 1888 part, spec, h-o, Chontales (Nicaragua), Bugaba (Chiriquf), 
Veragua, Chepo, Panama, Remedios and Neche (Colombia); SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 129, 1891 part, Nicaragua, 
Panama, and Colombia; RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 508, 
1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. en Costa Rica, 
1890-91, p. 37, 1893 Lagarto and Boruca, Costa Rica; idem, Anal. Inst. 
Fis.-Geogr. Nac. Costa Rica, 6, p. 72, 1893 Rio Naranjo, Costa Rica; 

Comparison of a larger series leads me to consider the form of southern 
Central America (L. u. clarus) as inseparable, though specimens from Panama 
northwards average perhaps slightly paler or duller than those from western 
Colombia and Ecuador. 

Material examined. Costa Rica n. Panama 7. Colombia: N6vita 5, Rfo 
Caj6n 3, Sipi, Rio Sipi i. Ecuador, prov. Esmeraldas: Rfo Durango i, Ven- 
tanas i, Cachavf 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 163 

HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 490, 1898 Cachavi, Ecuador; SALVADORI 
and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 6, 1899 Laguna 
Pita, Dari6n; BANGS, Auk, 18, p. 365, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui. 

Range: Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia (Pacific 
coast, extending east to the lower Cauca and Rio Nechi, Antioquia) ; 
northwestern Ecuador (Esmeraldas). 

2: Costa Rica (Boruca 2). 

Genus CHIROCYLLA Sclater and Salvin. 

Chirocylla SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1876, p. 357 type by orig. 
desig. Lathria uropygialis SCLATER and SALVIN. 

Chiroxilla SHARPE, Hand-List Gen. and Spec. Birds, 3, p. 166, 1901 emenda- 
tion. 

Chirocylla uropygialis (Sclater and Salvin). CHESTNUT-RUMPED PIHA. 

Lathria uropygialis SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1876, p. 355, pi. 32 
Tilotilo, Bolivia; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 617 Tilotilo. 

Chirocylla uropygialis SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 350, 1888 Tilotilo, 
Bolivia; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 907, 1907 (crit.). 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and 
Cochabamba). 1 

Genus PACHYRAMPHUS Gray. 

Pachyramphus* GRAY, List Gen. Birds, p. 31, 1840 type by orig. desig. 
Psaris cuvierii SWAINSON = Tityra viridis VIEILLOT. 

Pachyrhamphus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 240, 1847 emendation 
of Pachyramphus GRAY. 

Bathmidurus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 243, 1847 type by orig. 
desig. "Lanius atricapillus GMELIN," rectius Todus marginatus LICHTEN- 
TEIN (see I.e., p. 245). 

Chloropsaris KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 45, Oct., 1852 type by subs, 
desig. (SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 337, 1888) Tityra viridis 
VIEILLOT. * 

Calhpsaris* SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 76, July, 1857 type by monotypy 
Vireo versicolor HARTLAUB. 

Zetetes CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 87, 1859 type by subs, desig. 
(SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 337, 1888) Pachyrhynchus niger SPIX. 

'Material examined. Bolivia: Chaco (Yungas of La Paz) 3; Sandillani, alt. 
2500 meters, 5; San Antonio 2; near Locotal, alt. 2500 meters, i. 

1 Pachyramphus is the spelling used by G. R. Gray throughout his writings. 

*Cattopsaris BONAPARTE (Ann. Sci. Nat., (4), Zool., i, p. 134, 1854) is a pure 

nomen nudum. 



164 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Climacocercus (not of CABANIS, 1845) BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, 
No. I, p. 112, 1901 type by monotypy Climacocercus cyanocephalus 
BERTONI = Pachyramphus polychopterus spixii (SWAINSON). 

Berlepschia (not of RIDGWAY, 1887) BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. I, No. 

1, p. 114, 1901 type by monotypy Berlepschia chrysoblepkara BERTONI = 
Tityra viridis VIEILLOT. 

*Pachyramphus viridis viridis (Vieillot). GREEN-BACKED BECARD. 

Tityra viridis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 3, p. 348, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 210, Paraguay. 

Psaris cuvierii SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., i, pi. 32, April, 1821 Brazil. 

Platyrhynchus dupontii VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 843, 
1822 'TJle de la Trinitey errore (descr. of male). 

Muscicapa nigriceps LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 56, 1823 
Bahia (descr. of male and female). 

Tityra vieilloti JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Orn., i, pi. 10, fig. i (=female), 
Feb., 1827 Brazil. 

Tyrannus armiger (Cuvier MS.) PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
7, livr. 3, p. 332, 1855 no locality given (descr. of female). 

Berlepschia chrysoblephara BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, No. I, p. 
114, 1901 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. 

Pachyrhynchus cuvierii SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 33, pi. 45, fig. 2, 1825 Brazil; 
SWAINSON, Natur. Libr., Orn., 10, (Flycatchers), p. 85, pi. 4 (male), 1838 
(descr. of male and female). 

Muscipeta nigriceps WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 914, 1831 Cama- 
mu and Bahia. 

Pachyrhamphus cuvieri CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 242, 1847 
(synonymy). 

Pachyrhamphus nigriceps EULER, Journ. Orn., 15, p. 224, 1867 Cantagallo 
(nest and eggs descr.); BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 454, 
1856 Bahia. 

Pachyrhamphus viridis SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 75, 1857 Bahia; PEL- 
ZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 120, 1868 Rio de Janeiro, Ypanema (Sao Paulo), 
Curytiba (Parana), Sangrador, Cuyaba, and Engenho do Gama, Matto 
Grosso (spec, examined); REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 
1870, p. 322 Lagda Santa, Minas Geraes, and near Rio de Janeiro; 
BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 263, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina; 
TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 359, 1884 part, descr. of male, evidently 
based on a Brazilian example; BERLEPSCH and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 

2, p. 140, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 35, 
p. 14, 1887 Lambare", Paraguay (crit.); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 338, 1888 Pernambuco, Bahia, "Novo" Friburgo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 
KERR, Ibis, 1892, p. 130 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 1893 Corumba, Matto Grosso; IHERING, 
Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 127, 1899 [Taquara do] Mundo 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 165 

Novo, Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 212, 1899 Ypor- 
anga, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, 
Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 307, 1907 Yporanga and Bebedouro 
(Sao Paulo), Espirito Santo, and Bahia; OBERHOLSER, Proc. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., as, p. 134, 1902 Sapucay, Paraguay (crit.); LILLO, Apunt. Hist. 
Nat., i, p. 43, 1909 Santa F6, Argentina; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 604 
Sapucay, Paraguay; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 311, 1910 San Vicente and Ocampo, Chaco, and Rio Pilcomayo; 
REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 70, 1910 Santa 
Rita, Rio Preto, Bahia; GRANT, Ibis, 1911, p. 125 opposite Rabicho, 
Matto Grosso; DABBENE, Bol. Soc. Physis, i, p. 348, 1914 Chaco Austral 
and Santa Ana, Misiones; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Alto 
Parana; MENEGAUX, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., No. 96, p. 57, 1917 Caceres, 
Matto Grosso; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 
52, 1926 Maraj6 Island. 

Pachyrhynchus viridis cuvierii HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 669, 1906 Brazil (crit.); idem, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 340, 1929 Ibiapaba, Piauhy and Baturit^ and Jua, Ceara 
(crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus viridis viridis HARTERT and VENTUKI, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 
205, 1909 San Vicente, Chaco (spec, examined); WETMORE, Bull. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., 133, p. 293, 1926 Las Palmas, Chaco; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 180, 1926 Therezina, Invernadinha, and 
Candido de Abreu, Parana. 

Pachyrhynchus viridis REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 
76, p. 153, 1925 Santa Rita, Rio Preto, Bahia (crit.). 

Range: Eastern and southern Brazil, from Maraj6, Piauhy, and 
Ceara south to Matto Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul; eastern 
Bolivia (Santa Cruz); northern Argentina (Tucumdn, Chaco, Santa 
Fe", and Misiones); Paraguay. 1 

15: Argentina (Conception, Tucumdn 6; Eldorado, Misiones 2; 
Puerto Segundo, Misiones 2); Brazil (Ibiapaba, Piauhy i; Jud, near 
Iguatu, Ceard 2; Santo Amaro, Bahia 2). 

Examination of more comprehensive material tends to show that size is too 
variable a character to be used for the discrimination of local races. It must be 
conceded, however, that the largest measurements are attained in Argentina and 
Paraguay, while Bahia birds average smaller than the rest. 

Wing (adult males): San Vicente, Chaco 81; Lambare', Paraguay 77; Con- 
cepci6n, Tucuman 80, 80; Misiones 73, 74; Santa Cruz, Bolivia 78; Curityba, 
Parana 78 #; Sao Paulo 75, 76; Matto Grosso (Cuyabd, Engenho do Gama, 
Sangrador) 71, 74, 76, 76; Rio de Janeiro 76; Bahia 70, 70, 70, 71, 75, 75; Santo 
Amaro, Bahia 72; Ceara 73, 74; Ibiapaba, Piauhy 78. 

Material examined. Argentina: San Vicente, Chaco i; Ocampo, Santa F6 
i; Concepci6n, Tucuman 6; El Dorado and Puerto Segundo, Misiones 4. Para- 
guay: Lambar6 i. Bolivia: Santa Cruz i. Brazil: Parand (Curityba; Roca 
Nova, Serra do Mar) 2; Sao Paulo (Iguap, Victoria, Ipanema) 4; Rio de Janeiro 
2; Bahia 10; Santo Amaro, Bahia 2; Ceara Qua, Baturit^) 4; Ibiapaba, Piauhy i; 
Matto Grosso (Cuyaba, Sangrador, Engenho do Gama) 5. 



1 66 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Pachyramphus viridis xanthogenys Salvador! and Festa. 1 YELLOW- 
CHEEKED BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus xanthogenys SALVADOR: and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
13, No. 330, p. i, 1898 Rio Zamora, Ecuador (type in Turin Museum 
examined; = adult male); idem, I.e., 14, No. 362, p. 16, 1899 Rio Zamora; 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 541, 1926 below San Jos6, 
Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus peruanus HARTERT and GOODSON, Nov. Zool., 24, p. 410, 
1917 Chanchamayo, "state of Cuzco" [ =dept. Junin,] Peru (type in 
Tring Museum examined; = adult female); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 55, p. 541, 1926 Macas region, Ecuador (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus viridis (not Tityra viridis VIEILLOT) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1874, p. 540 Amable Maria, Peru (one female); idem, Orn. Pei., 
2 > P- 359. J 884 part, descr. of female, Amable Maria. 



Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Ecuador (Rio Zamora; below 
San Jose"; near Macas) and eastern Peru (Vista Alegre, dept. Hua- 
nuco; Amable Maria and Chanchamayo, dept. Junin). 

2: Peru (Vista Alegre, dept. Huanuco 2). 

Pachyramphus viridis griseigularis Salvin and Godman. 2 Ro RAIMA 
BECARD. 

1 Pachyramphus viridis xanthogenys SALVADOR! and FESTA: Similar to P. v. 
viridis, but adult male with orbital ring, cheeks, auriculars, and throat greenish 
yellow instead of white or grayish, this color being much duller and more greenish 
than the pectoral band in P. v. viridis-, grayish nuchal collar absent or faintly 
suggested; black areas of larger upper wing coverts more extensive; female with a 
chestnut patch on the wings as in P. v. viridis, but pileum mainly grayish like the 
hind neck (instead of bright green like the back); throat grayish (not white or 
buffy white) like sides of head; pectoral band greenish instead of bright yellow; 
middle of abdomen more purely white, washed with grayish along sides and flanks. 
Wing (males) 71-74, (female) 71-73; tail 52-56, (female) 51-54; bill 12^-14- 

On comparing two males each from Ecuador and Peru, I notice that those 
from the latter country have the primaries more conspicuously edged with green- 
ish and the greenish yellow on the anterior under parts slightly brighter. 
The type of P. peruanus, an adult female secured by C. O. Schunke at Chan- 
chamayo, alt. 1500 meters, in January, 1905, differs from an Ecuadorian speci- 
men in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, by having pure 
white (instead of buffy) abdomen and by lacking the olivaceous tinge on the 
lateral and posterior portions of the pileum. These divergencies are evidently 
individual, since Taczanowski's description of a female from Amable Maria, as 
far as the head is concerned, agrees with the Ecuadorian bird. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Rfo Zamora (male) i, below San Jos (male) 
I, near Macas (female) i. Peru: Vista Alegre (males) 2; Chanchamayo (female, 
type of P. peruanus) i . 

* Pachyramphus viridis griseigularis SALVIN and GODMAN: Agreeing with 
P. v. xanthogenys in the extensive black areas of the upper wing coverts and the 
absence of the grayish nuchal collar in the male sex; but readily distinguishable 
in both sexes by having the throat and foreneck pale grayish, without any greenish 
or yellowish jugular band; sides of the head, in the male, about the same shade as 
in xanthogenys; female without trace of a gray nape band. 

Material examined. British Guiana: Roraima (including the type) 2. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR, 167 

Pachyrhamphus griseigularis SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, (5), i, p. 208, 1883 
Roraima, British Guiana (descr. of female); idem, I.e., 1884, p. 448 
Roraima (descr. of male); SALVIN, I.e., 1885, p. 302, pi. 8 Roraima; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 339, 1888 Roraima; CHUBB, Birds 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 272, 1921 Roraima. 

Range: Mount Roraima in British Guiana. 

*Pachyramphus versicolor versicolor (Hartlaub). VARIEGATED 
BECARD. 

Vireo versicolor HARTLAUB, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 289, 1843 "Nouvelle Grenade" 
= Bogotd (descr. of female). 

Pachyrhynchus squamatus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 6, p. 291, 1843 "Colom- 
bie" = Bogota (descr. of male). 

Pachyrhynchus versicolor LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 7, p. 46, 1844 (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus versicolor CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 243, 1847 
"Neu Granada" (descr. of adult male); SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 150, 
1855 Bogota; idem, I.e., 25, p. 76, 1857 Bogotd (descr. of male and 
female); idem, I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Cat. Coll. 
Amer. Birds, p. 243, 1862 Bogota; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 518 Antioquia = Medellin; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, P- 54 
Pumamarca, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 236 Tambillo, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1882, p. 23 Tamiapampa, Peru; idem, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 366, 1884 
Pumamarca, Sillapata, Tambillo, and Tamiapampa, Peru; BERLEPSCH 
and TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1884, p. 298 Cayandeled, Ecuador; 
idem, I.e., 1885, p. 93 Machay, Ecuador; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
*4i P- 339i !888 Bogotd, Medellin, and Intac (Ecuador); SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 125, 1890 part, Colombia and 
Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 369 Vitoc, 
Huacras, Peru; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool Torino, 14, No. 
362, p. 16, 1899 Gualea, Ecuador; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 710 
Intac, Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, Ornis, 13, p. 90, 1906 Idma, 
above Santa Ana, Peru; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
843, 1907 part, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela; MENEGAUX, 
Miss. Serv. G6og. Arme"e Mes. Arc MeYid. Equat., 9, p. B6i, 1911 Anca 
(Nanegal), Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 490, 1917 
San Antonio, Cerro Munchique, Miraflores, El Eden, Aguadita, El 
Roble, Colombia. 

Pachyrhamphus versicolor versicolor CHAPMAN, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 117, p. 
100, 1921 San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru; idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 55, p. 541, 1926 Baeza, below Oyacachi, lower Sumaco, Ecuador. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Colombia (all three ranges of the 
Andes) and extreme western Venezuela (Cordillera de Me'rida), 
south through Ecuador and Peru to the Urubamba Valley, dept. 
Cuzco. 1 

Specimens from Colombia and Ecuador appear to agree, while the few 
Peruvian skins seen by me are generally less barred underneath. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogotd. 12; Antioquia 2; Cerro Munchique 
i. Ecuador: Intac 6; Nanegal i; unspecified 2. Peru: Vitoc i; Idma, Uru- 
bamba, Cuzco i. Venezuela: El Esconal, MeYida i. 



168 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

3 : Colombia (Bogota 2 ; Cerro Mtmchique, coast range west of 
Popayan, Cauca i). 

*Pachyramphus versicolor costaricensis Bangs. 1 BARRED BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus versicolor costaricensis BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 4, 
p. 26, 1908 Irazu, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 
665, 1910 Volcan de Irazu and Rio Luisa, Costa Rica; FERRY, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Coliblanco, Costa Rica. 

Pachyrhamphus versicolor (not of HARTLAUB) BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1878, 
p. 65 La Candelaria, Costa Rica; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 2, p. 125, 1890 part, La Candelaria, Costa Rica; CHERRIE, 
Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 535, 1891 La Palma de San Jos6; RIDGWAY, 
Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 843, 1907 part, Costa Rica. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Costa Rica (Volcan de Irazii; Rio 
Luisa; La Palma de San Jose"; Coliblanco; La Candelaria). 

i: Costa Rica (Coliblanco i). 

Pachyramphus surinamus (Linnaeus'). SURINAM BECARD. 

Muscicapa surinama LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 325, 1766 Surinam 
(descr. of male).* 

Tityra surinama STRICKLAND, Contrib. Ornith., 1848, p. 62-9, pi. n (=adult 
male) South America, probably Surinam. 

Pachyrhamphus dimidiatus FILIPPI, Mus. Mediolan., Animalia Vertebr., Cl. 
2, (Aves), p. 31, 1847 locality uncertain (descr. of male). 

Bathmidurus melanoleucus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 244, 1847 
part, descr. of young male, "Brazil," errore, = Cayenne or Guiana (see 
Mus. Hein., 2, p. 88, 1859). 

Pachyrhamphus surinamus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 74, 1857 Surinam 
and Cayenne (descr. of male and female); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 120, 
note 4, 1868 Cayenne (descr. of immature male); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 340, 1888 Cayenne; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 141, 
1908 Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 154, 1910 
Surinam. 

Zetetes surinamus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 88, 1859 Cayenne 
or Guiana (synon. in part). 

1 Pachyramphus versicolor costaricensis BANGS: Very similar to P. v. versi- 
color, but male with sides of the head much brighter olive yellow, and wider as 
well as blacker bars underneath; female likewise much brighter olive yellow on 
under parts, cheeks, and auriculars. 

Material examined. Costa Rica: Irazu i, Coliblanco i. 

? Linnaeus fails to mention the white patch at the base of the scapulars, a 
character easily overlooked in a mounted specimen. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 169 

Range: French and Dutch Guiana, and northern Brazil 
(Obidos). 1 

Pachyramphus spodiurus Sclater.* GRAY-TAILED BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus spodiurus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 279, 1860 Babahoyo, 
Ecuador (descr. of male and female); idem, I.e., p. 296, 1860 Esmeraldas, 
Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1883, p. 559 Chimbo, 
Ecuador; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 93 Yaguachi, Ecuador; TACZANOWSKI, 
Orn. Per., 2, p. 362, 1884 Lechugal, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 341, pi. 25, 1888 Babahoyo, Ecuador; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 16, 1899 Vinces, Ecuador; GOOD- 
FELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 710 Santo Domingo, Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p, 542, 1926 Bucay, Daule, and Porto Velo, 
Ecuador. 

Range : Tropical Zone of western Ecuador (north to Esmeraldas) 
and extreme northwestern Peru (Lechugal, prov. Tumbez). 

*Pachyramphus rufus (Boddaert). CINEREOUS BECARD. 

Muscicapa rufa BODDAERT, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 27, 1783 based on "Le Gobe- 
mouche roux, de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PL Enl. 453, fig. i, Cayenne 
( = female).' 

*A single adult male from Obidos has the lateral rectrices more decidedly 
tipped with white than two from French Guiana. The female of this rare species, 
in pattern of coloration, recalls that of Xcnopsaris albinucha, suggesting that the 
latter 's affinities may be, after all, with the Cotingidae rather than with the 
Flycatchers. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne 2; Tamanoir, Mana River 2; 
Pied Saut, Oyapock I. Brazil: Obidos I. 

* Pachyramphus spodiurus SCLATER is most nearly related to P. rufus and may 
utimately prove to be its Pacific representative. The male resembles it in the 
but faintly glossed pileum and in the pattern of the upper wing coverts, partic- 
ularly in the narrow, irregular white fringes to the greater series, and the female 
agrees with that of its eastern ally in the ochraceous tawny upper parts and in 
having the primaries, along the outer web, narrowly edged with ochraceous 
tawny, abruptly defined from the blackish inner half of the vane. P. spodiurus 
differs, however, in larger size, longer, slenderer bill, and in the male sex by more 
elongated nuchal feathers, blackish upper back, dark gray (instead of whitish) 
under parts and lores, blackish auriculars, and in lacking the white frontal band 
and apical edges to the tail, while the female may be distinguished by its uniform 
ochraceous lower surface. Wing (male) 70-78, (female) 71-76; tail 55-59; (female) 
55-56; bill 14-15. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Chimbo 2, Daule i, Porto Velo I. 

*I do not know what to make of Muscicapa eques BODDAERT (Tabl. PI. Enl., 

6. 51, 1783 based on "Le Gobe-mouche roux a poitrine orang^e, de Cayenne" 
UFFON, Hist. Nat. Ois., (Impr. Roy.), 5, p. 247, 1778, and DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 
831, fig. i "un specimen au Cabinet du Roi ) and Muscicapa aurantia GMELIN 
(Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 932, 1789- based on the same references). Among the 
numerous females of P. rufus examined in the present connection, there is not one 
answering to Buffon's description: "la tete et le haut du cou sont d'un brun 
verdatre; le dos est d'un roux surcharge^ de la mfime teinte de vert," nor do these 
terms fit any other Guianan species with which I am acquainted. The original 
specimen unfortunately is no longer in the Paris Museum. 



170 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pipra cinerea BODDAERT, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 43, 1783 based on "Manakin 
cendr6, de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 687, fig. I, Cayenne (=adult 
male). 

Muscicapa rufescens GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 932, 1789 based on "Le 
Gobe-mouche roux, de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 453, fig. i, Cayenne 
( = female). 

Pipra atricapilla GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 1003, 1789 based on "Man- 
akin cendr6, de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 687, fig. i, Cayenne 
(= adult male). 

Lanius mitratus LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., pp. 50, 51, 1823 
Cayenne (descr. of adult male and female). 

Pachyrhynchus rufescens SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 34, pi. 46, fig. 2 (=female), 
1825 Para (type lost, formerly in Munich Museum). 

Pachyrynchus leucogaster SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 289, Dec., 1837 
Brazil (descr. of immature male). 

Pachyrhynchus simplex LESSON, Echo du Monde Savant, 11, 2nd sem., No. 10, 
p. 231, 1844 Brazil (descr. of male); idem, Oeuvr. Buffon, (6d. LeVeque), 
20, ( = Descr. Mammif. et Ois.), p. 317, 1847 Brazil; HARTLAUB, Rev. 
Zool., 9, p. 2, 1846 (synon.). 

P saris exilis LESSON, Oeuvr. Buffon, (6d. LeVSque), 20, (= Descr. Mammif. 
et Ois.), p. 316, 1847 "1'Amerique me'ridionale" (=female). 

Psaris parinus KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 48, Oct., 1852 Para (types 
in Liverpool Museum examined). 

Pachyrhamphus griseus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 18, 1857 based on 
DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 687, fig. i; Bogota, Santa Marta, "Trinidad," and 
Cayenne. 

Pachyrhamphus marcidus CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sei. Bull., i, p. 389, 
1909 Las Barrancas, Orinoco River, Venezuela (=juv.); idem, I.e., 2, p. 
252, 1916 Las Barrancas. 

Pachyrhamphus atricapUlus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 242, 1847 
Cayenne (synon.); idem in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 698, 
1848 Cayenne and Surinam. 

Pachyrhamphus mitratus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 454, 
1856 part, descr. of male, Guyana to the mouth of the Amazon. 

Pachyrhamphus cinereus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 75, 1857 Cayenne, 
Surinam, Venezuela, "Trinidad," Santa Marta, Bogota (monog.); LAW- 
RENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 330, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama; 
SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 361 Panama; idem, I.e., 
1867, p. 579 Mexiana Island and Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 121, 
1868 Para (spec, examined); ALLEN, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 
Santare'm; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 360, 1884 part, descr. of Cay- 
enne specimens; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 341, 1888 Lion Hill 
and Chepo, Panama, Santa Marta, Bogota, "Trinidad," Cayenne, Para- 
maribo, Para, Mexiana; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 171 

2, p. 125, 1890 Lion Hill, Paraiso, Chepo, Panama; RIKER and CHAP- 
MAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santare'm; PHELPS, Auk, 14, p. 365, 1897 
Guanaguana, Bermudez, Venezuela; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
2, p. 23, 1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. 
Zool., 9, p. 56, 1902 Caicara and Altagracfa, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; 
GOELDI, Ibis, 1903, p. 499 Rio Capim, Brazil; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 
55, p. 290, 1907 Pard, Rio Capim, Rio Moju, Monte Alegre (crit.); 
RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 838, 1907 part, Panama 
to Colombia, Venezuela, Cayenne, Surinam, and Lower Amazonia (excl. 
eastern Peru and "southern Brazil, Rio Jurua, Sao Paulo") (monog.); 
BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 140, 1908 Cayenne and R. Approuague, 
French Guiana; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 153, 1910 
Surinam (eggs descr.) ; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 1913 (ecology); 
idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 349, 1914 Para, Rio Capim (Aproaga), 
Rio Moju, Rio Tocantins (Arumatheua), Rio Xingii (Victoria), Cussary, 
Maraj6 (Chaves), Monte Alegre, and Rio Jamunda (Faro); CHERRIE, Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 252, 1916 Orinoco Region; STONE, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 269, 1918 Gatun, Panama. 

Pachyrhynchus rufus HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 669, 1906 (crit., synonymy). 

Pachyrhamphus rufus HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 
26, No. 2, p. 90, 1912 Para, Rio Moju, Capim; p. m, 1912 Fazenda 
Nazareth, Mexiana; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 205, 1913 
Manimo River, Orinoco delta, Venezuela; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), a, p. 
93, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 491, 
1917 Rio Lima, Colombia; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
62, p. 70, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo and Lelydorp, Surinam; CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 273, 1921 Supenaam River, Mazaruni River, 
Bonasica, Great Falls of Demerara, and Bartica Grove; TODD and CAR- 
RIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 328, 1922 Don Diego, Tucurinca, 
Fundaci6n, and Loma Larga, Santa district (spec, examined); STONE, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 1928 Castanhal, Para. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela (from 
the north coast in states of Sucre, Caracas, Carabobo, Lara, and 
Zulia south to the Orinoco and its tributaries); Colombia (Eastern 
Andes; Magdalena and Cauca Valleys; Santa Marta region); Pana- 
ma; northern Brazil, in states of Pard and Amazonas, west to the 
Tapaj6z and the Rio Negro (Manacapurii). 1 

J No authentic record exists for its occurrence on the island of Trinidad. As 
far as I can see, birds from so widely separated regions as Colombia, French 
Guiana, and Lower Amazonia agree well together. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 6; El Cauca, Santander 2 ; Aguachica, 
dept. Magdalena 2; Loma Larga, dept. Magdalena I ; Fundaci6n 6; Don Diego I; 
Tucurinca 2; Yumbo, dept. Valle 2. Venezuela: San Feliz, Orinoco River i; 
Upata 2; El Callao, Rio Yuruari 4; Macuto, Caracas I; San Esteban, Carabobo 
2; El Trompillo, Carabobo 2; Anzoategui, Lara i; Sabana Mendoza, MeYida 5; 
Catatumbo River, Zulia I. French Guiana: Cayenne 4; Mana River 8; Pied 
Saut, Oyapock 6. Brazil: Pard 3; Itacoatiara i; Santarem 7; Goyana i; Villa 
Braga i; Miritituba i; Obidos 6; Manacapuni 8. 



172 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

8: Colombia (Bogota 5 ); Venezuela (Catatumbo River, Zulia 
i; Macuto, Caracas i); Brazil (Itacoatiara i). 

*Pachyramphus castaneus castaneus (Jardine and Selby). RUFOUS 
BECARD. 

Tityra castanea JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Orn., i, pi. 10, fig. 2 ("Tityra 
castaneus" on plate), Feb., 1827 South America = Brazil. 1 

Muscipeta aurantia (not Muscicapa aurantia GMELIN) WIED, Beitr. Naturg. 
Bras., 3, (2), p. 911, 1831 southeastern Brazil (descr. of male and fe- 
male). 

Pachyrynchus ruficeps SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 288, Dec., 1837 Brazil 
(type in Cambridge (Eng.) Museum examined; = female). 1 

Bathmidurus melanoleucus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 244, 1847 
part, descr. of female only and references to JARDINE and SELBY, WIED, 
and SWAINSON; BURMEISTER, Syst. tJbers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 451, 1856 
part, descr. of "young male" and female, Nova Friburgo, Rio; EULER, 
Journ. Orn., is, p. 223, 1867 Cantagallo, Rio (nest and egg descr.). 

Pachyrhamphus rufescens (not Pachyrhynchus rufescens SPIX) SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 25, p. 79, 1857 part, description and habitat southeastern Brazil; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 122, 1868 Pahor and Ypanema, Sao Paulo, 
and Curytiba, Parand; idem, Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, 
Rio. 

Pachyrhamphus rufus (not Muscicapa rufa BODDAERT) BERLEPSCH, Journ. 
Orn., 21, p. 264, 1873 Blumenau, Santa Catharina (crit.); EULER, I.e., 32, 
p. 284, 1874 (crit.); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 343, 1888 part, 
spec, a-h, Bahia, Sao Paulo, Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, 
p. 239, 1889 note on the types of Muscipeta aurantia WIED; IHERING, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 212, 1899 Piquete and Iguape 1 , Sao Paulo; idem, 
I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, I.e., 5, p. 
299, 1902 Bauni, Sao Paulo (nest and eggs descr.). 

Zetetes polychropterus (not Platyrhynchos polychopterus VIEILLOT) CABANIS 
and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 87, 1859 part; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, 
p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio (crit.). 

Hadrostomus borellianus BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. I, No. I, p. 108, 
1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Pachyrhynchus castaneus HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, 
No. 3, p. 670, 1906 (nomenclature). 

Pachyrhamphus castaneus IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 307, 
1907 Itatiba, Piquete, Ubatuba, Bauru, Rio Feio, and Iguap6 (Sao 
Paulo), Rio Doce (Espirito Santo), and Bahia; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 

'The type formed part of the shipment containing the type of Tityra vieilloti 
[=P. v. viridis], for which Brazil is given by the describers as habitat. 

*The type, labeled "Pachyrhynchus ruficeps Sw. Brazil. Lan. milrata LIGHT. 
9 ," is a female, without spurious (second) primary, of the south-Brazilian form, 
with the gray band encircling the rufous crown laterally and posteriorly. It 
measures: wing 76; tail 67; bill 13. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 173 

1 S> P- 57. I98 Fazenda Esperanca, Goyaz; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 603 
Sapucay, Paraguay; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 
18, p. 311, 1910 Alto Parana; BERTONI, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75. p. 
94, 1913 Misiones; idem Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Paraguay; DABBENE, 
Bol. Soc. Physis, I, p. 348, 1914 Santa Ana, Misiones. 
Pachyrhamphus castaneus castaneus DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 
Buenos Aires, 23, p. 321, 1912 Gran Potrero, Paraguay. 

Range: Eastern Brazil, from southern Bahia, Minas Geraes, 
and southern Goyaz (Fazenda Esperanga, near Goyaz City) south to 
Santa Catharina, adjoining sections of Paraguay (Sapucay; Alto 
Parana^, and Argentina (Misiones). 1 

5: Argentina, Misiones (Eldorado 2, Puerto Segundo i, Rio Par- 
anay i, Caraguatay, Rio Parana, 100 mi. south of Rio Iguassu i). 

Pachyramphus castaneus intermedius Berlepsch. 2 INTERMEDIATE 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus intermedius BERLEPSCH, Ornith. Centralblatt, 4, p. 63, 1879 

San Esteban and Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; idem, Journ. Orn., 27, p. 

208, 1879 same localities. 
Pachyrhamphus sp. SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1868, p. 628 San 

Esteban. 
Pachyrhamphus rufus (not Muscicapa rufa BODDAERT) SCLATER, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., 14, p. 343, 1888 part, spec. 1, m, San Esteban, Venezuela. 
Pachyrhamphus castaneus intermedius HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 

78, A, Heft 5, p. 88, 1912 Las Quiguas, San Esteban Valley, Venezuela 

(crit.). 

Range: North coast of Venezuela, from Sucre west to Lara. 

Pachyramphus castaneus saturatus Chapman. 3 SATURATED BECARD. 

'Birds from Misiones agree with a series from southern Brazil, while three 
from Bahia average rather smaller. 

Material examined. Misiones (as specified above) 5. Brazil: Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina 2 ; Curityba, Parana I ; Ipanema, Sao Paulo 5 ; Pahor, Sao Paulo 
i; Agua Suja, near Bagagem, Minas Geraes 4; "Rio" skins 3; Bahia 3. 

^Pachyramphus castaneus intermedius BERLEPSCH: Similar to P. c. castaneus, 
but slightly smaller, particularly with shorter tail; under parts much paler, less 
tawny, passing into buff on throat and along middle of abdomen. Wing (adult 
male) 77-79. (female) 71-77; tail 57-62. 

Material examined. Sucre: inland of Cumand 8. Distrito Federal: Gali- 
pan, Cerro del Avila i, Loma Redonda, north of Caracas 6. Carabobo: Las 
Quiguas, San Esteban Valley 2; Sierra de Carabobo 2. Lara: Aroa 3. 

'Pachyramphus castaneus saturatus CHAPMAN: Near to P. c. castaneus, but 
darker above, the cap deeper chestnut, the back deep hazel, little lighter than the 
crown; under parts paler and not so uniform ochraceous tawny. Wing (female) 
70-73; tail 53-55. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Sarayacu 2, Rio Zamora I, Rio Santiago I. 
Peru: Rio Tigre, near Pebas (9 ad., Oct. 19, 1883. J. Hauxwell. Berlepsch 
Collection) I. Brazil: Manacapuru i; Tonantins 6; Sao Paulo de Olivenca 2; 
Caviana, Rio Solimoes 3; Hyutanahan, Rio Punis 2. 



174 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pachyrhamphus castaneus saturatus CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, 
p. 628, 1914 La Morelia, Rio Caqueta, Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 492, 
1917 La Morelia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 542, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Pachyrhamphus niger (not of SPIX) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 23 
Yurimaguas, Peru, part (female); SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. 
Nat., 5, p. 227, 1926 part, descr. of female, Yurimaguas. 1 

Pachyrhamphus rufescens (not of SPIX) TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 368, 
1884 Pebas and Yurimaguas, Peru (descr. of male and female). 

Pachyrhamphus rufus (not Muscicapa rufa BODDAERT) SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 343, 1888 part, spec, j, k, Sarayacu, Ecuador; (?) 
IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 307, 1907 part, Rio 
Jurua; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 
16, 1899 Rio Zamora and Rfo Santiago, Ecuador (spec, examined); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 541, 1926 Ecuador (ex SALVA- 
DORI and FESTA). 

Pachyrhamphus castaneus intermedius (not of BERLEPSCH) CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, 
p. 604 Sarayacu, Ecuador (crit.). 

(?) Pachyrhamphus cinereus (not of BODDAERT) IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
6, P- 435. 1905 Rio Jurua. 

Range: Tropical Zone of southeastern Colombia (La Morelia, 
Rio Caqueta), eastern Ecuador (Sarayacu; Rio Zamora; Rio San- 
tiago), northern Peru (Pebas and Rio Tigre, Rio Maranon; Yuri- 
maguas, lower Huallaga, dept. Loreto), and northwestern Brazil 
(Caviana, Manacapuru, Tonantins, and Sao Paulo de Olivenga, 
Rio Solimoes; Hyutanahan, Rio Purus). 2 

Pachyramphus castaneus subsp. 3 

X M. Sztolcman is, of course, quite mistaken in associating this rufous female 
with P. niger. It is now a well-established fact that there are a number of species 
in which both sexes are rufous, the adult male differing only by possessing the 
spurious second primary. 

2 I suspect that Pachyrhamphus cinereus SCLATER and SALVIN (P.Z.S.Lond., 
1866, p. 190 Sarayacu; I.e., 1873, p. 284 Sarayacu, Chyavetas, and Chami- 
curos, Peru) and TACZANOWSKI (Orn. P6r., 2, p. 360, 1884 part, same localities) 
were also based on specimens of this rufous species, considered at that time to 
represent the female and immature plumage of species with gray or black males. 
There is an example from the upper Ucayali in the British Museum, erroneously 
referred to P. cinnamomeus by the late P. L. SCLATER (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
343, 1888 spec. y). 

It remains to be seen to what form Bolivian birds (Pachyrhamphus rufescens 
(not of SPIX) ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 "La Paz") should be 
referred. As in the case of so many other species in H. H. Rusby's collection, the 
locality "La Paz" is doubtless erroneous. 

^Pachyramphus castaneus subsp. : Nearly related to P. c. saturatus, but paler 
throughout, the under parts particularly more buffy, less ochraceous tawny. 

Material examined. In addition to an immature male from Ig. de Paituna 
(Monte Alegre) in the Goeldi Museum and an unsexed bird (without rudimentary 
second primary) from Santar^m in the Museu Paulista, I have seen thirty-six 
skins of this obviously undescribed form from Santare"m, Obidos, and islands 
near Obidos in the collection of the Carnegie Museum. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 175 

Pachyrhamphus rufus (not Muscicapa rufa BODDAERT) RIKER and CHAPMAN, 
Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santarm, Rio Tapaj6z; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 307, 1907 part, Santare"m (spec, examined); SNETH- 
LAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 525, 1913 Varzea north of the Amazon. 

Pachyrhamphus castaneus (not Tityra castanea JARDINE and SELBY) SNETH- 
LAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 350, 1914 Monte Alegre (Ig. de Paituna), 
Obidos, and Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

Range: Northern Brazil, on the banks of the lower Amazon 
(Faro, Rio Jamunda; Obidos; Santare"m, Rio Tapaj6z). 

*Pachyramphus cinnamomeus cinnamomeus Lawrence. CINNAMON 
BECARD. 

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7, 
p. 295, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama Railroad. 

Pachyrhamphus rufescensf (not of SPIX) CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1860, p. 189 Turbo, Colombia. 

Pachyrhamphus ? SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1860, p. 36 Coban, Guatemala; 
LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Pachyrhamphus cinnamomeus LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 
182, 1867 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 116, 1868 San Jos6, 
Angostura, Turrialba, Tucurriqui, Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 10, p. 589, 1887 Segovia River, Honduras; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 342, 1888 part, spec, a-p, u, Choctum, Vera Paz, Angostura, 
Tucurriquf, Lion Hill, Chepo, Balzar (Ecuador); 1 SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr-.Amer., Aves, 2, p. 126, 1890 part, British Honduras and 
Guatemala south to Ecuador (excl. Remedios, Colombia); RICHMOND, 
Proc. U.S.Nat. Nus., 16, p. 508, 1893 Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; HAR- 
TERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 489, 1898 Chimbo and Cachavi, Ecuador; SAL- 
VADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 6, 1899 
Punta de Sabana, Panama; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 23, 
1900 Loma del Leon, Panama; idem, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 149, 
1903 Yaruca, Honduras; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
840, 1907 part, southern Mexico south to western Ecuador (excl. Bogota, 
Remedios, Bucaramanga, "Cauta, "Colombia, and Ucayali, eastern Peru); 1 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 666, 1910 Carrillo, Cariblanco 
de Sarapiqui, Tuis, Guacimo, and El Hogar, Costa Rica; FERRY, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; 
HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1144 Guineo, El Tigre, San Joaquin, 
Noanama, and N6vita, Pacific Colombia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N. H., 36, p. 491, 1917 part, Alto Bonito, Juntas de Tamana, N6vita, 
Noanama, Buenaventura, San Jos, Los Cisneros, and Barbacoas, Pacific 
Colombia; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 269, 1918 Gatun, 
Panama; RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 23, 1919 Siquirres, Costa 
Rica and San Juan del Norte, Nicaiagua; BANGS and BARBOUR, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 65, p. 213, 1922 Jesusito, Dari6n; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 



bird from the Ucayali, Peru, is probably referable to P. castaneus satu- 
ratus CHAPMAN. 



ij6 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Mus. N.H., 55, p. 542, 1926 Bucay, Esmeraldas, Manavi, Chimbo, 
Santa Rosa, and Porto Velo, Ecuador; GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 181, 1929 Cana, Darie'n. 

Range: Tropical Zone of southern Mexico (in state of Tabasco) 
and southward through Guatemala, British Honduras, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama to Pacific Colombia and western 
Ecuador. 1 

5: Costa Rica (Guayabo 2); Colombia (Quibdo, Atrato River 
i; Alto Bonito, Antioquia i; Novita, Rio San Juan i). 

*Pachyramphus cinnamomeus magdalenae Chapman. 2 MAGDALENA 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus magdalenae CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 629, 
1914 Algodonal, lower Magdalena Valley, Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 
491, 1917 Algodonal. 

J Birds from Pacific Colombia, while agreeing 'in the coloring of the upper 
parts with those from Costa Rica, are less deeply colored underneath, and thereby 
form the transition to P. c. magdalenae, of eastern Colombia. The majority are 
not so dark or so uniformly ochraceous as those from Costa Rica and Guatemala, 
but deeper buff, especially on breast and sides, than the average from Santa 
Marta and the Magdalena Valley, though the most deeply colored individuals 
are not separable from certain light-bellied Central American skins, whereas the 
palest (one from Sautata and one from C6rdoba, Valle) can be exactly matched 
by the darkest variety of magdalenae (Carnegie Museum, No. 52798, Jaraquiel). 
Unfortunately, no material from the Canal Zone, the type locality, has been 
available for examination. 

Material examined. Guatemala 3; Costa Rica 12. Colombia: Sautata, 
Rfo Atrato 3; Alto Bonito, Rio Sucio i; Murindo, Antioquia 3; Quibd6 4; El 
Tambo, Choc6 i; Andagoya, Choc6 4; Potedo, Choco i; Malagita, Choc6 i; 
Noanama, Rfo San Juan 2; N6vita, Rio Tamana 2; El Tigre, Rio Tamana i; 
Guineo, Rfo Calima i; San Joaquin, Bahia del Choc6 2; C6rdoba, Valle 2. 
Ecuador: Chimbo i. 

t Pachyramphus cinnamomeus magdalenae CHAPMAN: Similar to P. c. cin- 
namomeus, but decidedly paler throughout; upper parts browner, sayal brown 
rather than rufous tawny, the cap hardly darker than the back; the wing coverts 
with more conspicuous pale edges; lower surface buffy rather than ochraceous 
tawny, passing into whitish on the abdomen. 

Birds from the Santa Marta region (Tucurinca and Fundaci6n) are identical 
with a series from the lower Magdalena (Calamar and Gamarra) and Jaraquiel, 
(dept. Bolivar) in the collection of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. Six speci- 
mens from Santa Elena, M^rida, and six from Zulia, Venezuela, as well as two 
adult males from Santander, eastern Colombia (Carnegie Museum, No. 59317, 
Bucaramanga; No. 58705, El Tambor, Rio Lebrija) are very similar, though 
perhaps on the average more reddish on the back, with the crown somewhat 
darker, but not so chestnut rufous as in P. c. cinnamomeus, from Pacific Colombia. 
Underneath, they resemble the darker specimens from the Magdalena, the male 
from El Tambor being in no way distinguishable from No. 54360, Gamarra, but 
can also be matched by certain individuals from the Pacific coast of Colombia. 
Unless separated again, they must doubtless be ranked with magdalenae rather 
than cinnamomeus. 

Material examined. Colombia: Fundaci6n 8; Tucurinca 2; Jaraquiel, dept. 
Bolivar 4; Calamar, lower Magdalena 5; Gamarra, dept. Magdalena 2; Bucara- 
manga i; El Tambor, Rio Lebrija, Santander i; "Bogota" 2. Venezuela: Santa 
Elena, M6rida 6; Encontrados, Zulia 3; Orope, Zulia 3. 



IQ2Q. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 177 

Pachyrhamphus cinnamomeus (not of LAWRENCE )SCLATER and SALVIN, P. Z. 
S. Lond., 1879, p. 518 Remedies, Antioquia; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Om., 
32, p. 305, 1884 Bucaramanga; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 342, 
1888 part, spec, q-t, v-x, Remedies, Bogota, "Cauta" [=Canta, below 
Bucaramanga, Santander], Colombia; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus. 
Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 840, 1907 part Bogota, Remedies, Bucaramanga, 
"Cauta," Colombia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 491, 1917 
part, Puerto Valdivia, Malena, west of Honda and (?) Buenavista, 
above Villavicencio, Colombia. 

Pachyrhamphus sp.? WYATT, Ibis, 1871, p. 334 San Nicolas, below Bucara- 
manga, Santander, Colombia. 

Pachyrhamphus cinnamomeus magdalenae TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 14, p. 328, 1922 Fundaci6n and Tucurinca, Santa Marta region 
(crit.). 

Range: Northern and eastern Colombia (Jaraquiel, dept. Boli- 
var; lower Cauca; Magdalena Valley and tributaries; Santa Marta 
region; "Bogota") and western Venezuela (Santa Elena, MeYida; 
Encontrados and Orope, Zulia). 

6: Venezuela, Zulia (Encontrados 3, Orope 3). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus spixii (Swainson). SPIX'S BECARD. 

Pachyrhynchus spixii SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 289, Dec., 1837 Brazil? 
(type of male in Coll. SWAINSON, now in Cambridge (Eng.) Museum 
examined). 1 

Pachyrhamphus notius BREWSTER and BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 
2, P- 53. Feb- 15, 1901 Conception del Uruguay, Entre Rios; DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 1 8, p. 311, 1910 lower Uruguay. 

1 Swainson, in diagnosing the species, ascribes it to the Paris Museum and his 
own collection, and while I have not been able to trace the whereabouts of the 
female, two adult males bearing the name P. spixii are still in existence. One, 
kindly sent by Dr. H. Gadow from the Swainson Collection, now in the Univer- 
sity Museum of Cambridge, England, and labeled by Swainson himself "Pachy- 
rhynchus Spixii. Male. Brazil?", agrees in every particular with his description, 
notably in having the nape, back and interscapulars dull black, decidedly con- 
trasted with the dark gray rump and upper tail coverts, and the under parts but 
slightly paler than the rump. In coloration and size, it is identical with speci- 
mens from Rio de Janeiro, which I am unable to separate from Paraguayan and 
Argentina skins (P. notius). The other example, a mounted bird in the Paris 
Museum (No. 3625. cf- P- polychropterus V., P. spixii Sw. type, M. Menetrier 
[sic], 1824. Bresil"), however, is very different, having a whitish orbital ring, the 
back light ashy gray like the rump, with restricted outer margins of glossy black 
to some of the lateral interscapulars only, and the under parts of a very much 
paler, clearer gray, while the dimensions are much smaller. As a matter of fact, 
it is a perfectly typical specimen of P. marginatus (as stated in Nov. Zool., 32, p. 
17, footnote i, 1925), but it disagrees so absolutely with the characters given by 
Swainson that I have no doubt whatever it is wrongly marked as "type." The 
handwriting on the label, while unknown to me, is certainly not Swainson's. 
Under these circumstances, I do not see any alternative but to accept Swainson's 
term spixii for the large southern race of the gray-bellied South American Becard, 
and venture to suggest Rio de Janeiro as its type locality. The specimen now in 



178 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Climacocercus cyanocephalus BERTONi, 1 Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, No. i, 
p. 112, Jan., 1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus (not of VIEILLOT) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, 
p. 77, 1857 Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul (synon. in part); PEL- 
ZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 121, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro, Sapitiba, Mugy 
das Cruzes (Sao Paulo), Curytiba (Parana), ItararS (Sao Paulo), Rio 
Araguay (Goyaz), Cuyaba and Barra do Jauni (Matto Grosso); DURN- 
FORD, Ibis, 1878, p. 61 Belgrano, Buenos Aires; BERLEPSCH and IHERING, 
Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 140, 1885 Linha Pirajd, Rio Grande do Sul; SCLATER 
and HUDSON, Arg. Orn., i, p. 162, 1888 Buenos Aires; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 345, 1888 part, spec, l-o, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do 
Sul, and Belgrano, Buenos Aires; WITHINGTON, Ibis, 1888, p. 466 Lomas 
de Zamora, Buenos Aires (spec, examined); KERR, I.e., 1892, p. 131 
near Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, 
p. no, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; APLIN, Ibis, 1894, p. 181 Rio 
Negro, Uruguay (spec, examined); IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande 
do Sul, 16, p. 127, 1899 Mundo Novo and Sao Lourenco; idem, Rev. 
Mus. Paul., 3, p. 213, 1899 Iguap6 and Ypiranga, Sao Paulo; idem, Cat. 
Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 part, Bebedouro, Itatiba, Yporanga, Itapura, 
Alto da Serra, Ubatuba, Avanhandava, Iguap, Rincao, and Sao Sebas- 
tiao, Sao Paulo; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 605 Sapucay, Paraguay; PEREYRA, 
El Hornero, 3, p. 169, 1923 Escobar and San Isidro, Buenos Aires. 

Bathmidurus polychropterus STEMPELMANN and SCHULZ, Bol. Ac. Nac. C6rdoba, 
10, p. 402, 1890 C6rdoba. 

Pachyrhamphus sp. incog. BARROWS, Bull. Nutt. Orn. CL, 8, p. 203, 1883 
Concepci6n del Uruguay, Entre Rios. 

Pachyrhamphus niger (not of SPIX) BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 13, 1887 
Lambar6, Paraguay; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 (ex BERLEPSCH). 

Zetetes polychropterus LILLO, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 
188, 1902 Tapia, Tucuman; idem, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 51, 1905 
Tapia. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus polychropterus HARTERT and VENTURI, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 205, 1910 Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires, and Ocampo, 

the University Museum at Cambridge (Eng.) is obviously the actual type from 
which Swainson drew up his description. 

P. polychopterus spixii, while closely related to the typical race, may be 
recognized by its larger size and, in the male sex, by its darker, more slaty under 
parts and more solidly black back. 

Males from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro average paler underneath and are 
perhaps slightly smaller than those from Paraguay and Argentina. 

Length of wing (adult males): type (unspecified) 82; Rio de Janeiro 80, 81, 
82; Sao Paulo 82, 83; Sapucay, Paraguay 83; Santa Florencia, Rfo Negro, Uru- 
guay 82; Belgrano, Buenos Aires 82; Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires 84; 
Ocampo, Santa F6 84; Isca-yacu, Santiago del Estero 84; Concepci6n, Tucuman 
81, 82. 

1 Bertoni identifies his bird with Thamnophilus cyanocephalus VIEILLOT (Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 3, p. 318, 1816 based on Azara, No. 237, Paraguay), 
which is described as having a white stripe along the middle of the crown, a fea- 
ture not found in Spix's Becard. Azara's species appears to be undeterminable. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 179 

Santa F6; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 

311, 1910 range in Argentina; MARELLI, Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. Buenos 

Aires, for 1922-23, p. 643, 1924 Argentina; HOLT, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

N.H., 57, p. 310, 1928 Bemfica, Serra do Itatiaya. 
Pachyrhamphus polichropterus BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Alto 

Parana, Paraguay. 
Pachyrhamphus polychopterus polychopterus BANGS and PENARD, Bull Mus., 

Comp. Zool., 64, p. 383, 1921 northern Argentina, southern Bolivia, 

Uruguay, southern Brazil (monog.); SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. 

Hist. Nat., $, p. 180, 1926 Guarapuava, Candido de Abreu, and Inverna- 

dinha, Parana. 
Pachyrhamphus polychroplerus notius DABBENE, El Homero, I, p. 239, 1919 

Isla Martin Garcia (crit.) ; TREMOLERAS, I.e., 2, p. 21, 1920 Montevideo; 

BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 35, p. 225, 1922 (crit.); 

MARELLI, Mem. Minist. Obr. Publ. Buenos Aires, for 1922-23, p. 643, 

1924 estuary of La Plata River; WETMORE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 133, 

p. 293, 1926 San Vicente, Uruguay. 

Range: Northern Argentina, south to Buenos Aires and Cordo- 
ba; Uruguay; Paraguay; southern Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro, 
southern Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, and Matto Grosso south to Rio 
Grande do Sul; and eastern Bolivia (in depts. Santa Cruz and 
Tarija). 

5 : Argentina (Concepcion, Tucuman 3 ; Isca-yacu, Santiago del 
Estero i; Ocampo, Santa Fe i). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus polychopterus (Vieillot). VIEILLOT'S 
BECARD. 

Platyrhynchos polychopterus VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 

27, p. 10, 1818 "Nouvelle Hollande," errore; we suggest Bahia, eastern 

Brazil (type in Paris Museum examined) - 1 idem, Tabl. Enc. Mth., Orn., 

2, livr. 91, p. 835, 1821 "Nouvelle Hollande." 
Platyrhynchos polychropterus PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, p. 

357t J 855 note on type. 
Muscipeta spUndens WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 906, 1831 eastern 

Brazil, locality not specified (type in American Museum of Natural 

History examined; = adult male). 
Bathmidurus variegatus [not of SPIX (?)]* CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 

244, 1847 Brazil, part; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., a, p. 452, 

1856 Brazil, part. 

'I have recently compared the type in the Paris Museum (No. 3621. Exp. 
Baudin) with numerous examples from various parts of Brazil and Argentina, and 
found it to be identical, in coloration and size, with skins from Bahia. The wing 
measures 75 (in other Bahia specimens 73, 75, 75, 77, 78, 78); the tail 57 
(against 57, 58, 60, 60, 60, 62). 

*Pachyrhynchus variegatus SPIX (Av. Bras., 2, p. 31, pi. 43, fig. 2, 1825 no 
locality given; type lost), based on a female or immature example of this group, 
appears to me utterly unidentifiable. It might have been either polychopterus, 



i8o FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 345, 
1888 part, spec, f-k, Bahia; IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 
part, Bahia; REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 
70, 1910 Fazenda de Fora, Rio Grande, Bahia, and Lagda do Purgatorio 
and Parnagua, Piauhy (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus niger polychropterus ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 
238, 1889 note on Wied's type. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus splendens BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 64, p. 385, 1921 Bahia to Ceard (monog.). 

Pachyramphus polychopterus polychopterus BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 35, p. 225, 1922 (crit.); HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., 
Zool. Ser., 12, p. 341, 1929 Barra do Corda, Maranhao and Ibiapaba, 
Piauhy (crit.). 

Pachyrhynchus polychropterus REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. 
Wien, 76, p. 154, 1925 Rio Grande, near Fazenda de Fora, Bahia and 
southern Piauhy. 

Range: Eastern Brazil, from Bahia north to Ceara, Piauhy, 
and southern Maranhao (Barra do Corda). 1 

3: Brazil (Bahia i; Ibiapaba, Piauhy i; Barra do Corda, 
Maranhao i). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus niger (Spix). BLACK-BELLIED 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhynchus niger SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 33, pi. 45, fig. I (=adult male), 
1825 no locality stated "Amazonas, prope Fonteboa" designated by 
BERLEPSCH and HARTERT (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 56, 1902) type lost; SWAIN- 
SON, Anim. Menag., p. 290, Dec., 1837 Brazil (descr. of male); HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 669, 1906 (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus nigriventris SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 76, 1857 new 
name for Pachyrhynchus niger SPIX, part, North Brazil. 

Pachyrhamphus niger SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 978 Pebas; 
idem, I.e., 1873, p. 284 Nauta, Pebas, and upper Ucayali, Peru; TAC- 
ZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas (part, male); idem, Orn. P6r., 
2 > P- 363. 1884 Nauta, Pebas, upper Ucayali, Yurimaguas, and Tara- 
poto, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 343,1888 part, spec, 
o-w, Pebas, Nauta, Rio Napo and Sarayacu, Ecuador; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 lower Beni, Bolivia; BERLEPSCH and 
STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 369 La Merced, Peru; GOODFELLOW, 
Ibis, 1901, p. 710 Archidona, Ecuador (spec, examined); IHERING, Cat. 

spixii, or niger, in the ranges of all of which Spix did some collecting, and I con- 
sider it undesirable to substitute it for any of these terms which rest on sub- 
stantial evidence. 

Material examined. Bahia 10; Fazenda de Fora, Rio Grande, Bahia i; 
Ibiapaba, Piauhy i; Lag6a do Purgatorio, Piauhy i; Parnagua, Piauhy 2; Barra 
do Corda, Maranhao i; unspecified (the type) I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 181 

Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 range (part); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, 
p. 13, 1908 Monte Verde and Bom Lugar, Rio Punis; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 350, 1914 part, Bom Lugar and Monte Verde, Rio 
Punis; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 227, 1926 
Yurimaguas (part, male). 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus (not of VIEILLOT) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
121, 1868 part, Salto do Girao and Borba, Rio Madeira (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus sp. inc., TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 23 Yurimaguas, 
Peru (descr. of young male and female). 

Pachyrhamphus niger niger HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 363, 1907 Humay- 
tha and Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 314, 1910 Calama, Rio 
Madeira. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropttrus niger CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 
492, 1917 part, La Morelia and Florencia, Caquetd, southeastern Colom- 
bia.. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus variegatus (not of SPIX?) BANGS and PENARD, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 64, p. 386, 1921 lower Beni, Bolivia, and Porto 
Velho, Rio Madeira (monog.); CHAPMAN, Bull Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 
542, 1926 eastern Ecuador. 

Range: Western Brazil, from the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro 
westwards; eastern Peru; eastern Ecuador; southeastern Colombia 
(La Morelia and Florencia, Caquetd). 1 

4 : Peru (Yurimaguas i ; Rio Colorado, Chanchamayo i ; Hua- 
chipa, Huanuco 2). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus tristis (Kaup).* KAUP'S BECARD. 

Psaris marginatus tristis KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 48, October, 

1 Material examined. Peru: Nauta 2; Pebas 3; Yurimaguas I ; Rio Colorado, 
Chanchamayo i; Huachipa 2. Ecuador: Archidona i; Sarayacu 3; Rio Napo 
2. Brazil: Hyutanahan, Rio Punis 8; Arima, Rio Punis 3; Caviana, Rio Soli- 
moes 5; Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Rio Solimoes 2; Borba, Rio Madeira 5; Calama, 
Rio Madeira 2 ; Humaytha, Rio Madeira 4. 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus tristis (KAUP) is exceedingly close to, and in 
many cases not distinguishable from, P. p. niger. Yet on comparing twelve males 
from French Guiana (Cayenne and Mana River) with a series from Upper Ama- 
zonia, it is evident that they generally have less black in the plumage, the under 
parts being mostly slate gray, more or less freckled with whitish along the abdom- 
inal line, and the rump likewise extensively slate gray, whereas in P. p. niger 
both upper and lower surfaces are almost entiiely black. Birds from Venezuela, 
British Guiana, and Trinidad vary within the same limits, and I do not see how 
either P. macconnelli or P. albUoris can be maintained. The type of P. n. toba- 
gensis, too, is matched by numerous examples from Guiana and Venezuela. Males 
from Lower Amazonia (Obidos; Santar6m; Rio Branco) are exactly intermediate 
between tristis (of Guiana and Venezuela) and niger (of Peru and adjacent parts 
of western Brazil). A series from Santar6m is particularly instructive in this 
respect. The darkest specimen (Carnegie Museum, No. 73178) is hardly separa- 
ble from certain individuals taken on the banks of the Rio Punis, while the male 
with the lightest under parts is even clearer gray than P. p. cinereiventris, being, 



182 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

1852 no locality stated, type in Derby Collection, now in Liverpool 
Museum; Cayenne suggested by BANGS and PENARD, I92I. 1 

Pachyrhamphus niger tobagensis CORY, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. 
Ser., i, p. 343, 1916 Tobago. 

Pachyrhamphus macconnelli CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 73, 1920 
Bonasica River, British Guiana; idem, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 274, 
1921 Upper Takutii Mountains, Ituribisi River, Supenaam River, 
Bartica, Essequibo, Bonasica River, Roraima. 

Pachyrhamphus albiloris CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 73, 1920 San 
Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela. 

Pachyrhamphus nigriventris SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 76, 1857 part, 
Cayenne, Venezuela, Trinidad. 

Bathmidurus niger (not of SPIX) CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 243, 
1847 Guiana, Surinam, Cayenne, and Brazil; idem in SCHOMBURGK, 
Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 698, 1848 coastal forests. 

Pachyrhynchus niger JARDINE, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 331, 1847 Tobago. 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus (not of SCLATER) TAYLOR, Ibis, 1864, p. 87 
Trinidad (spec, examined; = female); CORY, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 
Tobago (=female); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 58, 1906 Trinidad 
(ex TAYLOR). 

Tityra nigra LEOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 241, 1866 Trinidad. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus (not of VIEILLOT) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1867, p. 579 Mexiana Island; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 121, 
1868 part, Serra Carauman and Barra [ = Manaos] (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus niger TAYLOR, Ibis, 1864, p. 87 Trinidad; SALVIN, I.e., 
1885, p. 302 Roraima; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 343, 1888 
part, spec, d-n, Bogota, Valencia (Venezuela), Trinidad, Roraima (British 
Guiana), Cayenne, Para; CORY, Auk, 10, p. 220, 1893 Tobago; ALLEN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 4, p. 55, 1892 El Pilar, Bermudez, Venezuela; 
CHAPMAN, I.e., 6, p. 47, 1894 Princestown, Trinidad; DALMAS, M6m. 
Soc. Zool. France, 13, p. 139, 1900 Tobago; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, 
Nov. Zool., 9, p. 56, 1902 Maipures, Caicara, Altagracfa, and Ciudad 

however, more distinctly freckled with white along the middle of the belly. Taken 
as a whole, birds from Amazonia east of the Rio Negro appear, however, nearer 
to the Guianan type, and the black phase, predominating on the Rio Solimoes 
and west of the Rio Madeira, is only occasionally met with on the eastern stretches 
of the Amazon. Some specimens from northern Venezuela, notably one from 
Lagunita de Aroa, again closely approach the Santa Marta race (P. p. cinerei- 
ventris), thus forming the link to the western representatives of the group. 

Material examined. Northern Brazil: Santar6m 8; Obidos 5; Rio Branco 
(Serra Carauman and B6a Vista )2. French Guiana (Cayenne and Mana River) 
14. British Guiana (Roraima) 4. Venezuela (north coast from Sucre to Aroa; 
San Pedro, Caura Valley) 82. Trinidad (Caparo, Aripo) 15. Tobago 7. "Bo- 
gotd" 5. 

'The type should be reexamined. Unfortunately, it was not among the speci- 
mens kindly forwarded to me by Dr. Simpson from the collection of the Liverpool 
Museum. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 183 

Bolivar, Rio Orinoco, and Suapure, La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; CHER- 
RIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., I, p. 190, 1906 Aripo, Trinidad; 
SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 Para, Maraj6, Mexiana, 
Monte Alegre; HAGMANN, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 26, p. 32, 1907 Mexiana; 
IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 range (part); BERLEPSCH, 
Nov. Zool., 15, p. 140, 1908 Cayenne, French Guiana (crit.); SNETHLAGE, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 350, 1914 part, Para, Providencia, Quati-puru, 
Rio Tocantins (Ilha Pirunum, Arumatheua), Maraj6 (Sao Natal), Mexiana, 
Arumanduba, Monte Alegre, Rio Maecuru, Obidos, Rio Jamunda (Faro); 
idem, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Sao Bento 
and Tury-assu, northern Maranhao. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus cinereiventris (not of SCLATER) PHELPS, Auk, 
14, p. 365, 1897 Cumanacoa and San Antonio, Bermudez, Venezuela; 
HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 89, 1912 
Cumbre Chiquita and Las Quiguas, Carabobo, Venezuela (crit.); HELL- 
MAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 120, 1912 
Mexiana. 

Pachyrhamphus niger cinereiventris HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 27, 1906 
Caparo and Pointe Gourde, Trinidad. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus niger CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 
i, p 364, 1908 Carenage and Aripo, Trinidad; idem, I.e., 2, p. 252, 1916 
banks of the Orinoco from Las Barrancas as far as San Fernando de 
Atabapo, Venezuela; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 492, 1917 
part, Buena vista and Villa vicencio, eastern Colombia; BANGS and 
PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 70, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, 
Surinam. 

Pachyrhamphus cinereiventris STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 65, p. 205, 
1913 Guinipa Village, Bermudez, Venezuela. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus tristis BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 64, p. 387, 1921 Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad, and Tobago 
(monog.). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela, from 
the north coast south to the Orinoco and its tributaries; islands of 
Trinidad and Tobago; eastern Colombia ("Bogota"; Buena vista 
and Villa vicencio, at the eastern foot of the Eastern Andes) ; northern 
Brazil, west to the Rio Negro and Rio Tapajoz, east to the wooded 
coast region of Maranhao. 

4: Brazil (B6a Vista, Rio Branco i); Venezuela (Col6n, 
Tachira i); Tobago 2. 

Pachyramphus polychopterus cinereiventris Sclater. 1 GRAY-BELLIED 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus cinereiventris SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 242, 1862 
Santa Marta, Colombia (type in British Museum examined); idem, 

1 Pachyramphus polychopterus cinereiventris SCLATER: Male nearest to P. p. 
tristis, but smaller; under parts clearer and more uniform gray, sometimes ob- 
scurely freckled with whitish along middle line, very rarely washed with blackish 



184 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 344, 1888 part, spec, n-p, Santa Marta; ALLEN, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 154, 1900 part, Bonda and Cie'naga; 
idem, I.e., 21, p. 287, 1905 Cacagualito and Bonda (nest and eggs descr.). 

Pachyrhamphus niger (not of SPIX) SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 1880, p. 169 
Santa Marta. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus cinereiventris RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 829, 1907 part, Santa Marta; TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 326, 1922 Bonda, Mamatoco, Tucurinca, Funda- 
ci6n, and Valencia, Santa Marta district (crit.); GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69, p. 181, 1929 Cana, Dari&i. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus cinereiventris BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 64, p. 390, 1921 Santa Marta region (monog.). 

Range: Northern Colombia, in depts. of Bolivar (Jaraquiel) 
and Magdalena (Gamarra and Calamar, lower Magdalena; Santa 
Marta region), and extreme eastern Panama (Cana, Darie"n). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus similis Cherrie. 1 SLATE-BELLIED 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus similis CHERRIE, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 343, in text, 
Sept. 4, 1891 Greytown, Nicaragua. 

Pachyrhamphus costaricensis (not P. versicolor costaricensis BANGS, 1908) 
CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 74, 1920 Bebedero, Costa Rica. 

Pachyramphus polychopterus tantulus BANGS and PENARD, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 34, p. 78, 1921 new name for Pachyrhamphus costaricensis CHUBB, 
preoccupied. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus (not of VIEILLOT) MOORE, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 
56, 1859 Omoa, Honduras; SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 124 
Omoa; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 182, 1867 Grey- 
town, Nicaragua. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus? (not Todus marginatus LICHTENSTEIN) LAW- 
RENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 330, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama. 

Pachyrhamphus cinereiventris (not of SCLATER) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1864, p. 361 Panama Railroad; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 



on throat andforeneck. Wing (adult male) 72-74, (type) 73; tail 54-59, (type) 
bill 13-14. 

Recent reexamination of the type shows it to be a specimen of the north- 
Colombian race, although it represents the rather unusual variant with some 
blackish tinge on the anterior under parts. 

Material examined. Santa Marta region: Bonda 7; Fundaci6n 4; Cieiiaga i; 
Santa Marta" (the type) i. Calamar, Bolivar i; Gamarra, Magdalena i. 

l Pachyramphus polychopterus similis CHERRIE, though nearly allied to P. p. 
cinereiventris, may be distinguished by slightly smaller size, and somewhat paler 
gray under parts in the male sex. 

After examining a very large series from Nicaragua to Panama I fully agree 
with M. A. Carriker that the characters separating the birds of the Atlantic and 
Caribbean slopes are too unstable to justify the recognition of more than one form 
in Central America. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 185 

N.Y., 9, p. 116, 1868 Barranca, Angostura, and San Mateo, Costa Rica; 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 149 Santa Fe", Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, 
p. 199 Calovevora, Veragua and Bugaba, Chiriqui; BOUCARD, I.e., 1878, 
p. 65 San Mateo, Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 6, p. 385, 
1884 Sucuyd, Nicaragua; ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, I, p. 118, 
1887 San Mateo, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 344, 
1888 part, spec, a m, Choctum (Guatemala), Bugaba, Chiriquf, Calove- 
vora, Santa Fe", Veragua, Panama, Lion Hill; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 127, pi. 43, fig. i, 1890 part, Guatemala to 
Panama (excl. Colombia); CHERRIE, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 14, p. 343, 
1891 Costa Rica (crit.); RICHMOND, I.e., 16, p. 508, 1893 Greytown 
and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua (nest and eggs descr.); RIDGWAY, I.e., 16, 
p. 611, 1893 Costa Rica (crit.); SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 6, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Panama; BANGS, Auk, 
18, p. 365, 1901 Divala, Chiriqui; idem, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 3, p. 
40, 1902 Boqueteand Bogaba, Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 
Boruca, Paso Real, El Pozo del Rio Grande, and Barranca de Puntarenas, 
Costa Rica. 

Pachyrhamphus polychropterus cinereiventris RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 829, 1907 part, Nicaragua to Panama (monog.); CARRIKER, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 667, 1910 Costa Rica (crit., habits); STONE, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 269, 1918 Gatiin, Panama. 

Pachyrhamphus dorsalis (not of SCLATER) RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 832, 1907 part, Panama Railroad. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus costaricensis BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 64, p. 391, 1921 Panama to western Costa Rica (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus similis BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp* 
Zool., 64, p. 392, 1921 eastern Costa Rica to Honduras (crit.). 

Range: Guatemala (Choctum) and southward through Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica to Panama, east to the Canal 
Zone. 

6 : Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua i ) ; Costa Rica 
(Buenos Aires 2; Turrialba i; TeYraba i); Panama (Chiriqui i). 

*Pachyramphus polychopterus dorsalis Sclater. 1 BOGOTA BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus dorsalis SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 243, 1862 
Bogota? (the type examined in the British Museum is an undoubted 
Bogota trade skin); RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 832, 
1907 part, Bogota, Rio Cali, Rio Barratero, and Castilla, Colombia 
(monog.); BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 21, p. 157, 1908 "northwestern 
Colombia just south of Darie"n"=San Antonio, Western Andes; HELL- 
MAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1143 Pueblo Rico, western Colombia, and 
Paramba, Ecuador (crit., female descr.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

1 Pachyramphus polychopterus dorsalis SCLATER: Nearly allied to P. p. cinerei- 
ventris, but somewhat larger; under parts of adult male very much paler gray 
(without the slightest trace of blackish or whitish freckles) ; hind neck often with 



1 86 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

N.H., 36, p. 493, 1917 San Antonio, Andes above Cali, Ricaurte, and 
Aguadita, above Fusugasuga, Colombia (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus chapmani CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 74, 1920 
Santa Elena, Antioquia. 

Pachyrhamphus cinereiventris (not of SCLATER) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1879, p. 518 Santa Elena, Antioquia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 344, 1888 part, spec, q-v, Antioquia and Bogota. 

Pachyrhamphus polychopterus dorsalis BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 64, p. 392, 1921 western Colombia and Ecuador (monog.)- 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Colombia (Pueblo Rico, San An- 
tonio, above Cali, Rio Barratero, Castilla, and Ricaurte, Western 
Andes; Santa Elena, Central Andes; Aguadita, above Fusugasugd, 
western slope of Eastern Andes) and northwestern Ecuador (Param- 
ba, prov. Esmeraldas). 

2 : Colombia (Bogotd i ; Castilla, Western Andes i). 

Pachyramphus marginatus marginatus (Lichtenstein) . BLACK-CAPPED 
BECARD. 

Todus marginatus LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 51, 1823 
Bahia (type in Berlin Museum examined; = female). 

Pachyrhynchus swainsonii JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Orn., 2, Part 7, Ad- 
denda, p. [4], Dec., 1830 Brazil (descr. of female). 

Muscipeta marginata WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (2), p. 909, 1831 
eastern Brazil (descr. of female). 

Pachyrynchus swainsonii SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 288, Dec., 1837 
eastern Brazil (part, descr. of "male" =female). 

Pachyrynchus albifrons SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 289, Dec., 1837 
Brazil (descr. of adult male). 

Bathmidur us atricapillus (not Lanius atricapillus MERREM) 1 CABANIS, Arch. 
Naturg., 13, (i), p. 245, 1847 (synonymy). 

Psaris marginatus minor KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 48, Oct., 1852 
no locality stated. 

a gray collar separating the black of the pileum from that of the back. Wing 
75-79. (female) 75; tail 57-60; bill 13^-14. 

An adult male, collected by R. Micketta on April 9, 1899, at Paramba, alt. 
3500 ft., Ecuador, in the collection of the Tring Museum, agrees with Colombian 
examples. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota (including the type) 6; Santa Elena, 
Antioquia i; Castilla i; San Antonio 2; Pueblo Rico I. Ecuador: Paramba I. 

1 Lanius atricapillus MERREM (Av. Rar. Icon., fasc. 2, p. 26, pi. 8, 1786- 
supposedly Surinam) appears to me unidentifiable. While obviously based on 
some species of Pachyramphus, both description and plate are very unsatisfactory 
and might just as well be referred to P. marginatus nanus as P. polychopterus 
tristis, and the name had better be dropped altogether. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 187 

Bathmidurus marginatus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 451, 
1856 part, Bahia. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 77, 1857 part, 
Bahia (descr. of male and female). 

Pachyrhamphus atricapillus PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 121, 1868 part, Rio 
de Janeiro and Sapitiba, Rio (spec, examined); (?) REINHARDT, Videnskab. 
Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 322 Rio de Janeiro, and Lag6a Santa, 
Minas Geraes; FORBES, Ibis, 1881, p. 344 Macuca, Pernambuco; SCLA- 
TER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 347, 1888 part, spec, q-v, Bahia, Brazil; 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 238, 1889 southeastern Brazil; 
IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 308, 1907 Bahia and 
Espirito Santo; (?) CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 606 Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus marginatus BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 64, p. 394, 1921 Bahia and Sao Sebastiao, Sao Paulo (excl. 
Diamantina; monog.). 

Range: Wooded region of eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco 
(Macuca) south to Sao Paulo (Sao Sebastiao); (?) Paraguay 
(Sapucay). 1 

*Pachyramphus marginatus nanus Bangs and Penard. 2 DWARF 
BLACK-CAPPED BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus nanus BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 64, p. 395, 1921 Xeberos, Peruvian Amazon, Peru; HELLMAYR, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser. f 12, p. 342, 1929 Tury-assu, 
Maranhao. 

Pachyrhynchus marginatus (not of LICHTENSTEIN) LAFRESNAYE and D'OR- 
BIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 42, 1837 Yuracares, 
Bolivia (descr. of female; spec, in Paris Museum examined); D'ORBIGNY, 
Voyage Am&. M6rid., Ois., p. 303, pi. 31, fig. 2, 1839 Yuracares. 

Bathmidurus marginatus BURMEISTER, Syst. tJbers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 451, 1856 
part, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny). 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 77, 1857 part, 
Bolivia, eastern Peru, and Rio Napo; idem, I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 Rio Napo; 
BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 141, 1908 Oyapoc, French Guiana; HELL- 
MAYR, I.e., 17, p. 313, 1910 Maroins, Rio Machados; idem, Abhandl. 
Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 90, 1912 Para and Our6m; 

1 Material examined. Bahia (including the type) 9; Rio de Janeiro 2; Sapi- 
tiba, Rio i. 

t Pachyramphus marginatus nanus BANGS and PENARD: Similar to P. m. 
marginatus, but decidedly smaller. Wing 63-69 (against 68-76) ; tail 47-54 (against 
53-58)- 

Material examined. Venezuela: Caura Valley 8. Brazil: Tury-assu, Maran- 
hao i; Rio Icanna [=Rio Isana] i; Barcellos, Rio Negro i; Marabitanas, Rio 
Negro 7; Maroins, Rio Machados 3. Peru: Pebas 2. Bolivia: Yuracares I. 



i88 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 350, 1914 Para, Santa Izabel, Peixe 
Boi, Rio Guama (Ourem), Rio Tocantins (Mazagao, Cameta), Rio Xingti 
(Forte Ambe), Rio Tapaj6z (Boim, Itaituba, Goyana, Villa Braga), Rio 
Jamauchim (Santa Helena, Maloquinha), Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da 
Cachoeira), Obidos, Rio Jamundd (Faro), Maranhao; BEEBE, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 93, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. 
Bull., 2, p. 253, 1916 Munduapo, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 32, p. 16, 1925 Yuracares, Bolivia (crit.); SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Tury-assu, Maranhao; 
STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 1928 Para. 

Pachyrhamphus atricapillus (not Lanius atricapillus MERREM) SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Ix>nd., 1867, p. 751 Xeberos and Chyavetas, Peru; idem, 
I.e., p. 978 Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 284 Xeberos, Chyavetas, and 
Pebas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 617 Yuracares, Bolivia (ex d'Orbigny); 
PELZELN, On. Bras., 2, p. 121, 1868 part, Borba (Rio Madeira), 
Marabitanas, Rio Icanna, and Barcellos, Rio Negro (spec, examined); 
LAYARD, Ibis, 1873, p. 384 Para; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. PeY., 2, p. 365, 
1884 Peruvian localities; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 302 Bartica Grove, 
Merum6 Mts., and Camacusa, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 347, 1888 part, spec, a-p, San Esteban, "Caracas," Bartica 
Grove, Merum6 Mts., Camacusa, Oyapoc, "Cayenne," Chamicuros, Sara- 
yacu, and Rio Napo; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 303, 1889 Yuri- 
maguas, Peru; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santarem; (?) 
ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., 5, p. no, 1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso; 
GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 7io Archidona, eastern Ecuador; BERLEPSCH 
and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 56, 1902 Munduapo, Rio Orinoco, and 
Suapure and La Pricion, Caura; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 291, 1907 
Par and Ourm, Rio Guama; idem, I.e., 56, p. 505, 1908 Goyana and 
Itaituba, Rio Tapaj6z; PENARD and PENARD Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 156, 
1910 Surinam; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 493, 1917 La 
Morelia, Colombia; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 275, 1921 various 
localities. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Venezuela (Caura- 
Orinoco region; Sierra de Carabobo and San Esteban, Carabobo); 
the whole of Amazonia from northern Maranhao west to the eastern 
slopes of the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

i: Brazil (Tury-assu, Maranhao i). 

Pachyramphus albogriseus albogriseus Sclater. BLACK-AND-WHITE 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 76, 1857 part, 
descr. of male only, Bogotd (type in British Museum examined) ; SCLATER 
and SALVIN, I.e., 1868, p. 168 Caracas, Venezuela; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 347, 1888 part, descr. of male and spec. f,l, Bogota, 
Merida; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 128, 1890 
part, Colombia, Venezuela. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 189 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus albogriseus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 836, 1907 part, Bogota, Colombia, and M6rida and Caracas, 
Venezuela; HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, pp. 90, 
91, 1912 Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela (crit., range). 

Pachyrhamphus similis (not of CHERRIE), SALVIN, Nov. Zool., 2, p. 13, 1895 
part, MeYida, Venezuela. 

Range: North coast mountains of Venezuela, from Sucre to 
Caracas and Merida, and west into the Eastern Andes of Colombia 
(Bogota). 1 

Pachyramphus albogriseus ornatus Cherrie.* ARCE'S BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus ornatus CHERRIE, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 338, 1891 
Barranca, Costa Rica (=female); RIDGWAY, I.e., 16, p. 611, 1893 San 
Jos6, Costa Rica (crit.); idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 842, 
1907 Costa Rica (Barranca, San Jose^ and Colombia (Valparaiso, Santa 
Marta region). 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus (not of SCLATER) SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 
199 Calovevora (Veragua) and Bugaba (Chiriqui); SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 347, 1888 part, spec, a-c, Nicaragua, Calovevora, 
Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 128, pi. 
43, fig. 2 (male), 1 1890 part, Corinto (Nicaragua), Bugaba and Calo- 
vevora (descr. of male only). 

Pachyrhamphus cinereiventris (not of SCLATER) ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 13, p. 154, 1900 part, Valparaiso, Santa Marta. 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus albogriseus RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, 
Part 4, p. 836, 1907 part, Nicaragua (Corinto), Panama (Calovevora, 
Chitrd, Bugaba), and Colombia (Santa Marta); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., 6, p. 666, 1910 Bebedero, Costa Rica (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus ornatus HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 
78, A, Heft 5, p. 92, 1912 Boquete, Chiriqui (crit., range); TODD and 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 324, 1922 Valparaiso, Santa 
Marta region (crit.). 

Range: Western Nicaragua (Corinto), Costa Rica, western 
Panama (Bugaba, Boquete, Chitrd, Chiriqui; Calovevora, Vera- 
guas), and northern Colombia (Valparaiso, Santa Marta region). 

'The type, while identical with Venezuelan males in coloration, is somewhat 
larger (wing 77, against 75; tail 62, against 59-60). The characters of both sexes 
have been fully set forth by HELLMAYR and SEILERN (I.e., p. 91). 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota (the type) i. Venezuela: Los 
Palmales, Bermudez (now Sucre) 2; Galipdn, Cerro del Ayila, Distrito Federal 3; 
Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo 8; Rio Albarregas, M6rida i. 

'Pachyramphus albogriseus ornatus CHERRIE: Adult male similar to P. a. 
albogriseus, but central rectrices grayish for the two basal thirds of their length; 
female with light markings on wings and tail much paler buffy yellow; pileum 
darker; under parts more greenish. Wing 75, (female) 72; tail 55-58; bill 13. 

Material examined. Panama: Boquete 2; Calovevora I. 

'The female figured on the same plate (fig. 3) belongs to some other species. 



190 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pachyramphus albogriseus subsp. ECUADORIAN BECARD. 

Callopsaris albogriseus (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1877, p. 
327 Lechugal, Rfo Zurumilla, prov. Tumbez, Peru. 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus BERLEPSCH and TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1883, p. 559 Chimbo; idem, I.e., 1885, p. 93 Mapoto, Ecuador; TACZA- 
NOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 361, 1884 part, Lechugal; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 
5, p. 489, 1898 Chimbo; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 710 Archidona 
(spec, examined). 1 

Pachyrhamphus similis (not of SALVIN?) SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 16, 1899 Rio Peripa, Ecuador. 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus similis HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 609, 1902 
Chimbo, San Javier (Esmeraldas), and Archidona (spec, examined). 

Pachyrhamphus albogriseus salvini (not of RICHMOND?) CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 55, p. 543, 1926 Mindo, Chongoncito, Daule, Guayaquil, 
Puna Island, Punta Santa Ana, Zamora, below Oyacachi, and below San 
Jose', Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of Ecuador and extreme northwestern 
Peru (Lechugal, Rio Zurumilla, prov. Tumbez). 1 

*Pachyramphus albogriseus salvini Richmond. 3 SALVIN'S BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus similis (not of CHERRIE, 1891) SALVIN, Nov. Zool., a, p. 13, 

J895 part, Chusgon (type), Vina, SucCha, and Malca (Huamachuco), 

dept. Cajamarca, Peru. 
Pachyrhamphus salvini RICHMOND, Auk, 16, p. 186, 1899 new name for 

Pachyrhamphus similis SALVIN, preoccupied. 
Pachyrhamphus albogriseus salvini HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 

78, A, Heft 5, p. 92, 1912 northern Peru (crit., char.). 
Pachyrhamphus albogriseus (not of SCLATER) TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 

1879, p. 236 Tambillo and Guajango; idem, I.e., 1880, p. 203 Callacate; 

idem, Orn. Pr., 2, p. 361, 1884 part, Tambillo, Guajango, Callacate. 

'The male brought back by Goodfellow, now in the Tring Museum, is wrongly 
labeled "Archidona, Ecuador, April, 1899." It is one of O. T. Baron's skins of 
P. a. salvini from northern Peru, as its unmistakable "make" clearly shows. 

2 Owing to lack of sufficient material, I am unable to determine to what form 
birds from Ecuador should be referred. A single adult male from Chimbo is much 
like P. a. ornatus, but smaller, with shorter white tips to the rectrices, and lacks 
the black loral spot; while a female from San Javier, prov. Esmeraldas, differs 
only by its smaller dimensions. In size of bill, both these specimens are inter- 
mediate between P. a. ornatus and P. a. salvini. Chapman refers the Ecuadorian 
form to P. a. salvini, but apparently had no Peruvian material for comparison. 
In opposition to his statement, the San Javier female has the throat yellow, not 
white. 

Wing (male) 68, (female) 65; tail 51, (female) 54; bill 13. 

3 Pachyramphus albogriseus salvini RICHMOND: Much like P. a. ornatus, but 
apical spots of median upper wing coverts much smaller, and bill shorter as well 
as slenderer; back of adult female somewhat duller, more of a grayish olive tone. 
Wing 73-75, (female) 69-72; tail 57-63, (female) 55-60; bill 10^-12. 

Material examined. Peru: Vina, Huamachuco 4; Chusgon i; Malca 2; 
Poco Tambo i; Guajango I. 



IQ29- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 191 

Range : Northern Peru, in depts. of Cajamarca and San Martin 
(Chusgon, Vina, Succha, and Malca, near Huamachuco; Poco Tambo, 
east of Uchco; Tambillo; Callacate; Guajango, Rio Maran6n). 

i : Peru (Poco Tambo, east of Uchco i). 

*Pachyramphus major australis Miller and Griscom. 1 NICARAGUAN 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus major australis MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 
I 59. P- 3. J 9 2 5 San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua. 

Pachyrhamphus major (not of CABANIS) SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1860, p. 
36 Coban, Guatemala; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 346, 1888 
part, spec, i-q, Choctum, Coban, Vera Paz, Medio Monte, Calderas, and 
Duenas, Guatemala; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, 
p. 127, 1890 part, Guatemala. 

Pachyrhamphus major major RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
833, 1907 part, Guatemala. 

Range: Guatemala, Honduras, and eastern Nicaragua (San 
Rafael del Norte; Arenal district, Matagalpa). 

3: Guatemala (Pet6n i, unspecified 2). 

Pachyramphus major 2 major (Cabanis). MEXICAN BECARD. 

Bathmidurus major CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 246, 1847 Xalapa, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico (type in Heine Collection; descr. of female); BAIRD, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 9, p. 165, 1858 Boquillo, Nuevo Leon; idem, 
Birds N. America, p. 166, pi. 47, fig. 2 (female), 1860 Boquillo; idem, 
Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., 2, Part 2, p. 7, pi. 19, fig. 2, 1859 
Boquillo; CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 89, 1859 Jalapa; 
SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., i, p. 558, 1869 Vera Cruz. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus major KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 48, 
Oct., 1852 (diag.). 

1 Pachyramphus major australis MILLER and GRISCOM: "Resembling typical 
P. m. major (CABANIS) of eastern Mexico, but adult male with interscapular 
region with much less black, and slightly paler below, in these respects inter- 
mediate between typical major and P. m. itzensis of Yucatan; female much darker 
than in major, cinnamon-rufous above rather than light buff-tawny, the yellow 
tinge beneath more marked; size slightly smaller than major, larger than itzensis." 
(MILLER and GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 159, p. 3, 1925). 

In the absence of typical major from eastern Mexico I cannot add anything 
to this description. An adult female from Volcdn de Puca, Honduras, collected 
by E. Wittkugel on March 7, 1889, 1 found to be identical with others from Guate- 
mala. 

1 Pachyramphus major is possibly conspecific with P. albogriseus. In view of 
the very differently colored female, however, it does not seem desirable to reduce 
its rank, until we acquire a better knowledge of its range in Nicaragua, where it 
is expected to meet P. albogriseus ornatus. 



192 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pachyrhamphus marginatus (?) (not Todus marginatus LICHTENSTEIN) 
SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, p. 298, 1856 Cordova, Vera Cruz. 

Pachyrhamphus major SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 78, 1857 Jalapa, Mexico 
(descr. of male and female); idem, I.e., p. 204, 1857 Jalapa; idem, I.e., 
26, p. 97, 1858 southern Mexico; idem, I.e., 27, p. 366, 1859 Jalapa; 
idem, I.e., 1864, p. 176 near Mexico City; idem, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 346, 1888 part, spec, a-f, near Mexico City and Jalapa, Mexico; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 127, 1890 part, 
Mexico City, Sierra Madre above Ciudad Victoria, Jalapa, and Huatusco, 
Mexico; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 10, p. 32, 1898 Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz. 

Pachyrhamphus major major RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
833, 1907 part, eastern Mexico (monog.); BANGS and PETERS, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 478, 1927 Presidio, Vera Cruz. 

Range: Eastern Mexico, in states of Nuevo Le6n, Tamaulipas, 
Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, and Oaxaca. 

Pachyramphus major uropygialis Nelson. SINALOA BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus major uropygialis NELSON, Auk, 16, p. 28, 1899 Plomosas, 
Sinaloa; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 836, 1907 western 
Mexico (monog.). 

Pachyrhamphus major (not of CABANIS) SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, 2, p. 127, 1890 part, Amula, Guerrero. 

Range: Western Mexico, in states of Sinaloa (Plomosas) and 
Guerrero (Amula). 

*Pachyramphus major itzensis Nelson. YUCATAN BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus major itzensis NELSON, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 14, p. 173, 
1901 Chichen-Itza, Yucatan; COLE, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 134, 
1906 Chichen-Itza; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 836, 
1907 Yucatan (monog.); BANGS and PECK, Proc. Biol Soc. Wash., 21, 
p. 44, 1908 Toledo District, British Honduras (crit.); GRISCOM, Amer. 
Mus. Novit., 235, p. 15, 1926 Chunyaxche, Quintana Roo. 

Pachyrhamphus major (not of CABANIS) BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1883, p. 
449 Izalam, Tizimm, and Rio Lagartos, Yucatan; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 346, 1888 part, spec, g, h, northern Yucatan; SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 127, 1890 part, Peto and 
Buctzotz, Yucatan. 

Range: Yucatan (Chichen-Itza; Calatmul; Izalam; Tizimm; 
Rio Lagartos; Peto; Buctzotz), Quintana Roo (Chunyaxche), and 
British Honduras (Toledo District). 

i: Yucatan (Izalam i). 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 193 

Genus PLATYPSARIS Sclater. 1 

Platypsaris SCLATER,* P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 72, 1857 type by subs, desig. 
(SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 333, 1888) Pachyrhynchus aglaiae 
LAFRESNAYE. 

Pachyrhamphus (not of CABANIS, 1847) KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 
45, Oct., 1852 for Lanius validus LIGHT. [ = Tityra rufa VIEILLOT ], 
Pachyrhamphus nigrescens CAB., Pachyrhynchus pectoralis SWAINSON 
[=Querula minor LESSON], and Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAYE; no 
genotype specified. 

Hadrostomus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 84, 1859 new name 
for Pachyrhamphus KAUP; type by subs, desig. (SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 333, 1888) Tityra atricapilla VIEILLOT = Tityra rufa VIEILLOT. 

*Platypsaris rufus rufus (Vieillot). CRESTED BECARD. 

Tityra rufa VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 3, p. 347, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 208, Paraguay; =female. 

Tityra atricapilla VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 3, p. 347, 1816 
based on Azara, No. 209, Paraguay; = immature male. 

Lanius validus LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 50, 1823 Sao 
Paulo (descr. of adult and immature male). 

Pachyrhynchus cinerascens SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 34, pi. 46, fig. i, 1825 no 
locality stated (type lost ;= immature male). 

Psaris cristatus SWAINSON, Zool. Journ., 2, No. 7, p. 355, Oct., 1825 southern 
part of Brazil (=adult male); idem, Zool. Illust., (2nd ser.), i, Part 9, pi. 
41, 1830 "from the mining provinces of Brazil" (=adult male). 

Tityra pileata JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Ornith., i, Part 2, pi. 17, June, 
1827 South America (= adult female). 

Psaris strigatus SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 287, Dec., 1837 Brazil (descr. 
of young male). 

Pachyrynchus megacephalus SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 287, Dec., 1837 
Brazil (descr. of immature male). 

Psaris atricapillus LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 42, 1837 Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined). 

Psaris roseicollis D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Amer. M6rid., Ois., p. 302, 1839 part, 
descr. of "young male," Chiquitos, Bolivia. 

Psaris affinis LESSON, Rev. Zool., 3, p. 354, 1840 Brazil (descr. of male). 
Psaris validus KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus validus CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 240, 1847 
Brazil (synonymy); BURMEISTER, Syst. tJbers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 455, 1856 

'This genus is barely separable from Pachyramphus GRAY. 

1 Platypsaris BONAPARTE (Ann. Sci. Nat., (4), Zool., i, p. 134, 1854) is a 
nomen nudum. GRAY (Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, p. 146, 1855) quotes for "Platyp- 
saris BP. 1854" as tyP e "P saris latirostris? PR. B.," but the question mark makes 
it doubtful whether this action constitutes a valid designation under the rules. 



194 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Sete Lag6as, Minas Geraes; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 72, 1857 
Sao Paulo (monog.). 

" Pachyramphus validus seu leucoptilon (LiCHT.)" (sic) DES MURS in CASTEL- 
NAU, Exp6d. Ame>. Sud, Ois., p. 54, 1856 Brazil (descr. of female). 

Hadrostomus atricapillus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 84, 1859 
Brazil (synonymy); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 120, 1868 part, Rio de 
Janeiro, Sapitiba, Taipa, Mattodentro, Goyaba, Ypanemd (Sao Paulo), 
Curytiba and Castro (Parana), Rio dos Piloens, Goyaz (spec, examined); 
BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 35, p. 13, 1887 Lambare', Paraguay; SCLATER, 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 333, 1888 Bahia and "Pelotas, Rio Grande do 
Sul," Brazil; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 1893 Chapada, 
Matto Grosso; SALVADORI, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. n, 
1895 Colonia Risso, Paraguay; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 211, 
1899 Piquete and Iguape", Sao Paulo; REISER, Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. 
Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 70, 1910; p. 153, 1925 Pedrinha, Piauhy. 

Hadrostomus rufus HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3* 
p. 669, 1906 (crit.); IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 306, 
1907 Piquete, Iguap6, Ubatuba, Barretos, and Itapira (Sao Paulo), 
Bahia, and Rio Doce, Espirito Santo; LILLO, Apunt. Hist. Nat., i, p. 42, 
1909 Ocampo, Santa Fe"; CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 602 Sapucay, Paraguay. 

Hadrostomus rufa rufa HARTERT and VENTURI, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 204, 1909 
Ocampo and Mocovi, Santa Fe\ 

Platypsaris rufus DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 
310, 1910 Ocampo and Mocovi; idem, Bol. Soc. Physis, i, p. 348, 1914 
same localities. 

Platypsaris atricapillus GRANT, Ibis, 1911, p. 125 Cabo Emma, Paraguay. 

Platypsaris rufus rufus DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 
23, p. 320, 1912 San Rafael, Paraguay; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 
15. I9 2 5 Chiquitos, Bolivia (crit.); SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool Mus. Pol. 
Hist. Nat., 5, p. 180, 1926 Marechal Mallet and Rio Claro, Parana; 
HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 339, 1929 
Ibiapaba and Deserto, Piauhy and Jua, Ceard. 

Range: Campo region of Brazil, from Santa Catharina, Parand, 
and Matto Grosso north to Ceara and Piauhy, and adjacent sections 
of Paraguay, Argentina (prov. of Santa Fe"), and eastern Bolivia 
(Chiquitos). 1 

*I cannot make out Hadrostomus atricapillus surinamensis PENARD and 
PENARD (Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 152, 1910 Surinam) which, the authors state, is 
apparently identical with the Brazilian bird. The only species seen from the 
Guianas is the pink-chested P. minor, and I strongly doubt the occurrence of P. 
r. rufus in Surinam. 

A single adult male from Chiquitos, Bolivia agrees with others from Brazil. 

Material examined. Piauhy: Deserto 3, Ibiapaba 5, Pedrinha, near Parna- 
gua i. Ceara: Jua, near Iguatu i. Bahia 3. Goyaz: Rio dos Piloens i, Ama- 
roleite 2. Rio de Janeiro: Sapitiba i, Rio i. Sao Paulo: Iguape" 2, Mattodentro 
2, Ipanema 2, Goyaba i, Taipa i. Parana: Castro i, Curityba 3. Bolivia: 
Chiquitos I. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 195 

10 : Brazil (Bahia i; Jua, near Iguatii, Ceara i; Deserto, 
Piauhy 3 ; Ibiapaba, Piauhy 5). 

*Platypsaris rufus audax (Cabanis). 1 BOLD BECARD. 

Hadrostomus audax CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 68, 1873 Monterico, dept. 
Ayacucho, Peru; TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, P- 54 Monterico; 
idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 356, 1884 Monterico; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, 
Ornis, 13, p. 90, 1906 Casinchihua, Urubamba, dept. Cuzco, Peru. 

Platypsaris atricapillus (not Tityra atricapilla VIEILLOT) LILLO, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 188, 1902 Tucuman, Tafi Viejo, and 
La Hoyada, Argentina; BAER, Ornis, 12, p. 221, 1904 La Criolla, Tucu- 
man. 

Hadrostomus rufus audax HARTERT and VENTURI, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 205, 
1909 La Hoyada and Las Cuchillas, Tucuman, Argentina. 

Platypsaris audax LILLO, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 51, 1905 Tucuman, 
Tafi Viejo, and La Hoyada; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 310, 1910 La Hoyada; CHAPMAN, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
117, p. 99, 1921 midway between Torontoy and San Miguel Bridge, 
Urubamba, Peru. 

Hadrostomus rufus audax GIACOMELLI, El Hornero, 3, p. 72, 1923 Santa 
Cruz, Rio Saladillo, La Rioja. 

Range: Tropical Zone of southern Peru (Monterico, dept. 
Ayacucho; Casinchihua and between Torontoy and San Miguel 
Bridge, Urubamba, dept. Cuzco), central Bolivia (Samaipata, western 
Santa Cruz), and northwestern Argentina (in prov. of Salta 
Tucuman, and La Rioja). 

i: Argentina (Las Cuchillas, Tucuman i). 

*Platypsaris homochrous 2 homochrous (Sclater). ONE-COLORED 
BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus homochrous SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 142, 1859 Palla- 
tanga, Ecuador (descr. of male and female); idem, I.e., 28, p. 279, 1860 

1 Platypsaris rufus audax (CABANIS): Adult male similar to P. r. rufus, but 
back much darker, blackish rather than sooty gray, without any buffy tinge on 
rump and tail coverts; under parts dingy grayish instead of deep buff, only the 
under tail coverts slightly washed with dull buffy; axillars and under wing coverts 
much paler, buffy grayish rather than deep buff, approaching ochraceous buff; 
female not distinguishable from that of its Brazilian ally. Wing 98-104, (female) 
96-98; tail 67-75. 

Specimens from Samaipata, Bolivia, agree with a series from western Argen- 
tina. No Peruvian material is available for comparison. 

Material examined. Argentina, prov. Tucuman: Las Cuchillas 3, La Hoyada 
2, Tucuman 2; Rio Bermejo, Salta i. Bolivia: Samaipata, alt. 1500 meters, 4. 

^Platypsaris homochrous is of doubtful affinity. The adult male has a very 
short, narrow second primary, while the female may be recognized from every 
other species by having the whole pileum tawny rufous like the back. 



196 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Babahoyo; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 473, 1862 Lion 
Hill, Panama; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 362 Panama 
Railroad (ex LAWRENCE). 

Hadrostomus homochrous SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 240, 1862 
Pallatanga and Babahoyo, Ecuador; TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1877, p. 
326 Lechugal, Tumbez, Peru; (?) SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 
517, pi. 42, fig. 12 Remedies, Antioquia, Colombia (nest and eggs de- 
scribed); 1 TACZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, I.e., 1885, p. 93 Yaguachi, 
Ecuador; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 357, 1884 Lechugal, Peru; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 334, pi. 24, 1888 part, spec. a-l,n, 
Pallatanga, Babahoyo, Santa Rita, "Monji," Balzar, "Sarayacu," Lechu- 
gal, Panama; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 489, 1898 Chimbo, Ecuador; 
SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 16, 1899 
Rfo Peripa and Vinces, Ecuador; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 710 
Santo Domingo and Guanacillo, Ecuador. 

Platypsaris homochrous RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 859, 
1907 part, (?) eastern Panama, (?) Remedies (Antioquia), western 
Ecuador, and Lechugal, northern Peru (monog.); HELLMAYR, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1911, p. 1143 N6vita, Condoto, and Tad6, Pacific Colombia. 

Platypsaris homochrous homochrous CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, 
p. 490, 1917 N6vita, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 540, 1926 Esmeraldas, 
Manavi, Daule, Duran, Bucay, Santa Rosa, Zaruma, and Alamor, western 
Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of (?) eastern Panama (Railroad line), 
western Colombia, and western Ecuador south to extreme north- 
western Peru (Lechugal, Rio Zurumilla, dept. Tumbez). 2 

2: Ecuador (Pambilar, prov. Esmeraldas i; Milagro, prov. 
Guayas i). 

Platypsaris homochrous canescens Chapman. 3 SANTA MARTA ONE- 
COLORED BECARD. 

Platypsaris homochrous canescens CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 31, p. 
155, 1912 "Cagualito" = Cacagualito, Santa Marta Mts., Colombia; 

J This reference may pertain to P. h. canescens. 

'Specimens from Pacific Colombia are identical with others from Ecuador. 
No material from Panama is available. According to CHAPMAN (Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 31, p. 155, 1912), a single adult male examined by him probably represents 
a separate race. 

Material examined. Ecuador: Vinces 2; Chimbo 2; Milagro i; Pambflar, 
Esmeraldas 3; Yaguachi i. Colombia: Potedo, Choc6 2; Andagoya, Choc6 2; 
Quibd6, Rfo Atrato 3; N6vita 3; Condoto i; Tad6 i; Murindo, Antioquia I. 

3 Platypsaris homochrous canescens CHAPMAN: Similar to P. h. homochrous, but 
adult male decidedly paler gray underneath, and the back slate gray, contrasting 
with the black of the pileum. Wing 85-88; tail 62-64. 

Two males from Jaraquiel, dept. Bolivar, are somewhat darker above, 
thereby approaching certain worn specimens of typical homochrous. 

Material examined. Fundaci6n 5 ; Cacagualito I ; Mamatoco 2 ; Dibulla I ; 
Don Diego 2; Calamar, lower Magdalena 2; Gamarra, Magdalena i; Jaraquiel, 
Bolivar 3. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 197 

TODD and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 324, 1922 Bonda, 
Cacagualito, Mamatoco, Fundaci6n, Don Diego, and Dibulla, Santa 
Marta region (spec, examined). 

Hadrostomus homochrous SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 334, 1888 part, 
spec, m, Santa Marta; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 154, 1900 
Cacagualito and Bonda. 

Platypsaris homochrous RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 859, 
1907 part, Santa Marta, Bonda, and Cacagualito. 

Range: Northern Colombia, in depts. of Magdalena (Gamarra, 
Rio Magdalena; Santa Marta district) and Bolivar (Calamar, Rio 
Magdalena; Jaraquiel). 1 

Platypsaris minor (Lesson). LESSER BECARD. 

Querula minor LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 363, end of 1830 Cayenne 
(descr. of immature male); PUCHERAN, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 7, 
livr. 3, p. 366, 1855 (crit.). 

Psaris roseicollis LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 
7, cl. 2, p. 42, 1837 Guarayos and Yuracares, Bolivia (type in Paris 
Museum examined ;= adult male); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage AmeY. Me'rid., 
Ois., p. 302, 1839 part, descr. of adult male, Yuracares and Guarayos; 
JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Orn., n. ser., Part 5, pi. 28 (=adult male), 
March, 1839 locality unknown. 

Pachyrynchus pcctoralis SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 288, Dec., 1837 
Cayenne (descr. of immature male). 

Pachyramphus atricilloldes DES MURS in CASTELNAU, Expe"d. Ame>. Sud, Ois., 
p. 55, in text, June, 1856 Cavallo-Coche, Peru (descr. of female). 

Pachyrhamphus minor CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 241, 1847 part, 
Bolivia. 

Psaris perforates KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 (diag.). 

Pachyrhamphus pcctoralis SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 18, 1857 Bogota; 

idem, I.e., 25, p. 73, 1857 Cayenne and Bogota (crit.). 
Pachyrhamphus roseicollis SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 73, 1857 Bolivia 

(crit.). 
Hadrostomus roseicollis CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., a, p. 85, 1859 

Bolivia (ex D'ORBIGNY). 

Hadrostomus minor CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 85, 1859 Cay- 
enne and Colombia; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 190 
upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 579 Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 

*Two specimens from western Venezuela (state of Zulia) in Field Museum 
cannot properly be referred to any known form. The adult male, taken by H. T. 
Raven on October 20, 1910, at Catatumbo, is very nearly as dark above as P. h. 
homochrous from the Pacific coast, while the under parts are even a shade deeper 
gray. An immature male (with rufous wings and tail), secured by W. H. Osgood 
and H. B. Cpnover on March i, 1920, on the Rfo Cogollo, eastern base of the 
Sierra de Perija, however, can be closely matched by a specimen (in correspond- 
ing plumage) of P. h. canescens from Mamatoco, Santa Marta. 

Additional material is required to establish the status of the Venezuelan race. 



198 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

a, p. 1 20, 1868 Engenho do Cap. Gama, western Matto Grosso; SCLATER 
and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 284 upper Ucayali, Peru; idem, I.e., 
1879, p. 617 Yuracares and Guarayos, Bolivia; TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, 
p. 23 Yurimaguas, Peru; idem, Orn. Per., 2, p. 358, 1884 Peruvian 
localities; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 302 Bartica Grove and Camacusa, 
British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 337, 1888 Cayenne, 
Camacusa, Bartica Grove, Para, Chamicuros, Iquitos, upper Ucayali, 
Samiria, Sarayacu (Ecuador), Bogota; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 

25, 1891 Santarein; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 710 Archidona, Ecua- 
dor; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 56, 1902 Suapure, 
Caura, Venezuela; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 307, 
1907 range; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 51, 1907 Teffe\ Rio Soli- 
moes; idem, I.e., 17, p. 313, 1910 Calama and Las Oncas, Manicore, Rio 
Madeira; BERLEPSCH, I.e., 15, p. 140, 1908 Cayenne; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 290, 1907 Para; idem, I.e., 56, p. 13, 1908 Cachoeira, Bom 
Lugar, and Ponto Alegre, Rio Purus; idem, I.e., p. 529, 1908 Arumatheua, 
Rio Tocantins; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 152, 1910 
Surinam. 

Hadrostomus atricapillus (not Tityra atricapilla VIEILLOT) PELZELN, Orn. 
Bras., 2, p. 120, 1868 part, Para (spec, examined); SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 290, 1907 Para (one female). 

Platypsaris rufus (not Tityra rufa VIEILLOT) HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. 
Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 90, 1912 Para (crit.). 

Platypsaris minor HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 

26, No. 2, pp. 33, 90, 1912 Ipitinga and Para, Para; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 349, 1914 Para, Providencia, Peixe-Boi, Rio Tocantins 
(Baiao, Arumatheua), Rio Tapaj6z (Villa Braga, Pimental), Rio Purus 
(Cachoeira, Bom Lugar, and Ponto Alegre) ; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., 
Sci. Bull., 2, p. 251, 1916 Caura River, Venezuela; BEEBE, Zoologica 
(N.Y.), 2, p. 93, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
36, p. 490, 1917 La Morelia and Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia; BANGS 
and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 70, 1918 Lelydorp, Surinam; 
CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 269, 1921 various localities; HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 32, p. 16, 1925 Guarayos, Bolivia (note on d'Orbigny's type); 
CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 540, 1926 Rio Suno, Ecuador; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 2, No. 6, p. 63, 1926 Tury- 
assii, Maranhao; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 1928 Para. 

Range: The whole Guianan-Amazonian forest region from 
northern Maranhao (Tury-assii), the estuary of the Amazon, and 
French Guiana west to the eastern slope of the Andes in Colombia, 
Ecuador, and Peru, south to northern Bolivia (Yuracares ; Guarayos ; 
Rio Yapacani and Buenavista, dept. Santa Cruz) and western Matto 
Grosso (Engenho do Gama, Rio Guapore"). 1 

1 There is no racial variation in this widespread species, except that males 
from south of the Amazon are on the average rather paler, more grayish. Females 
exhibit a wide amount of individual variation in color. The extremes are repre- 
sented by a specimen from Para (Carnegie Museum, No. 44093) with mainly 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 199 

*Platypsaris aglaiae aglaiae (Lafresnaye) . ROSE-THROATED BECARD. 
Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAVE, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 98, 1839 Mexico. 1 

Platypsaris affinis (not Psaris affinis LESSON) ELLIOT, Ibis, i, p. 394, pi. 13, 
1859 Mexico; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 366, 1859 Jalapa (crit.). 

Pachyrhamphus minor (not Querula minor LESSON) CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 
I 3 (i). P- 2 4*i J 847 part, descr. of female, Valle-Real, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Pachyrhamphus aglaiae SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 74, 1857 part, Jalapa 
(monog.); idem, I.e., 27, p. 366, 1859 Jalapa, Vera Cruz (crit.); BAIRD, 
Rep. Pacific R.R. Surv., 9, p. 164, 1858 San Diego, Nuevo Leon; idem, 
Birds N. America, p. 164, pi. 47, fig. I, 1860 San Diego. 

Platypsaris aglaiae SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., i, p. 558, 1869 
part, alpine region of Vera Cruz; RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 18, p. 
629, 1896 Altamira, Tamaulipas; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
10, p. 31, 1898 Jalapa, Vera Cruz (habits, nest descr.); NELSON, North 
American Fauna, 14, p. 47, 1899 range (part). 

Hadrostomus aglaiae (?) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 176 city of Mexico; 
FERRARI-PEREZ, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 9, p. 156, 1886 part, Rancho del 
Ahuehuete, Puebla, and Jalapa, Vera Cruz; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
X 4f P- 335. J888 part, spec, c-e, Jalapa; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 1890 part, localities from eastern Mexico. 

Platypsaris aglaiae aglaiae RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 850, 
1907 northeastern Mexico, from Nuevo Leon, northern and western 
Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi to highlands of Vera Cruz and Puebla 
(monog., full bibliography); PHILLIPS, Auk, 28, p. 78, 1911 Galindo, 
Rio Santa, Altamira, Rio Martinez, Santa Leonor, and Rio Cruz, Tamau- 
lipas. 

Range: Northeastern Mexico, from states of Nuevo Leon, 
Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi to highlands of Vera Cruz, 
Puebla, and (?) Mexico (Mexico City). 

9: Mexico (Valles, San Luis Potosi 3; Tampico, Tamaulipas 
5; Pueblo Viejo, Vera Cruz i). 

olive gray back, and another from Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Rio Solimoes (Carnegie 
Museum, No. 95754), which closely approaches the rufous-backed female of P. r. 
rufus. The lower mandible is either blackish, yellowish, or parti-colored. I am 
now inclined to regard the two young birds obtained by Natterer near Para, 
formerly referred to P. rufus, as individual variants of the present species, their 
dimensions (wing 87, 91; tail 63, 70) being too small for the southern bird. 

Material examined. French Guiana: Tamanoir 8; Pied Saut, Oyapock 
i. Venezuela: San Pedro, Caura River I. Colombia: Bogotd 2. Brazil: 
Cayari, Uassa Swamp, northern Pard i ; upper Rocana, northern Pard I ; Oucoupi 
Island, Uassa Swamp i; Pard 3; Ipitinga, Rio Acard i; Santar^m 2; Colonia do 
Mojuy, Santar6m 7; Villa Braga, Rio Tapaj6z i; Obidos 2; Calama, Rio Madeira 
2; Manicor6, Rio Madeira i; Hyutanahan, Rio Punis 4; Nova Olinda, Rio Punis 
i; Arima, Rio Purus 3; Sao Paulo de Olivenca, Rip SolimSes 4; Tonantins, Rio 
Solimoes 2. Peru: Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali I. Bolivia: Guarayos i; Rio Yapa- 
cani 2; Buenavista I. 



according to Nelson (North American Fauna, 14, p. 47, 1899), from 
vicinity of Jalapa, Vera Cruz. 



200 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Platypsaris aglaiae sumichrasti Nelson. SUMICHRAST'S BECARD. 

Platypsaris aglaiae sumichrasti NELSON, Auk, 14, p. 52, 1897 Otatitlan, 
Tlacotalpan, southern Vera Cruz; idem, North American Fauna, 14, p. 
47, 1899 humid lowlands of Vera Cruz and thence to Guatemala; RIDG- 
WAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 852, 1907 part, 1 lowlands of 
Vera Cruz through Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Chiapas to Guatemala and 
British Honduras (monog.); DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., 
Orn. Ser., i, p. 100, 1907 Mazatenango and Patulul, Guatemala; PETERS, 
Auk, 30, p. 375, 1913 Camp Mengel, Quintana Roo; BANGS and PETERS, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 68, p. 398, 1928 Tapanatepec, Oaxaca. 

Pachyrhamphus aglaiae (not of LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, p. 
2 97. J 856 C6rdova, Vera Cruz (descr., crit.); idem, I.e., 25, p. 74, 1857 
part, descr. and hab. C6rdova; idem and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 124 
Cajab6n, Guatemala; OWEN, I.e., 1861, p. 64, pi. 2, fig. 4 Choacus, 
Guatemala (nest and egg descr.). 

Platypsaris aglaiae SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 385, 1859 Playa Vicente, 
Rfo Tesechoacan, southern Vera Cruz; SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. 
N.H., i, p. 558, 1869 part, hot and temperate regions of Vera Cruz. 

Hadrostomus aglaiae ELLIOT, Ibis, 1859, p. 394 (crit.); FERRARI-PEREZ, Proc. 
U.S.Nat. Mus., 9, p. 156, 1886 part, Oaxaca; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 part, spec, f-h, n-b', Tonala (Chiapas), Cacoprieto 
(Oaxaca), Choctum, Vera Paz, Retalhuleu, Chisec, and Volcan de Fuego 
(Guatemala); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 
1890 part, localities in southern Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas, 
and Guatemala. 

Hadrostomus albiventris (not of LAWRENCE) LANTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci., 
16, p. 221, 1899 Naranj6, Guatemala. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, from southern Vera Cruz (Tlaco- 
talpan; Otatitlan; Cordoba; Playa Vicente, etc.) through Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, and Chiapas to British Honduras, Guatemala, and Sal- 
vador (Lake Guja; Hacienda Zapotitan). 2 

6: Guatemala (Mazatenango i; Patulul, Solola 5). 

Platypsaris aglaiae hypophaeus Ridgway. GRAY-THROATED BECARD. 

Platypsaris aglaiae hypophaeus RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 467, 
Oct. 26, 1891 San Pedro Sula, Honduras; idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
50, Part 4, p. 854, 1907 Honduras to Costa Rica, and (?) southeastern 
Guatemala (monog.); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 664, 1910 
El Hogar, Caribbean Costa Rica. 

Platypsaris aglaiae obscurus RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 474, Oct. 
31, 1891 Jimenez, Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 16, p. 612, 1893 Jimenez 

Specimens from southern Tamaulipas (Tampico; Altamira), referred here by 
R. Ridgway, appear to me inseparable from P. a. aglaiae, the males being much 
paler, the females much less rufous throughout than Guatemalan skins which I 
take to represent sumichrasti. 

2 Fide VAN ROSSEM (in litt.). 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 201 

(crit.); BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 149, 1903 Ceiba, Honduras 
(crit.)- 

Hadrostomus aglaiae (not Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 837 Honduras; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 part, Honduras; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 1890 part, San Pedro, Honduras. 

Platypsaris aglaiae CHERRIE, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 535, 1891 Jimenez, 
Costa Rica. 

Range: Atlantic slope of Honduras (San Pedro Sula; Santa 
Ana; Ceiba), Nicaragua, and extreme northeastern Costa Rica 
(Jime'nez; El Hogar). 

'Platypsaris aglaiae latirostris (Bonaparte). BROAD-BILLED BECARD. 

Pachyrhamphus latirostris BONAPARTE, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., 38, p. 658, 
1854 Nicaragua; idem, Not. Coll. Ornith. Delattre, p. 87, 1854 Nicara- 
gua; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 74, 1857 Nicaragua (monog.). 

Hadrostomus aglaiae (not Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAYE) CABANIS, 
Journ. Orn., 9, p. 252, 1861 Lepanto, Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica; LAW- 
RENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 116, 1868 Costa Rica (ex Cab- 
anis); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 part, spec, c'-e', 
Nicaragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 
1890 part, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 

Hadrostomus homochrous? (not of SCLATER) RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 

5. P- 397. *882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica. 
Hydrostomus (typog. error) latirostris RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 6, p. 

393, 1884 Ometepe, Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua (crit.). 

Platypsaris latirostris RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, pp. 468, 469, 474, 
in text, 1891 Ometepe, Nicaragua and La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica. 

Platypsaris aglaiae latirostris RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, pp. 468, 469, 
1891 Ometepe, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 16, p. 612, in text, 1893 La 
Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
855, 1907 Pacific slope of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Salvador (monog.); 
BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 22, p. 32, 1909 Bolson, Costa Rica; 
CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 664, 1910 Bolson, Costa Rica. 

Range: Pacific slope of Salvador (west to Salvador City), 
Nicaragua (Ometepe; San Ger6nimo, Chinandega), and Costa Rica 
(Bolson; La Palma de Nicoya and Lepanto, Gulf of Nicoya). 

5: Nicaragua (San Geronimo, Chinandega 5). 

*Platypsaris aglaiae albiventris (Lawrence). XANTUS'S BECARD. 

Hadrostomus albiventris LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 8, p. 475, 
1867 Plains of Colima, Colima, Mexico; idem, Mem. Bost. Soc. N.H., 
2, p. 289, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and plains of Colima; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 Presidio, Sinaloa. 



202 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

(?) Pachyrhamphus aglaiae (not of LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 
74, 1857 part, Coahuila. 

Hadrostomus aglaiae LAWRENCE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 4, p. 28, 1876 Don- 
dominguillo, Oaxaca; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 
121, 1890 part, localities in Sonora, Jalisco, Colima, and Guerrero. 

Platypsaris albiventris PRICE, Auk, 5, p. 425, 1888 Huachuca Mts., Ari- 
zona; JOUY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 783, 1893 Barranca Ibarra, 
Jalisco; MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 21, p. 356, 1905 Escuinapa, 
Sinaloa; SWARTH, Pacific Coast Avif., 4, p. 20, 1904 Huachuca Mts., 
Arizona. 

Platypsaris aglaiae albiventris RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 469, 
1891 western Mexico; NELSON, North Amer. Faun., 14, p. 57, 1899 
west coast of Mexico from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to Arizona; RIDG- 
WAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 856, 1907 Pacific slope of Mex- 
ico, northward into southern Arizona; SWARTH, Pacific Coast Avif., 10, p. 
40, 1914 Huachuca Mts., Arizona. 

Range: Pacific slope of Mexico, in states of Chihuahua, 
Sonora, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Colima, Guerrero, 
and Oaxaca (Dondominguillo), and Nayarit (Tepic), northward 
into southern Arizona (Ramsey Canyon, Huachuca Mountains), 
eastward (?) to Coahuila and Nuevo Le6n (Cerro de la Silla). 

1 1 : Mexico (Chihuahua i ; Presidio, near Mazatldn, Sinaloa i ; 
Tuxpam, Jalisco 6; Colima 3). 

Platypsaris aglaiae insularis Ridgway. TRES MARIAS BECARD. 

Platypsaris insularis RIDGWAY, Man. N. Amer. Birds, p. 325, 1887 Tres 
Marias Islands, western Mexico. 

Hadrostomus aglaiae var. affinis GRAYSON, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 14, p. 
279, 1871 Tres Marias Islands; LAWRENCE, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., 2, 
p. 289, 1874 Tres Marias. 

Hadrostomus aglaiae (not Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAYE) SALVIN and 
GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 1890 part, Tres Marias 
Islands. 

Platypsaris aglaiae insularis RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 14, p. 469, 
1891 Tres Marias; NELSON, North Amer. Fauna, 14, p. 47, 1899 Maria 
Madre Island, Tres Marias; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, 
p. 857, 1907 Tres Marias Islands (monog.). 

Range: Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico. 
*Platypsaris aglaiae yucatanensis Ridgway. YUCATAN BECARD. 

Platypsaris aglaiae yucatanensis RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. ,19, p. 120, 
1906 Yucatan; idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 858, 1907 
Yucatan (monog.); GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 233, p. 15, 1926 Vigia 
Chica and Xcaret, Yucatan. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 203 

Hadrostomus aglaiae (not Pachyrhynchus aglaiae LAFRESNAYE) LAWRENCE, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 204, 1869 Merida, Yucatan; BOUCARD, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1883, p. 449 Menda, Izamal, and Tizimin, Yucatan (habits); 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 part, spec, i-k, Tizimfn, 
MeYida, Yucatan; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. 
121, 1890 part, Mrida, Buctzotz, Peto, and Tizimin, Yucatan. 

Tityra aglaiae NEHRKORN, Journ. Orn., 29, p. 67, 1881 Yucatan (descr. of 
eggs). 

Platypsaris aglaiae COLE, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 134, 1906 Chichen- 
Itza, Yucatan. 

Range: Yucatdn, eastern Mexico. 1 

4: Yucatdn (San Felipe i; Rio Lagarto i; unspecified 2). 

*Platypsaris niger (Gmelin). JAMAICAN BECARD. 

Lanius niger GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (i), p. 301, 1788 based on "Black 
Shrike" LATHAM, Gen. Syn. Birds, i, (i), p. 187, 1781, Jamaica (descr. 
of male). 

Pachyrhynchus aterrimus LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 320, 1846 Jamaica 
(descr. of male). 

Tityra leuconotus GRAY (and MITCHELL), Genera Birds, i, pi. 63, (male, 
female), 1846 Jamaica; GOSSE, Birds Jamaica, p. 187, 1847 Jamaica 
(habits). 

Pachyrhamphus nigrescens CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 241, 1847 
Jamaica (descr. of male and female). 

Psaris nigrescens KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 (diag.). 

Pachyrhamphus niger SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 72, 1857 Jamaica (mon- 
og.)- 

Platypsaris nigra SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1861, p. 77 Jamaica; ALBRECHT, 
Journ. Orn., 10, p. 199, 1862 Jamaica. 

Hadrostomus niger MARCH, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 290 Jamaica; 
CORY, Auk, 3, p. 337, 1886 Jamaica (descr.); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 334, 1888 Spanishtown, Jamaica; CORY, Birds W. Ind., 
p. 132, 1889 Jamaica (descr.); SCOTT, Auk, 10, p. 177, 1893 Jamaica, 
above 3000 feet. 

Platypsaris niger RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 849, 1907 
Jamaica (monog.). 

Range: Island of Jamaica, Greater Antilles. 
2: Jamaica (Trelawney i, unspecified i). 

1 Birds from Holbox and Cozumel Islands, recorded as Hadrostomus aglaiae 
by SALVIN (Ibis, 1885, p. 191 Cozumel; I.e., 1889, p. 364 Holbox and Cozumel), 
SCLATER (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 335, 1888 spec. 1, m), and SALVIN and GOD- 
MAN (Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 121, 1890) probably belong likewise here. 



204 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Genus TITYRA Vieillot.' 

Tiiyra VIEILLOT, Analyse Nouv. Orn. fil6m., p. 39, April, 1816 type by 
monotypy "Be'carde" BUFFON = Lanius cayanus LINNAEUS. 

Psaris CUVIER, Regne Anim., i, p. 340, Dec., 1816 type by monotypy 
Lanius cayanus LINNAEUS. 

Pachyrhynchus WAGLER in HAHN, V6gel aus Asien, Afrika, etc., livr. 13, pi. 

6, 1822 type by monotypy Pachyrhynchus melanocephalus WAGLER = 
Lanius cayanus LINNAEUS. 

Erator KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 47, Oct., 1852 type by subs. 

desig. (GRAY, 1855, p. 51) Lanius inquisitor LICHTENSTEIN. 
Exetastes CABANIS and HEINE,* Mus. Hein., 2, p. 83, 1859 new name for 

Erator KAUP. 

*Tityra cayana cayana (Linnaeus). CAYENNE TITYRA. 

Lanius cayanus LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., I2th ed., i, p. 137, 1766 based on 

"La Pie-griesche grise de Cayenne" BRISSON, Orn., 2, p. 158, pi. 14, fig. 

i (=male), 1760, Cayenne. 
Lanius naevius GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (i), p. 304, 1788 based on DAUBEN- 

TON, PI. Enl. 377 (=female), Cayenne. 
Pachyrhynchus melanocephalus WAGLER in HAHN, Vogel aus Asien, Africa, 

etc., livr. 13, pi. 6 (=female), 1822 Brazil. 
Tityra cinerea VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. Me"th., Orn., a, livr. 93, p. 859, 1823 

based on BRISSON'S "La Pie-griesche grise" and DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 

304, fig. i (=male), and 377 ( = female), Cayenne; VIEILLOT (et 

OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 217, pi. 134 ( = male), 1824 Cayenne. 
Psaris virgata (H. SMITH MS.) J. E. GRAY in GRIFFITH, Animal Kingdom, 6, 

plate facing p. 488 (=female), 1829 no locality given. 
Psaris cayanensis SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, 2, p. 255, July, 1837 based on 

DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 377, Cayenne. 

Psaris guianensis SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 286, Dec., 1837 interior of 

Guiana. 
Pachyrhynchus cajanus SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 32, pi. 44, fig. I (=male), 1825 

part, descr. of male. 
Psaris cayanus LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 

7, cl. 2, p. 41, 1837 Guarayos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); 
D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Am6r. M6rid., Ois., p. 301, 1839 Guarayos (descr. 
of male); KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 diag. 

Tityra cayana CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 238, 1847 (synonymy); 
idem in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 697, 1848 British 
Guiana (habits); BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 36, 
1857 Cayenne; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 150, 1855 Bogota; idem, 
I.e., 25, p. 69, 1857 Cayenne, British Guiana, Trinidad, Venezuela 
(Cumana), Bogota (monog.); idem, I.e., p. 265, 1857 Rio Javarrf; LEO- 
TAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 239, 1866 Trinidad; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 

*I do not see any practical advantage in subdividing this well-defined group. 

*Exetastus BONAPARTE (Ann. Sci. Nat., 4th ser., Zool., i, p. 134, 1854) is a 
nomen nudum. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 205 

Lond., 1867, p. 578 Pard; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 168 Pilar, Bermudez, 
Venezuela; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 119, 1868 part, Borba, Barra do 
Rio Negro [ = Manaos ], Barcellos, Forte do Rio Branco, and Para, Brazil 
(spec, in Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1873, p. 284 Santa Cruz and Rio Javarrf, Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 617 
Guarayos, Bolivia (ex D'ORBIGNY); TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 354, 
1884 Santa Cruz and Rio Javarrf, Peru; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 301 
Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Merume' Mts., and Roraima, British Guiana; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 328, 1888 Cayenne, Bartica Grove, 
Camacusa, Roraima, Para, Rio Ucayali, Iquitos, Sarayacu (Ecuador), 
Bogota, Pilar (Venezuela), Trinidad; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 
1891 Santarm; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 4, p. 55, 1892 El Pilar, 
Bermudez, Venezuela; CHAPMAN, I.e., 6, p. 46, 1894 Princestown, Trini- 
dad; GOELDI, Ibis, 1897, pp. 154, 155, 161 Counany and Amapa, n. 
Para; PHELPS, Auk, 14, p. 365, 1897 San Antonio, Bermudez, Venezuela; 
GOODFELLOW, Ibis, loxn, p. 709 Rio Suno and Rio Coca, Upper Napo, 
Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 55, 1902 Maipures, 
Rio Orinoco, and Suapure and La Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; IHERING, 
Rev. Mus. Paul., 6, p. 435, 1905 Rio Jurua; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. 
Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 667, 1906 part, excl. Retire, Matto 
Grosso (crit.); idem, Nov. Zool., 12, p. 294, 1905 Igarap-assu, Para; 
idem, I.e., 13, p. 27, 1906 Caparo, Trinidad; I.e., p. 364, 1906 Santo 
Antonio do Prata, Para; idem, I.e., 17, p. 312, 1910 Borba, Rio Madeira; 
MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 495, 1907 French Guiana; 
IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 304, 1907 Rio Jurua; BERLEPSCH, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 139, 1908 Roche-Marie, French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. 
Orn., 55, p. 290, 1907 Para, Amapd, Rio Mojii, Santo Antonio do Prata, 
and Monte Alegre; idem, I.e., 56, p. 13, 1908 Rio Purus; HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math-.phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 31, 90, 1912 
Peixe-Boi and Ipitinga (Pard localities); STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
65, p. 205, 1913 Cariaquito, Paria Peninsula, Venezuela; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 347, 1914 Para, Providencia, Ananindeua, Benevides, 
Apehu, Peixe-Boi, Santo Antonio do Prata, Rio Mojii, Rio Tocantins 
(Baiao), Rio Punis, Amapa, Monte Alegre, Rio Jamunda (Faro); BEEBE, 
Zoologica (N.Y.), a, p. 92, 1916 Utinga, Para; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. 
Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 251, 1916 from Caicara to above the falls at Mai- 
pures, Orinoco River, Venezuela; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, 
p. 488, 1917 Florencia and Villavicencio, Colombia; BANGS and PENARD, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 70, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Lely- 
dorp, and Javaweg, Surinam; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 267, 
1921 various localities; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 14, 1925 Guarayos, 
Bolivia (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 538, 1926 
eastern Ecuador; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 168, 1928 
Pinheiro, Para. 

Tityra intermedia CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein,. 2, p. 81, 1859 Para 
(type in Heine Collection examined; =immature female). 1 

J The type which I have recently examined proves to be an immature female 
of T. c. cay ana. It is certainly misleading to compare it with T. semifasciata, for 
the coloration of the bill, particularly on the lower mandible, does not materially 
differ from certain other specimens from the Par region and French Guiana, with 



206 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Tityra brasiliensis (not of SWAINSON) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 119, 1868 
part, Barra [ = Mandos] and Pard (spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Tityra braziliensis HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 667, 1906 part, females Nos. 6, 7, Barra do Rio Negro and Pard; 
idem, I.e., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 90, 1912 Pard. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana; Trinidad; Venezuela; 
eastern Colombia; eastern Ecuador; eastern Peru; northern Brazil, 
along the Amazon and its tributaries east to the Para District; 
eastern Bolivia. 1 

10 : Dutch Guiana (vicinity of Paramaribo i); British Guiana 
(Hyde Park, Demerara River 2); Venezuela (Catatumbo River, 
Zulia 2); Colombia (Bogota i); Bolivia (Buenavista 3, Rio Palacios, 
near Buenavista i). 

which it also agrees in coloring and markings of the back and under parts. The 
head is molting, and while the pileum and auriculars are, for the greater part, 
still covered with the brownish black feathers of the juvenile plumage, whose 
whitish bases show through here and there, a number of newly growing feathers 
in the superciliary region are uniform glossy black as in the adult female. The 
alleged lesser amount of black in the malar region is due to the fact that the 
feathers, just emerging from the sheaths, are not fully grown. Measurements of 
the type: Wing 113; tail 73; bill 25. 

^ince discussing the relationship of T. cayana and T. braziliensis (in Abhandl. 
2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, pp. 666-668, 1906), I not only have once more 
gone over the entire series in the Vienna Museum, but have also carefully studied 
a large amount of additional material with the result that the views, expressed 
in the paper referred to, must be thoroughly modified. In comparing series from 
the heart of the ranges of J*. cayana and T. braziliensis, the characters separating 
the two forms, viz., the markings of the bill and the coloration of the female, are 
found to be perfectly constant. All of the numerous adult females seen from the 
Guianas, Venezuela, and Trinidad have the top and sides of the head uniform 
black, the ground color of the upper parts clear gray (without any brownish tinge), 
and the ventral surface pure white, narrowly streaked with black on f oreneck and 
chest, while the bill, in both sexes, is reddish, tipped with black. This type of 
coloration also prevails in Amazonia, though at various places on the lower Ama- 
zon: at Pard, Santar^m, and Mandos along with normally colored specimens 
females with streaked head, brownish back, buffy, more heavily striped under 
parts, and mostly black bills are occasionally found, which cannot be distinguished 
from east- Brazilian females of T. braziliensis. In Bolivia, where its range adjoins 
that of the latter form, intergradation is likewise suggested. Seven adult males 
from Buenavista, dept. Santa Cruz, are typically cayana, while another male 
from the same locality (Field Museum, June 18, 1924. J. Steinbach, No. 13490), 
in coloring of bill, resembles braziliensis. Females from Buenavista have the bill 
of cayana, but differ from more northern examples by having the black hood less 
compact, the feathers being laterally slightly edged with grayish, the upper parts 
more buffy grayish, and the chest sometimes faintly shaded with buffy, thus 
displaying variation towards the characters of braziliensis. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogotd i; Palmar, Boyacd I. Venezuela: 
Catatumbo River, Zulia 2; El Trompillo, Carabobo i; Sierra de Carabobo 2; 
Caura Valley 9; San Pedro, Caura River 2; El Llagual, Caura i; El Callap, dist. 
Yuruari 2; Yacua, Paria Peninsula i; near Cumand I. Island of Trinidad: 
Caparo 10. British Guiana: Bartica Grove 2 ; Demerara River 2. Dutch Guiana: 
near Paramaribo i. French Guiana: Cayenne 4; Mana 5; Tamanoir, Mana 
River i; Pied Saut, Oyapock 8. Brazil: Forte do Rio Branco i; Barcellos 2; 
Mandos 5; Obidos 6; Borba, Rio Madeira I ; Pard 4; Benevides, Pard I ; Marco da 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 207 

*Tityra cayana braziliensis (Swainson). BRAZILIAN TITYRA. 

Psaris braziliensis SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 286, Dec., 1837 "northern 
Brazil" (descr. of male and female; female type in Cambridge (Eng.) 
Museum examined); KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 
diag.; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 457, 1856 Nova Friburgo 
(Rio), Sao Paulo, and Santa Catharina. 

Psaris maximus KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 46, Oct., 1852 no local- 
ity given (descr. of young). 

Pachyrhynchus cajanus (not Lanius cayanus LINNAEUS) SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, 
p. 32, 1825 part, descr. of female, Piauhy (spec, in Munich Museum 
examined). 

Tityra brasiliensis CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 239, 1847 Brazil; 
SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 70, 1857 Brazil (Piauhy and Rio de Janeiro), 
"Corrientes," and Paraguay (excl. Bolivia); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
119, 1868 part, Rio de Janeiro, Mattodentro, Butuhuni, Ypanema, and 
Itarare', Antonio Bias, and Irisanga (Sao Paulo), Curytiba, Parana, and 
Engenho do Gama, Matto Grosso (spec, in Vienna Museum examined); 
REINHARDT, Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 323 Curvelo 
and Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes; BERLEPSCH and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. 
Orn., 2, p. 139, 1885 Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul; BERLEPSCH, Journ. 
Orn., 35, p. 13, 1887 Lambar, Paraguay; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 329, 1888 Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Engenho do Gama, 
SSo Paulo, and "Pelotas," Rio Grande do Sul; IHERING, Annuario Est. 
Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 127, 1899 Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. 
Paul., 3, p. 211, 1899 Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 
156, 1900 Nova Friburgo, Rio; BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. I, 
No. I, p. no, 1901 Alto Parana, Paraguay (habits); REISER, Denks. 
Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 70, 1910; p. 152, 1925 near 
Fazenda Ingazeira, Rio Preto, Bahia, and Burity-Pe' do Morro Trail, Santa 
Maria, and Santa Philomena, Piauhy (spec, in Vienna Museum examined) ; 
CHUBB, Ibis, 1910, p. 601 Sapucay, Paraguay; GRANT, I.e., 1911, p. 
125 Coimbrd, Matto Grosso; CHROSTOWSKI, Compt. Rend. Soc. Scient. 
Varsovie, 5, pp. 483, 498, 1912 Fernandes Pinheiro, Parand; BERTONI, 
Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Alto Parana; LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), 
p. 100, 1920 Ilhe'os to Belmonte, Bahia; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. 
Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 179, 1926 Marechal Mallet and Fazenda Durski, 
Parana; HOLT, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 57, p. 310, 1928 Serra do Itatiaya, 
Parana. 

Tityra cayana PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 119, 1868 part, Retire, Matto 
Grosso (spec, in Vienna Museum examined); HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. 
Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 667, 1906 part, spec. 6, Retire, Matto 
Grosso. 

Tityra cayana brasiliensis ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 1893 
Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Legua, Pard i; Igarap-assu, Pard i; Santo Antonio do Prata 4; Peixe-Boi, Para 
2; Ipitinga, Rio Acard 2; Diamantina, Santare"m I ; Santar^m 3; Arima, Rio Punis 
I; Tonantins, Rio Solimoes 3. Bolivia: Rio Palacios 3; Buenavista 7; Prov. del 
Sara 2; Guarayos 2. 



208 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Tityra braziliensis HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, 
p. 667, 1906 part, excl. Barra do Rio Negro and Para (crit.); IHERING, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 305, 1907 Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Bebedouro, Rio 
Feio, Itapura, Rio Mogy-Guassu, and Jaboticabal (Sao Paulo), and Nova 
Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 15, p. 56, 1908 
Goyaz; DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, pp. 309, 
540, 1910 Santa Ana, Misiones, and Alto Parana; idem, Bol. Soc. Physis, 
x > P- 347 1 1 9 1 4 Misiones. 

Tityra brasiliensis consp.? CHROSTOWSKI, Compt. Rend. Soc. Sci. Varsovie, 
5, pp. 483, 498, 1912 Coupim, Parana. 

Tityra cayana braziliensis HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 
I2 i P- 336, 1929 Piauhy (crit.). 

Range: Eastern and southern Brazil, from Piauhy and Per- 
nambuco south to Rio Grande do Sul, west to Matto Grosso; Para- 
guay; northeastern Argentine (Misiones). 1 

9 : Brazil (Victoria, Sao Paulo i ; Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, 
Bahia 2); Paraguay (Itape" i); Argentina, Misiones (Eldorado 3, 
Puerto Segundo 2). 

Tityra semifasciata semifasciata (Spioc). BAND-TAILED TITYRA. 

Pachyrhynchus semijasciatus SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 32, pi. 44, fig. 2, 1825 
Para (type in Munich Museum examined ;= male) . 

Tityra semifasciata CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 239, 1847 part, 
Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 119, 1868 part, Barra do Rio Negro, 
Rio Amazonas, and Rio Muria; ALLEN, Bull. Essex Inst., 8, p. 79, 1876 

x Birds from Bahia down to Santa Catharina, Misiones, and Paraguay agree 
well together. Adult males from Piauhy are not different either, but an adult 
female from Santa Maria, west of Santo Antonio de Gilboez, in that state, and 
the (female) type of P. braziliensis in the Cambridge (Eng.) Museum have the 
ground color of the back clear gray instead of brownish, and that of the lower 
parts nearly pure white, forming thus the transition to T. c. cayana. As the latter 
form does in eastern Bolivia, T. c. braziliensis, in western Matto Grosso, inter- 
grades with its northern representative. While two adult males and two females 
from Engenho do Gama, on the upper Guapor6, and a single female from Chapada 
are in every way typically braziliensis, another adult male taken by Natterer at 
Retiro, in the same district as Engenho do Gama, has the reddish, black-tipped 
bill of cayana, and two females in the American Museum of Natural History, 
collected by Geo. K. Cherrie at Urucum in 1913, in markings of bill and coloration 
of plumage, likewise resemble Guianan and Venezuelan examples. As in the case 
of the aberrant Lower-Amazonian and Bolivian specimens discussed under the 
preceding heading, I take them to be individual variants of the prevalent breeding 
race. 

Material examined. Piauhy: Santa Philomena i; Burity, near Parnagua i; 
Santa Maria I. Bahia: Fazenda Ingazeira, Rio Preto i; Macaco Secco, near 
Andarahy 2; Bahia 7. Rio de Janeiro I. Minas Geraes: Agua Suja, near 
Bagagem I. Goyaz: Goyaz City 2. Sao Paulo: Victoria i ; Ipanema 2; Antonio 
Dias, near Campinas i ; Mattodentro i ; Itarar6 I ; Irisanga i. Parana: Curityba 
3. Santa Catharina: Serra do Mirador i. Matto Grosso: Chapada i ; Urucum 
2; Engenho do Gama 4; Retiro i. Paraguay: Bernalcue" i; Rio Negro i; 
Itap i. Argentina: Misiones 5. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 209 

Santarem; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 353, 1884 part, Huambo, 
Yurimaguas, and Xeberos, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 
1888 part, spec, m'-r', Yauayacu and San Jos6 (Ecuador), Iquitos and 
Rfo Ucayali (Peru), Para; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 99, 1889 
Tonantins, Rio Solimoes; idem, I.e., p. 303, 1889 Shanusi, near Yuri- 
maguas, Peru; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santarem; 
SALVADOR: and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 16, 1899 
Gualaquiza, Ecuador; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 709 Coca, upper 
Napo, Ecuador; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 180, 1904 
Carsevenne River, French Guiana; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. 
Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 668, 1906 Para and Manaos (note on type); 
HAGMANN, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 26, p. 32, 1907 Mexiana; SNETHLAGE, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 290, 1907 Maraca and Maraj6; idem, I.e., 56, p. 13, 
1908 Cachoeira, Rio Punis; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 363, 1907 
Borba, Rio Madeira; idem, I.e., 17, p. 312, 1910 Calama and Allianca, 
Rio Madeira; BERLEPSCH, I.e., 15, pp. 139, 318, 1908 Cayenne (?) 
and Carsevenne River, French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 61, p. 
525, 1913 (ecology); idem, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 348, 1914 Rio Tocan- 
tins (Arumatheua), Rio Xingu (Forte Ambe), Cussary, Rio Tapajdz 
(Santarem), Rio Purus (Cachoeira), Maraj6 (Soure), Maraca, Monte 
Alegre, Serra de Paituna, Rio Jamunda (Faro), and Maranhao. 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1873, p. 284 Yurimaguas, Peru; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
* P- 73f !889 part, Rio Napo. 

Tityra semifasciata semifasciata HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. EH., 26, No. 2, p. 90, 1912 Rio Muria, Para; I.e., p. 120, 1912 
Mexiana; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 488, 1917 Buena- 
vista, eastern Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 538, 1926 Napo, Rio Suno, 
and near Macas, eastern Ecuador. 

Range: Northern Brazil, from northern Maranhao, the estuary 
of the Amazon, and the confines of French Guiana (Carsevenne 
River) west through the Amazon Valley and its tributaries to ex- 
treme northern Peru (Iquitos; Yurimaguas; Xeberos = Jeveros), 
north through eastern Ecuador to the eastern base of the Eastern 
Andes in Colombia (Buenavista), south to the middle stretches of 
the Rio Madeira (Calama; Allianca; Porto Velho). 1 

3: Brazil (Porto Velho, Rio Madeira 3). 

1 A. single specimen from the Peruvian Amazon and two from Coca, Ecuador, 
appear to be inseparable from a series of Brazilian skins. Birds from the Rio 
Madeira (Allianca, Calama, Porto Velho), in size, agree with the type and other 
examples from Para. The black markings on the lateral rectrices are exceedingly 
variable in different individuals within the same locality. 

Material examined. Brazil: Pard (including the type) 2; Rip Muria, Para 
I ; Manaos I ; Santarem 2 ; Rio Madeira, Borba I , Calama I , Allianca I , Porto 
Velho 3; Tonantins, Rio Solimdes I. Peru: Iquitos i. Ecuador: Coca, upper 
Napo 2. 



2io FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Tityra semifasciata fortis Berlepsch and Stolzmann. 1 GREATER 
BAND-TAILED TITYRA. 

Tityra semifasciata fortis BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 
369, 1896 La Gloria, Vitoc and La Merced, Chanchamayo, dept. Junin, 
Peru; HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 65, 1920 Chaqui- 
mayo, dept. Puno, Peru (crit.). 

Psaris semifasciatus (not Pachyrhynchus semifasciatus SPIX) LAFRESNAYE and 
D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 41, 1837 Santo Cora- 
z6n, Chiquitos, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined); D'ORBIGNY, 
Voyage Ame'r. Merid., Ois., p. 307, 1839 Santo Coraz6n, Bolivia; TSCHUDI, 
Arch. Naturg., 10, (i), p. 272, 1844 Peru; idem, Faun. Peru., Aves, p. 
146, 1846 wood region of central Peru. 

Tityra semifasciata SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 70, 1857 eastern Peru (ex 
TSCHUDI) and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (monog.); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
119, 1868 part, Caicara, Engenho do Gama, and [Villa Bella de] Matto 
Grosso, Matto Grosso; TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, P- 54 Mon- 
terico, Peru; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 617 Simacu and Santo 
Coraz6n, Bolivia; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. PeY., 2, p. 353, 1884 part, Mon- 
terico and Carabaya; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 1888 part, 
spec, s'-u', Simacu, Bolivia; MENEGAUX, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 
1912 Pisana, upper Huallaga, Peru. 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 
2, p. 88, 1889 Falls of the Rio Madeira and Reyes, northern Bolivia. 

Tityra personata semifasciata ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 
1893 Chapada, Matto Grosso. 

Tityra semifasciata semifasciata HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 14, 1925 
Santo Coraz6n, Chiquitos and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (crit.). 

Range: Central and southeastern Peru, north to the upper 
Huallaga (Pisana, Huachipa); northern and eastern Bolivia; and 
adjacent section of Matto Grosso, Brazil. 

2: Peru (Huachipa, dept. Huanuco i); Bolivia (Cerro Hosane, 
dept. Santa Cruz i). 

*Tityra semifasciata columbiana Ridgway.* COLOMBIAN TITYRA. 

Tityra semifasciata columbiana RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 119, 
1906 La Concepci6n, Santa Marta, Colombia; HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 

1 Tityra semifasciata fortis BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN: Similar to T. s. semi- 
fasciata, but larger, with heavier bill. Wing 124-131; tail 76-80. 

Specimens from Matto Grosso are intermediate in size between semifasciata 
and fortis, but nearer the latter. 

Material examined. Peru: Huachipa, Huanuco i; Chaquimayo, Puno I. 
Bolivia: Cerro Hosane I, Santa Cruz 2, Santo Coraz6n, Chiquitos I. Brazil, 
Matto Grosso: Caicara i; Villa Bella de Matto Grosso I. 

*Tityra semifasciata columbiana RIDGWAY: Male very similar to T. s. semi- 
fasciata and about the same size, but lower mandible distinctly tipped with black, 



IQ2Q- BlRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 211 

1911, p. 1142 part, N6vita, Choc6, Pacific Colombia (crit., excl. Esmer- 
aldas, Ecuador); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 489, 1917 
N6vita, Dabeiba, and Puerto Valdivia, lower Cauca, Colombia; TODD 
and CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 322, 1922 Chirua, La Tigrera, 
Minca, Onaca, Valparaiso, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, Fundaci6n, and Pueblo 
Viejo, Santa Marta Region; BANGS and B ARBOUR, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 213, 1922 Mount Sapo, Darieii. 

Tityra semifasciata heteromelaena TODD, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 29, p. 96, 
1916 Sierra de Carabobo, Venezuela (type in Carnegie Museum examined). 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 
70, 1857 part, Santa Marta; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 517 
Remedios and Neche, Antioquia (eggs descr.); SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Ibis, 1880, p. 169 Minca, Santa Marta; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 
305, 1884 Bucaramanga. 

Tityra semifasciata (not Pachyrhynchus semifasciatus SPIX) SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 1888 part, spec, e'-i', Minca, Remedios, Santa 
Marta, and Venezuela; BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 12, p. 158, 1898 
Pueblo Viejo, Santa Marta; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 13, p. 
154, 1900 Minca, Cacagualito, and Valparaiso, Santa Marta Region. 

Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Panama (Darie"n), Colombia 
(except the extreme southwest and the Amazonian slope of the 
Eastern Andes), and adjacent districts of western Venezuela (Col6n, 
Tachira; Cumbre de Valencia and Sierra de Carabobo, Carabobo; 
Loma Redonda, north coast mountains, near Caracas). 

i: Venezuela (Col6n, Tdchira i). 

and the white basal zone of the lateral rectrices generally less extensive; female 
browner above, especially on the pileum, and more like T. s. costaricensis, from 
which it may, however, be distinguished by its brownish gray instead of deep 
brown back. 

T. s. heteromelaena appears to have been based on an individual variant of 
the present form. In the type, the black of the pileum is more extended than in 
any other specimen examined, and reaches as far back as the posterior border of 
the eye, while there is less white in the tail, both basally and apically. Another 
adult male from northern Venezuela (Loma Redonda), however, in tail-pattern 
as well as in the restricted amount of black on the anterior crown agrees with 
average specimens from Santa Marta, and a female from La Cumbre de Valencia 
hardly differs from a topptypical series by slightly browner pileum and mantle. 
A male from Col6n, Tachira, finally is an exact duplicate of Colombian examples. 

MEASUREMENTS WING TAIL 

Ten adult males from Santa Marta, Colombia 120-124 7*77 

One adult male from N6vita, Choco, Colombia 122 77 

One adult male from Col6n, Tachira, Venezuela 124 76 
One adult male from Sierra de Carabobo, Venezuela 

(type of T. s. heteromelaena) 12 1 76 

One adult male from Loma Redonda, Venezuela 119 73 

Four adult females from Santa Marta, Colombia 117-126 70-77 

One adult female from N6vita, Choc6, Colombia 114 70 

One adult female from Cumbre de Valencia, Venezuela 117 71 

Material examined. Colombia: N6vita, Choc6 2; Santa Marta, Cincinnati 
7, Pueblo Viejo 2, Fundaci6n 2, Minca 2, Las Vegas i. Venezuela: Sierra de 
Carabobo i; Cumbre de Valencia, Carabobo i; Loma Redonda, north coast 
mountains, near Caracas i; Col6n, Tachira i. 



2i2 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

*Tityra semifasciata nigriceps Allen. 1 BLACK-FACED TITYRA. 

Tityra nigriceps ALLEN, Auk, 5, p. 287, 1888 "headwaters of the Rfo Napo," 
errore; we suggest near Gualea, western Ecuador (type in American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, examined); idem, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 2, p. 73, 1889 "Napo;" CHAPMAN, I.e., 55, p. 539, 1926 
"Napo" (crit.). 

Tityra semifasciata esmeraldac CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 
320, 1914 Esmeraldas, northern Ecuador; idem, I.e., 36, p. 489, 1917 
Barbacoas, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 539, 1926 Esmeraldas and 
Chone, western Ecuador. 

Tityra nigriceps gualeae LONNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 
75, 1922 near Gualea, 4500 ft., western Ecuador; GYLDENSTOLPE, I.e., 
19, A, No. I, p. 71, 1926 near Gualea. 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 28, p. 
295, 1860 Esmeraldas; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 73, 1889 
part, San Miguel, Ecuador; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 709 Santo 
Domingo. 

Tityra semifasciata (not Pachyrhynchus semifasciatus SPIX) SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 1888 part, spec, j'-l', Esmeraldas and Balzar, 
Ecuador; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 489, 1898 Paramba, Ecuador. 

Tityra semifasciata personata HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 
22, No. 3, p. 668, 1906 part, n.w. Ecuador. 

1 Tityra semifasciata nigriceps ALLEN: Nearest to T. s. columbiana, but some- 
what smaller; male above pure white (instead of pale neutral gray), only tertials 
and rump very faintly tinged with pale grayish, and below also whiter; black 
subterminal area of tail much more extensive, leaving only a restricted basal zone 
white; female more nearly resembling that of T. s. semifasciata, but with the 
black subterminal band much broader, the basal gray band correspondingly 
reduced. Wing 112-117, (female) 108-114; tail 68-76, (female) 63-70; bill 25-26. 

The type of T. nigriceps, a skin of the ordinary Quito "make," is doubtless 
erroneously labeled as coming from the "Rfo Napo." In whiteness of the body 
plumage, reduction of white at the base of the rectrices, and in coloring of bill 
(both mandibles conspicuously tipped with blackish), it agrees perfectly with 
other males from western Ecuador; whereas T. s. semifasciata from Coca, Rfo 
Napo, like Lower-Amazonian skins has the back, breast, and sides decidedly 
grayish (very near pale neutral gray on the upper parts), an extensive, sharply 
defined white basal area in the tail, and hardly any trace of the black tip to the 
bill. The amount of black on the pileum is extremely variable in the west-Ecua- 
dorian form. The majority have the black frontal band of about the same width 
as T. s. columbiana; but in a male from Vacqueria (Esmeraldas) it extends as far 
back as the posterior angle of the eye (as in the type of T. s. heteromelaena) , bridg- 
ing the gap between the normal form (esmeraldae) and the type of T. nigriceps, 
which has the entire pileum black, and even the hind neck black, spotted and edged 
with white. The white basal tail-area is likewise variable, and one bird from north- 
western Ecuador has just as little white as the type of T. nigriceps. The descrip- 
tion of T. n. gualeae corresponds in every detail to the type specimen (an adult 
male with rudimentary second primary) in the American Museum of Natural 
History, which, I have not the least doubt, merely represents an individual variant 
of T. s. esmeraldae with the maximum of black about the head being carried 
down to the upper throat. 

Material examined. Western Ecuador: Santo Domingo i ; prov. Esmeraldas, 
Vacqueria 2, Carondelet3, Pambflar I; Paramba 2; "headwaters of the Rfo Napo" 
(type of T. nigriceps) I. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 213 

Tityra semifasciata columbiana (not of RIDGWAY) HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1911, p. 1142 part, prov. Esmeraldas, Ecuador. 

Range: Tropical Zone of western Ecuador and extreme south- 
western Colombia (Barbacoas, Narino). 

i: Ecuador (Vacqueria, prov. Esmeraldas i). 

Tityra semifasciata costaricensis Ridgway. COSTA RICAN TITYRA. 

Tityra semifasciata costaricensis RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 119, 
1906 Bonilla, Costa Rica; idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
869, 1907 Panama to southern Honduras (monog.); BANGS, Auk, 24, p. 
303, 1907 Boruca and Barranca de Puntarenas, Costa Rica; CARRIKER, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 662, 1910 Costa Rica (habits); FERRY, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Guayabo, Costa Rica; 
STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 269, 1918 Gattin, Panama; 
RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, p. 23, 1919 Pacuarito, Costa Rica, and San 
Juan del Norte, Ometepe, and Muyogalpa, Nicaragua; KENNARD and 
PETERS, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 457, 1928 Almirante, Panama; 
GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69, p. 180, 1929 El Tigre, Rio Cupe, 
Darie'n. 

Tityra mexicana (not Psaris mexicanus LESSON) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, 
p. 141, 1856 David, Chiriquf. 

Tityra per sonata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 
70, 1857 part, Nicaragua and Chiriquf; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1864, 
p. 361 Lion Hill, Panama; SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 149 David, Panama; 
idem, I.e., 1870, p. 199 Calovevora, Veragua and Bugaba, Chiriquf; 
LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., 7, p. 295, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama; 
idem, I.e., 9, p. 116, 1868 San Jose 1 , Guaitil, and Barranca, Costa Rica; 
FRANTZIUS, Journ. Orn., 19, p. 309, 1869 Santa Ana and Pacaca, Costa 
Rica; SALVIN, Ibis, 1872, p. 318 Chontales, Nicaragua; BOUCARD, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1878, p. 65 Orosi, Costa Rica; NUTTING, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 
S P- 397i J 882 La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, I.e., p. 
500, 1882 San Jose 1 , Costa Rica; idem, I.e., 6, p. 393, 1884 Ometepe, 
Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 10, p. 589, 1887 Segovia River, Honduras; ZELEDON, 
An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Navarro, Pozo Azul de Pirris, 
Naranjo de Cartago, Monte Redondo, Rfo Sucio, Alajuela, Jimenez, Las 
Trojas, and Cartago, Costa Rica; CHERRIE, Auk, 9, p. 322, 1892 San 
Jos, Costa Rica (nest and eggs descr.); idem, Expl. Zool. en Costa Rica 
1890 91, p. 36, 1893 Lagarto, Boruca, T6rraba, and Buenos Aires; 
RICHMOND, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 16, p. 507, 1893 Rfo Escondido, 
Nicaragua (habits). 

Tityra semifasciata (not Pachyrhynchus semifasciatus SPIX) CABANIS, Arch. 
Naturg., 13, (i), p. 239, 1847 part, Central America; BONAPARTE, Compt. 
Rend. Ac. Sci. Paris, 38, p. 658, 1854 Nicaragua; idem, Not. Orn. Coll. 
Delattre, p. 88, 1854 Nicaragua; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 
1888 part, spec, s-d', Chontales and Ometepe (Nicaragua), Cachi, 
Turrialba, and San Jose 1 (Costa Rica), Calovevora, Bugaba, and Lion 
Hill (Panama); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, a, p. 118, 



214 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

1890 part, Panaman, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan references and 
localities, and Segovia River, Honduras; UNDERWOOD, Ibis, 1896, p. 
439 Volcdn de Miravelles, Costa Rica. 

Tityra semifasciata personata BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Cl., 2, p. 23, 
1900 Loma del Le6n, Panama; idem, I.e., 3, p. 40, 1902 Boquete, 
Panama; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 668 
(in text), 1906 part, Managua, Nicaragua. 

Range: Southern Honduras (Rio Segovia), southward through 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica to western Panama (Chiriqui; Veraguas: 
Panama Railroad). 1 

20: Nicaragua (San Emilio, Lake Nicaragua i); Costa Rica 
(Guayabo 7, Lim6n, 8, Turrialba i, San Jose" i, unspecified i); 
Panama (Boquete, Chiriqui i). 

Tityra semifasciata personata Jardine and Selby. MEXICAN TITYRA. 

Tityra personata JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Cm., i, Part 2, pi. 24, June, 
1827 Real del Monte, Hidalgo, Mexico (=male); SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 
2 5 P- 7. l &57 part, Vera Cruz and Xalapa, Mexico, and Guatemala 
(monog.); MOORE, I.e., 27, p. 56, 1859 Belize, British Honduras; SCLATER, 
I.e., p. 366, 1859 Jalapa; idem, I.e., p. 385, 1859 Playa Vicente, Vera 
Cruz; SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1859, p. 124 near Iguana, a day's 
journey from Izabel, Guatemala; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 176 
City of Mexico; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1870, p. 837 Honduras; 
SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., i, p. 558, 1869 Vera Cruz; LAW- 
RENCE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 4, p. 28, 1876 Tapana and Santa Efigenia, 
Oaxaca; FERRARI-PEREZ, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 9, p. 156, 1886 Jalapa 
(?), Vera Cruz; RICHMOND, I.e., 18, p. 629, 1896 Alta Mira, Tamaulipas. 

Psaris mexicanus LESSON, Rev. Zool., 2, p. 41, 1839 Mexico (descr. of male). 

Tityra tityroides LESSON, Rev. Zool., 5, p. 210, 1842 "San Carlos, Centre- 
Ame'rique" = San Carlos, near La Uni6n, Salvador. 

Tityra mexicana SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 24, p. 297, 1856 southern Mexico. 

Tityra semifasciata (not of SPIX) CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 239, 
1847 part, Jalapa, Mexico; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 
1888 part, spec, j-r, Belize, Guatemala, and San Pedro, Honduras; 
SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 118, 1890 part, 
east Mexico, British Honduras, Guatemala, and San Pedro, Honduras; 
LANTZ, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci., 16, p. 221, 1899 Naranjo, Guatemala. 

Tityra semifasciata personata BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 149, 
1903 Ceiba and Yaruca, Honduras; RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 
19, p. 120, 1906 central Honduras to eastern Mexico (crit.); idem, Bull. 

Specimens from Panama (Lion Hill), which we have not seen, are said to be 
intermediate to T. s. columbiana. A single female from San Emilio, Lake Nicara- 
gua is much like females from Tabasco and Guatemala, being much less brownish 
above than a series from Costa Rica, but possibly it does not represent the normal 
type of the Nicaraguan bird. 



1 929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 215 

U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 871, 1907 part, central and northern 
Honduras, Guatemala, and eastern Mexico, excl. Yucatan (monog.); 
HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 668 (in text), 
1906 part Jalapa, Mexico; DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., 
Orn. Ser., i, p. 99, 1907 Los Amates, Mazatenango, and Patulul, Guate- 
mala; PETERS, Auk, 30, p. 375, 1913 Xcopen and Camp Mengel, Quin- 
tana Roo; BANGS and PETERS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 67, p. 478, 1927 
Presidio, Vera Cruz; idem, I.e., 68, p. 398, 1928 Chivela, Oaxaca. 

Range : Central and northern Honduras (Santa Ana, San Pedro, 
San Pedro Sula, Yaruca, Ceiba, etc.), Salvador, and northward 
through Guatemala and British Honduras to eastern Mexico, in Cam- 
peche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas, Oaxaca (Santa Efigenia, 
Chivela, Tapana), Vera Cruz, Hidalgo, and southern Tamaulipas. 

15: Honduras (San Pedro Sula 2); Guatemala (Patulul, Solold 
5, Los Amates, Izabal 3, Mazatenango i, El Rancho, Zacapa i, 
Cobdn to Clusec i); British Honduras (Arenal i); Mexico (Tampico, 
Tamaulipas i). 

*Tityra semifasciata deses Bangs. 1 YUCATAN TITYRA. 

Tiiyra semifasciata deses BANGS, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 28, p. 125, 1915 
Chichen-Itza, Yucatan. 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 204, 1869 northern Yucatan; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1883, p. 448 Yucatan; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 8, p. 284, 
1896 Chichen-Itza, Yucatan. 

Tityra semifasciata (not of SPIX) SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 
1888 part, spec, g-i, Me"rida, Yucatan; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 118, 1890 part, M6rida, Yucatan; COLE, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, p. 133, 1906 Chichen-Itza, Yucatan. 

Tityra semifasciata personata RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
871, 1907 part, Yucatan; GRISCOM, Amer. Mus. Novit., 235, p. 15, 
1926 Chunyaxche, Yucatan. 

Range : Yucatdn. 

i : Yucatdn (unspecified i). 

Tityra semifasciata griseiceps Ridgway* GRAY-HEADED TITYRA. 

Tityra personata griseiceps RIDGWAY, Auk, 5, p. 263, 1888 Mazatlan, Sinaloa; 
MILLER, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 21, p. 355, 1905 Los Pieles, Juan 
Lisiarraga Mts., Sinaloa. 

1 Tityra semifasciata deses BANGS: Nearly allied to T. s. personata, but male 
above paler grayish, and with the under parts nearly pure white; female (accord- 
ing to Bangs) paler, more uniform and decidedly more brownish on the dorsal 
surface. 

Judging from a single adult male, this form appears to be well characterized. 

*We are not acquainted with this race. 



216 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Tityra personata (not of JARDINE and SELBY) LAWRENCE, Mem. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., 2, p. 289, 1874 Mazatlan, Sinaloa, and Sierra Madre, Colima 
(habits). 

Tityra semifasciata (not Pachyrhynchus semifasciatus SPIX) SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 330, 1888 part, spec, a-c, Presidio, Sinaloa; SALVIN 
and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 118, 1890 part, localities 
in Sinaloa, Colima, Jalisco, and Guerrero. 

Tityra semifasciata grisciceps RIDGWAY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 19, p. 120, 
1906 western Mexico (crit.); idem, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 
873, 1907 western Mexico (monog.); McLELLAN, Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., 
(4), 16, p. 37, 1927 Tepic Road. 

Range : Western Mexico, in states of Sinaloa, Durango, Jalisco, 
Colima, Guerrero, Oaxaca (Pinotepa, Pluma, Cacoprieto), and 
Nayarit (Tepic). 

*Tityra inquisitor inquisitor (Lichtensteiri) . INQUISITIVE TITYRA. 

Tyrannus atricapillus (not of VIEILLOT, 1807) VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. M6th., 
Orn., 2, livr. 93, p. 256, 1823 based on AZARA, No. 206, Paraguay. 

Lanius inquisitor (Olfers MS.) LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., 
p. 50, 1823 Sao Paulo. 

Psaris jardinii SWAINSON, Zool. Illust., 2nd ser., I, No. 7, pi. 35 (=male), 
1830 interior of Brazil (descr. of immature male). 

Psaris natterii (sic) SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 286, Dec., 1837 "southern 
(?) Brazil" (type in Cambridge (Eng.) Museum examined ;= adult male). 

Psaris selbii SWAINSON, Anim. Menag., p. 286, Dec., 1837 "southern Brazil" 
(type in Cambridge (Eng.) Museum examined ;= adult male). 

ExetasUs albinuchus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 83, 1859 Brazil 
(types in Heine Collection examined). 

Psaris inquisitor KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 47, Oct., 1852 (diag.); 
BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 456, 1856 part, Sao Paulo 
and "Goyaz." 

Tityra inquisitrix CABANIS, Arch. Naturg., 13, (i), p. 239, 1847 Brazil 
(synon. in part); SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 71, 1857 part, Sao Paulo 
(monog.). 

Tityra (Erator) inquisitrix PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 120, 1868 Goyaba, 
Ypanema, Irisanga, and Cubatao, Sao Paulo (spec, in Vienna Museum 
examined). 

Exetastes inquisitor CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 22, p. 89, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio. 

Tityra inquisitor SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 331, 1888 part, spec, 
a-c, Brazil and "Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul"; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
3, p. 211, 1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 156, 1900 Cantagallo; idem, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 305, 1907 Ubatuba and Rincao (Sao Paulo), 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 217 

Sao Francisco (Santa Catharina), and Rio Doce (Espirito Santo); CHUBB, 
Ibis, 1910, p. 602 Sapucay, Paraguay; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 
1914 Alto Parana. 

Tityra atricapitta BERTONI,' Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. i, No. i, p. 109, 1901 
Alto Parand, Paraguay (descr. of male). 

Tityra tephronota BERTONI, Anal. Cient. Parag., Ser. I, No. i, p. 109, (in 
text), 1901 new name for Tyrannus atricapittus VIEILLOT, 1823. 

Tityra inquisitor erythrogenys (not Psaris erythrogenys SELBY) REISER, Denks. 
Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 76, p. 70, 1910; p. 153, 1925 Burity, 
near Parnagua, Piauhy (spec, in Vienna Museum examined). 

Tityra inquisitor inquisitor HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 32, 1912 (crit., diag., range); SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 5, p. 179, 1926 Salto de Ub and Foz Iguassu, 
Parana; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 337, 
1929 Burity, Piauhy (crit.). 

Erator inquisitor inquisitor DABBENE, Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos 
Aires, 18, p. 309, 1910 Alto Parana, Paraguay. 

Range: Eastern Brazil, from Piauhy and Bahia south to Santa 
Catharina, and adjoining districts of Paraguay (Sapucay; Alto 
Parana) and Argentina (Misiones). 2 

8: Brazil (Macaco Secco, near Andarahy, Bahia i; Victoria, 
Sao Paulo i; Joinville, Santa Catharina i); Argentina, Misiones 
(Eldorado 3, Puerto Segundo 2). 

l Tityra Azarac (sic) BERTONI (Rev. Agron. y Cienc. Aph'c., i, p. 529, 1899 
eastern Paraguay), hardly more than a nomen nudum, may likewise belong here. 

This form is perhaps divisible into two races, birds from the northern parts 
of the range (Bahia, Piauhy) being on average smaller. The female of T. i. in- 
quisitor has the back decidedly brownish, coarsely spotted with blackish, and the 
throat and brest washed with dingy grayish buff. While three Bahia females 
except in smaller size do not appreciably differ from southern examples, one 
from Burity, Piauhy has the (wider) frontal band and the sides of the head much 
deeper rufous and shows, on the breast, numerous narrow dusky streaks, of which 
there is no trace in the skins from other localities. The type of P. natterii, now in 
the Museum of Cambridge (Eng.) University, an adult male with modified (rudi- 
mentary) second primary, agrees in size with specimens from southern Brazil, 
Swainson's name becoming thus an absolute synonym of L. inquisitor. P. jardinii 
also appears to have been based on a male in first annual plumage (without spuri- 
ous primary) of the large southern bird. 

The type of P. selbii Sw., likewise forwarded for my inspection by Dr. Hans 
Gadow from the Cambridge Museum, however, is decidedly smaller, agreeing in 
dimensions with birds from Bahia and Piauhy. It is an adult male and, in agree- 
ment with Swainson's description, the first primary falls between the fourth and 
fifth, if the rudimentary (second) wing feather is not taken into account. The 
locality "southern Brazil" is doubtless wrong, and if the slight difference in size 
be deemed of sufficient importance, the northern race must be called T. inquisitor 
selbii (SWAINSON). 

The types of E. albinuchus from "Brazil" in the Heine Collection are hard to 
allocate, but appear to be nearer typical inquisitor from southern Brazil. The 



2 18 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

"Tityra inquisitor pelzelni Salvin and Godman. 1 PELZELN'S TITYRA. 

Tityra pelzelni SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 120, 
Dec., 1890 Matto Grosso, Brazil (type from Villa Bella de Matto Grosso 
in British Museum examined). 

Psaris inquisitor (not Lanius inquisitor LICHTENSTEIN) LAFRESNAYE and 
D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 41, 1837 Chiquitos 
and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (spec, in Paris Museum examined) ; D'ORBIGNY, 
Voyage Ame>. M6rid., Ois., p. 302, 1839 Chiquitos and Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 456, 1856 part, 
Matto Grosso and Bolivia. 

Tityra albitorques (not of DUBUS) PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 120, 1868 part, 
Engenho do Gama and [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso, Matto Grosso 
(spec, in Vienna Museum examined); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, 
p. 332, 1888 part, spec, y, Matto Grosso; RIKER and CHAPMAN, Auk, 
8, p. 25, 1891 Diamantina, Santare"m (spec, in U.S.National Museum 
examined). 

Tityra inquisitrix SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 71, 1857 part, Bolivia; idem 
and SALVIN, I.e., 1879, p. 617 Bolivia (ex D'ORBIGNY). 

Tityra inquisitor ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 5, p. no, 1893 Corumbd 
and Chapada, Matto Grosso (spec, examined); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 
55, P- 2 9. I 97 Santo Antonio do Prata, Para. 

alleged color-characters do not hold good, and the shape of the bill is too variable 
a feature to be of diagnostic value. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

Four from Misiones 108,108,108,114 66,67,69,69 

Eight from Sao Paulo 107,110,111,111, 68,68,69,70, 

112,113,114,115 70,7i,7i73 

Five from Minas Geraes 110,112,114,114,115 68,71,71,72, 

Type of P. natterii Sw. 115 73 

Types of E. albinuchus C. & H. 108,108 65,67 

One from Macaco Secco, Bahia 102 69 

One from Burity, Piauhy 106 68 

Type of P. selbii Sw. 103 65 

Adult females 

Three from Sap Paulo 106,106,110 67,68,71 

Three from Minas Geraes 107,108,110 67,67,69 

Three from Bahia 103,104,107 68,68,70 

One from Burity Piauhy 102 66 

Material examined. Argentina, Misiones: Puerto Segundo 2, Eldorado 3. 
Santa Catharina: Joinville I. Sao Paulo: Victoria 3; Alambary i; Ituverava i; 
Ipanema 4; Cubatao 3; Goyaba i; Irisanga i. Minas Geraes: Sap Francisco i; 
Rio Jordao, near Araguary 2; Agua Suja, near Bagagem 4. Bahia: "Bahia" 3; 
Macaco Secco, near Andarahy i. Piauhy: Burity, near Parnagud 2. "Brazil" 
(unspecified) 4. 

1 Tityra inquisitor pelzelni SALVIN and GODMAN: Similar to, and agreeing 
with, T. i. inquisitor in the male having the cheeks and auriculars black, but tail 
extensively white at the base and frequently with a distinct white apical margin; 
female much like T. i. erythrogenys, but not quite so purely gray above, though 
similarly spotted with black, and white basal area of tail more extensive; size on 
average smaller than in T. i. inquisitor. 

This form combines the black sides of the head of T. inquisitor with the tail 
markings of T. i. albitorques. There is much individual variation in the extent of 
the white area at the base of the rectrices, certain specimens (from Bolivia and 
Matto Grosso) with the least amount of white being inseparable from typical 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 219 

Tityra inquisitor erythrogenys (not Psaris erythrogenys SELBY) HELLMAYR, 
Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 32, 90, 1912 
Peixe-Boi and Santo Antonio do Prata, Pard; idem, I.e., p. 33, 1912 part, 
Para localities; BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), 2, p. 93, 1916 Utinga, Para. 

Tityra erthrogenys SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 348, 1914 part, 
Santo Antonio do Prata, Para. 

Tityra inquisitor pelzelni HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. 
Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 33, 1912 Matto Grosso and eastern Bolivia (monog.); 
idem, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 15, 1925 Chiquitos and Santa Cruz, Bolivia 
(crit.); HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 12, p. 338, 1929 
Mangunca. Island, Maranhao. 

Range: Eastern Bolivia (Chiquitos; dept. Santa Cruz) and 
western Brazil, in state of Matto Grosso, and apparently extend- 
ing along the south bank of the Amazon as far east as Para 
(Peixe-Boi; Santo Antonio do Prata) and northern Maranhao (Man- 
gunga Island). 

i: Brazil (Mangunga Island, Maranhao i). 

inquisitor. The white apical margin is not a constant feature either, it being absent 
in four Bolivian and three Matto Grosso skins, and but faintly suggested in two 
from the former and two from the latter country. Other individuals, however, 
show a very distinct white apical band, and in coloration of tail closely approach 
albitorques. 

Birds from the lower Amazon may prove to be separable. They have even 
more white than the Matto Grosso skins with the maximum of white in the tail, 
and the auriculars, in some of the males, are streaked with white. A female from 
Peixe-Boi, Para district, however, does not differ in tail markings from the 
average of pelzelni, as represented by a series from Matto Grosso, and the ex- 
amination of additional material seems desirable before any further separation is 
attempted. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

Two from Chiquitos, Bolivia 104,105 67, 

Two from Buena vista, Bolivia 108,108 67,69 

Two from Palmarito, Rio San Julian, Bolivia 107,108 65,66 

One from Santa Cruz, Bolivia 108 63 

Two from Villa Bella de Matto Grosso 104,105 63,65 

Two from Chapada, Matto Grosso 107,110 66,69 

One from Corumba, Matto Grosso 107 69 

One from Uructim, Matto Grosso 106 64 

Two from Santar6m, Rio Tapaj6z 102,105 66,67 

One from Mangunca Island, Maranhao 103 63 

Adult females 

Two from Chiquitos, Bolivia 102, 103 64,66 

One from Buena vista, Bolivia 105 63 

Three from Matto Grosso 100,103,106 62,64,68 

Two from Santar6m, Rio Tapajoz 94,96 61,62 

One from Peixe-Boi, Para 98 62 

Material examined. Bolivia: Chiquitos 2; Rio Quisera, northern Chiquitos 
i; Palmarito, Rfo San Julian, Chiquitos 3; Santa Cruz i; Buena vista 3. Matto 
Grosso, Brazil: Villa Bella de Matto Grosso (including the type) 3; Engenho do 
Gama, Rio Guapor6 i; Chapada 4; Corumba i; Urucum I. Rio Tapai6z: San- 
tar6m I; Diamantina i; Colonia do Mojuy, Santar&n I. Peixe-Boi, Pard I. 
Mangunca Island, Maranhao I. 



22O FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

"Tityra inquisitor erythrogenys (Selby). 1 RUFOUS-CHEEKED TITYRA. 

Psaris erythrogenys SELBY, Zool. Journ., 2, No. 8, p. 483, April, 1826 "Per- 
nambuco," errore; we suggest Cayenne, French Guiana 1 (type in Paris 
Museum examined; = adult female); SWAINSON, Natur. Libr., Orn., 10, 
(Flycatchers), p. 82, pi. 3, 1838 (descr. and figure of type). 

Tityra inquisitrix (not Lanius inquisitor LICHTENSTEIN) SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 25, p. 71, 1857 part, Cayenne and Bogota. 

Tityra inquisitor SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 331, 1888 part, spec. 
b,c,g, Cayenne and Bogota. 

Tityra erythrogenys BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 55, 1902 Rio 
Catanapa, Perico, and Maipures, Rio Orinoco, and Suapure, Caura, 
Venezuela (crit.; spec, examined); BEEBE, Zoologica (N.Y.), i, p. 94, 
1909 La Brea, Orinoco Delta; (?) SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 
348, 1914 part, Rio Jamunda (Faro). 

l Tityra inquisitor erthrogenys (SELBY): Similar to T. i. inquisitor in having 
only the extreme base of the tail white and no white apical margin, and the cheeks 
and auriculars black in the male sex; but smaller; male with less white on the hind 
neck; female with back clear pale gray (without any brownish suffusion), more or 
less spotted with black, and neither throat nor chest tinged with buffy. 

Specimens from various parts of Venezuela and Bogota skins agree with 
those from the Guianas. The amount of spotting in the females is subject to 
much individual variation, some examples being heavily marked with black 
above, while others show just a few narrow streaks on the anterior portion of 
the back. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

One from Pied Saut, Oyapock, French Guiana 101 65 

One from near Paramaribo, Surinam 98 62 

One from La Bomba, Cuyuni River, Venezuela 103 68 

Four from the Caura River, Venezuela 102,105,107,107 65,65,65,67 

One from Maipures, Orinoco River, Venezuela 100 63 

One from San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela 101 64 

One from Sab. Mendoza, MeYida, Venezuela 104 66 

One from "Bogota," Colombia 105 64 

Adult females 

One from "Pernambuco" (type) 94 62 

Two from French Guiana 95i99 64,64 

Two from Paramaribo, Surinam 97,99 63,63 

One from La Bomba, Cuyuni, Venezuela 103 66 

Two from Caura River, Venezuela 99.IOI 64,66 

Three from the Orinoco River (Perico, 

Maipures, and Rio Catanapa) 99,100,106 62,66,68 

Two from El Trompillo, Carabobo 98,102 61,68 

One from Lagunillas, MeYida 99 

Three from "Bogota," Colombia 99, 100, 102 60, 62, 65 

Material examined. French Guiana: Cayenne i; Pied Saut, Oyapock 2. 
Dutch Guiana: Near Paramaribo 3. Venezuela: Caura District, Suapure 2, 
El Llagual 4, San Pedro i; La Bomba, Cuyuni River 2; Orinoco River, Maipures 
3, Rio Catanapa i, Perico i; San Esteban, Carabobo 4; El Trompillo, Carabobo 
2; Lagunillas, MeYida i; Sabana de Mendoza, MeYida i. Colombia: Bogota 6. 

*The type is quite distinct from specimens recently collected in the neigh- 
boring states of Bahia and Piauhy, but agrees in every particular with females 
from French Guiana. It was obtained in exchange from a dealer, J. Verreaux, 
whose localities are not always reliable, and I have little doubt it really came 
from Cayenne, and not from Pernambuco, where either T. i. inquisitor or the 
doubtfully separable T. i. selbii (see above, p. 217) may be expected to occur. 



1929- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 221 

Tityra inquisitor erythrogenys HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, pp. 327, 328, 1906 
part, "Pernambuco," Surinam, Venezuela, and Colombia (crit.); BER- 
LEPSCH, I.e., 15, p. 140, 1908 Cayenne; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. 
Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 32, 1912 part, diag. and habitat, 
excl. Para localities and Archidona, Ecuador. 

Erator inquisitor erythrogenys CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 
251, 1916 Caicara and above the falls of Atures, Orinoco Region, Vene- 
zuela. 

Range: French, Dutch, and (?) British Guiana; Venezuela 
(Orinoco Valley and its tributaries; San Esteban and El Trompillo, 
Carabobo; Lagunillas and Sabana de Mendoza, Me"rida) and west 
to the eastern base of the Eastern Andes of Colombia ("Bogota"). 

i: Colombia ("Bogota" i). 

Tityra inquisitor buckleyi Salvin and Godman. 1 BUCKLEY'S TITYRA. 

Tityra buckleyi SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 120, 
Dec., 1890 Yanayacu, eastern Ecuador (type in British Museum ex- 
amined ;= adult male); HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1143 (in text) 
Ecuador (crit.); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 490, 1917 
Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia (spec, examined). 

Tityra albitorques (not of DUBUS) ALLEN, Auk, 5, p. 287, (in text), 1888 
Ecuador (crit.); idem, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 73, 1889 Rio Napo 
(spec, examined). 

Tityra inquisitor (not Lanius inquisitor LICHTENSTEIN) SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 331, 1888 part, spec, h, Yanayacu; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 
1901, p. 710 Archidona, Ecuador (spec, in Tring Museum examined; 
one female). 

1 Tityra inquisitor buckleyi SALVIN and GODMAN: Nearest to T. i. erythrogenys 
and with white restricted to extreme base of rectrices, but male with cheeks and 
auriculars white as in T. i. albitorques; female not distinguishable with certainty 
from erythrogenys. 

The type has the rump decidedly white in contrast to the pallid neutral gray 
of the back and tail coverts, while in two other males, one from the Rio Napo, 
the other from Florencia, Caqueta, the dorsal surface is uniform pale grayish as 
in the allied races. The tail, as a rule, is entirely black except for the extreme 
base; but the Rio Napo male has distinct, though small, white apical spots on the 
three outer rectrices and more white at the base of the outer web of the penulti- 
mate tail feather, thus diverging in the direction of T. i. albitorques. The white 
nuchal zone appears to be slightly more pronounced than in T. i. erythrogenys. 
Two females do not differ, so far as I can see, from the average of erythrogenys, 
the back being pale neutral gray, heavily spotted with black. More material of 
this little-known form, which combines the tail markings of erythrogenys with the 
white auriculars of albitorques in the male sex, is urgently desired. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Wing Tail 

One adult male from Yanayacu, Ecuador (type) 103 62 

One male (first annual) from Rio Napo, Ecuador 104 66 

One adult male from Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia 102 63 

One adult female from Florencia, Colombia 102 65 

One adult female from Archidona, Ecuador 96 62 



222 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Tityra inquisitor erythrogenys (not Psaris erythrogenys SELBY) HELLMAYR, 
Nov. Zool., 13, p. 328, 1906 part, Archidona; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. 
Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 32, 1912 part, Archidona. 

Erator buckleyi CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 540, 1926 Rfo 
Napo, Ecuador (crit.). 

Range: Southeastern Colombia (Florencia, Caqueta) and east- 
ern Ecuador (Yanayacu; Archidona; Rio Napo). 

"Tityra inquisitor albitorques Dubus. 1 WHITE-COLLARED TITYRA. 

Tityra albitorques DUBUS, Bull. Ac. Roy. Belg., 14, Part 2, p. 104, 1847 
Peru; LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., n, p. 244, 1848 (crit.); SCLATER, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 23, p. 150, 1855 Bogota; idem, I.e., 25, p. 71, 1857 Peru and 
Bogotd (monog., excl. syn. P. fraserii); SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1867, 
PP- 75 * i 757 Chyavetas, Peru (spec, examined); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 
2, p. 120, 1868 part, Barra = Manaos (spec, in Vienna Museum exam- 
ined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 284 Chyavetas, Peru; 
idem, I.e., 1879, p. 517 Remedies, Colombia; SALVIN and GODMAN, Ibis, 
1880, p. 169 Valencia, Santa Marta; TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, 
p. 23 Yurimaguas, Peru; idem and BERLEPSCH, I.e., 1883, p. 559 

1 Tityra inquisitor albitorques DUBUS is distinguished from the allied races by 
the combination, in the male sex, of the white cheeks and auriculars with an 
extensive white basal area of the tail, occupying about three-fourths of its length 
and separated from the very conspicuous white apical margin by a broad black 
subterminal band of about 20 mm. width; while the female, in addition to the 
tail markings, may be recognized from erythrogenys and buckleyi by having the 
back unspotted and slightly washed with brownish. 

The distribution of this form is very peculiar, it having been found both in 
western Ecuador and eastern Peru, whereas eastern Ecuador is tenanted by 
another closely allied race (T. i. buckleyi). A single adult male secured by E. 
Bartlett at Chyavetas, the only one seen from Peru, appears to me indistinguish- 
able from others taken in western Ecuador and various parts of Colombia and, 
what is even more surprising, a couple of adults obtained by J. Natterer at Manaos 
on July 21, 1833 are also referable to the same form. The male has the white 
auriculars, the female the plain brownish gray back, and both the distinctly 
bicolored tail with white apical margin, exactly like specimens from the Pacific 
coast of Colombia. More material from northern Brazil is urgently needed to 
explain this extraordinary range. 

MEASUREMENTS 

Adult males Wing Tail 

One from Chyavetas, Peru 106 67 

One from Manaos, Brazil 106 68 

One from Milagro, prov. Guayas, Ecuador 106 67 

Four from Choc6, western Colombia 103,105,106,107 64,64,67,67 

One from Fundaci6n, Santa Marta 104 63 

Adult females 

One from Manaos, Brazil 95K 65 

Two from Choc6, western Colombia 100,103 64,64 

Two from Fundaci6n, Santa Marta 99,ioo 60,61 

One from Guayaquil, Ecuador 102 62 

Material examined. Peru: Chyavetas I. Brazil: Manaos 2. Ecuador: 
Guayaquil i; Milagro I. Colombia: N6vita i; Noanama i; El Tigre, Rfo Ta- 
mana 2; Quibd6 2; Gamarra, lower Magdalena i; Fundaci6n, Santa Marta 4; 
"Bogota" 12. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 223 

Guayaquil, Ecuador; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Per., 2, p. 355, 1884 Chyavetas 
and Yurimaguas, Peru; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 332, 1888 
part, spec, n-x, Remedies, Bogota, Valencia, Balzar (Ecuador), and 
Chyavetas; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 119, 
1890 part, South American references and localities. 

Tityra albitorques albitorques HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1142 N6vita, 
Noanamd, and El Tigre, Rio Tamana, Choc6, Colombia (crit.). 

Erator albitorques RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 863, 1907 
part, South American references and localities; TODD and CARRIKER, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., 14, p. 323, 1922 Tucurinca and Fundaci6n, Santa 
Marta, and Gamarra, Magdalena Valley, Colombia (crit.; spec, examined). 

Erator albitorques albitorques CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 539, 
1926 Bucay and Daule, Ecuador; GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
69, p. 181, 1929 Cana, Darie'n. 

Range: Eastern Peru (Chyavetas; Yurimaguas); northern 
Brazil (Manaos); western Ecuador (Guayaquil; Milagro; Daule; 
Bucay; Balzar); Colombia (Quibdo, Novita, Noanamd, and El 
Tigre, Rio Tamana, Choco, Pacific coast; Valencia, Tucurinca, and 
Fundaci6n, Santa Marta District; Gamarra, lower Magdalena; 
"Bogota" collections), north to eastern Panama (Darie'n). 

i: Ecuador (Milagro, prov. Guayas i). 

*Tityra inquisitor fraserii (Kaup). 1 ERASER'S TITYRA. 

Psar is fraserii KAUP, P.Z.S.Lond., 19, "1851," p. 47, pis. 37, 38, Oct., 1852 
no locality given (types in Lord Derby's collection, now in the Liverpool 
Museum, examined). 1 

1 Tityra inquisitor fraserii (KAUP) differs from T. i. albitorques in larger size, 
generally heavier bill, and in the male sex by darker gray back, decidedly grayish 
(instead of nearly pure white) under parts, and slightly broader black subterminal 
tail band. The female is even more different, having the back chiefly Verona 
brown and the breast tinged with grayish, while the tail is not distinctly bicolored, 
the basal portion being grayish and blending gradually with the blackish sub- 
apical zone. Certain specimens from Costa Rica, however, form the transition to 
albitorques in both coloration of back and pattern of tail. 

Material examined. Forty specimens from Yucatan to western Panama. 

*The Liverpool Museum has three specimens, marked "type of P. fraseri, 
KAUP," none with any specified locality. Two, an adult male with spurious 
second primary (Derby Museum, No. 1868) and a female (D. M., No. i868a) 
are typical examples of the Central American race, but the third skin, an adult 
male purchased of Leadbeater in 1842 and bearing the Derby Museum No. i868b, 
is just as decidedly referable to the pale, small-billed T. a. albitorques, of northern 
South America. Kaup's (rather general) diagnosis might apply to either of the 
two males, and the measurements (wing 105-113; tail 63-70) evidently cover 
them both. No. i868b corresponding to the minimum, No. 1868 to the maxi- 
mum of his figures. On the other hand, the figure 32 mm., given for the length 
of the bill from the gape, can have been taken only from No. 1868, since the other 
bird (No. i868b) barely measures 24 mm. The plates 37 and 38, without any 
shadow of doubt, depict the Central American form, and are faithful representa- 
tions of Nos. 1868 and i868a. Under these circumstances we feel that P. fraseri 
should be restricted to the northern form, and designate No. 1868 as the type, 
suggesting Vera Cruz, Mexico, as terra typica. 



224 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Tityra albitorques (not of DUBUS) MOORE, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 56, 1859 
Peten, Guatemala; SCLATER, I.e., p. 384, 1859 Playa Vicente, Vera Cruz; 
SCLATER and SALVIN, Ibis, 1860, p. 400 Choctum, Guatemala; LAW- 
RENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 295, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama; 
idem, I.e., 8, p. 182, 1867 Greytown, Nicaragua; idem, I.e., 9, p. 116, 
1868 Pacuare', Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 332, 
1888 part, spec, a-m, Oaxaca (Mexico), Choctum and Vera Paz (Guate- 
mala), Tizimin (Yucatan), British Honduras, Bebedero (Costa Rica), 
Bugaba (Chiriqui); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, 
p. 119, 1890 part, Mexican and Central American references and 
localities. 

Tityra fraseri SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 757 Mexico and 
Central America (crit.); SALVIN, I.e., 1870, p. 199 Bugaba, Panama; 
SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., p. 837 Honduras; BOUCARD, I.e., 1883, p. 
449 Yucatan; RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 10, p. 589, 1887 Segovia 
River, Honduras; CHERRIE, Expl. Zool. in Costa Rica 1890-91, p. 36, 
1893 Lagarto, Costa Rica. 

Tityra albitorques fraseri 1 RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 5, p. 397, 1882 
La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica; RICHMOND, I.e., 16, p. 508, 1893 Rio 
Escondido, Nicaragua; BANGS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 39, p. 149, 1903 
Yaruca, Honduras; idem, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Paso Real, Costa 
Rica. 

Erator albitorques SUMICHRAST, Mem. Boston Soc. N.H., i, p. 558, 1869 
Vera Cruz; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 863, 1907 
part, Mexican and Central American references and localities; FERRY, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Guayabo, 
Costa Rica. 

Erator albitorques fraseri DEARBORN, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Orn. Ser., 
i, p. 100, 1907 Los Amates, Guatemala; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
6, p. 663, 1910 Guayabo, Juan Vinas, Pozo Azul de Pirris, Bolson, Palo 
Verde, Guapiles, Bebedero, and El Pozo de Te"rraba, Costa Rica; KEN- 
NARD and PETERS, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 458, 1928 Almirante, 
Chiriquicito, and Boquete Trail, Panama. 

Range: Southeastern Mexico, in states of Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, 
Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatan, and southward through Guatemala, 
British Honduras, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica to western 
Panama. 2 

6: Mexico (Yucatdn i); Guatemala (Los Amates i); Costa 
Rica (Jime'nez i, Limon i, Lagarto i, Guayabo i). 

Variously spelled fraseri, fraserii, and frazeri. 

'Owing to lack of material I am unable to indicate the exact eastern limit of 
the range. The most easterly localities whence specimens have been available for 
examination are Bugaba, Chiriqui and Nata, Cocle', Panama. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 225 

Tityra leucura Pelzeln. 1 WHITE-TAILED TITYRA. 

Tityra (Erator) leucura PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, pp. 120, 183, 1868 Salto do 
Girao, Rio Madeira, Brazil (type in Vienna Museum examined). 

Tityra leucura HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 312, 1910 Salto do Girao (crit.). 

Range: Western Brazil, on the banks of the upper Rio Madeira 
(Salto do Girao). 

Genus HAEMATODERUS Bonaparte. 

Haematoderus BONAPARTE,* Ateneo Italiano, 2, No. n, p. 314 (=Consp. 
Volucr. Anisod., p. 4), 1854 type by monotypy [ Haematoderus] mili- 
taris "GM."* = Coracina militaris SHAW. 

Haematoderus militaris (Shaw). CRIMSON FRUIT-CROW. 

Coracina ? militaris SHAW, Mus. Lever., No. 2, p. 61, with col. plate, 1792 
Cayenne; LATHAM, Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. XXVII, 1801 Cayenne (ex 
SHAW). 

Ampelis militaris VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 164, 
1817 based on Coracina militaris LATHAM and "Le Grand Cotinga" 
LEVAILLANT, Hist. Nat. Ois. Nouv. et Rares AmeY. et Indes, i, p. 56, pi. 
25 (adult), 26 (young), 1801, French and Dutch Guiana. 

Querula rubra VIEILLOT, Tabl. Enc. M6th., Orn., 2, livr. 91, p. 768, 1822 
based on Coracina militaris LATHAM and "Le Grand Cotinga" LEVAILLANT, 
French and Dutch Guiana. 

l Tityra leucura PELZELN is known from a single male, molting from the 
juvenile into the first annual plumage. It is most nearly related to T. inquisitor 
albitorques and resembles it in the white cheeks and auricular region; but the 
upper parts and breast are much more strongly tinged with gray, without any 
white on the hind neck, and the tail lacks the black subterminal band. The 
rectrices are pale gray, with the base of the inner webs white for about twenty 
millimeters (as in T. i. inquisitor), and at the tips broadly, though not abruptly, 
margined with white. The outermost pair shows a narrow blackish shaft streak 
in the second third of the inner web, and a similar, but smaller spot exists near 
the base of the central rectrix. The coloration of the tail gives an abnormal im- 
pression, and may be due to the absence of melanin in the pigment cells during 
the process of growth. The bill, too, appears to have been retarded in its develop- 
ment. It is only one-third the size of the allied species and, instead of black, 
dark horn brown, paler below. The top of the head is mainly black, with slight 
metallic gloss, though on the forehead, superciliary region, and hind crown a 
number of the hazel brown juvenile feathers may yet be seen. The second pri- 
mary, as is also the case in the first annual plumage of the allied species, is fully 
developed and very nearly as long as the third. 

Additional material is required to establish the status of this alleged species. 

Measurements of the type: Wing 101 ; tail 63; bill 



* Haematoderus BONAPARTE (Ann. Sci. Nat., (4), Zool., i, p. 134, 1854) is a pure 
nomen nudum. 

'There being no "militaris GMELIN," the generic name is almost unidentifiable. 
CABANIS and HEINE (Mus. Hein., 2, p. 107, 1859) have, however, used it in con- 
nection with Coracina militaris LATHAM [ = SHAW]. 



226 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Querula purpurea LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., p. 362, end of 1830 based on 
Coracina militaris SHAW and LEVAILLANT'S "Le Grand Cotinga" (excl. 
syn. Ampelis phoenicea). 

Coracina militaris SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 2, pp. 143, 147, 1848 
Canuku Mts. (descr. of female); BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 
2, p. 420, 1856 (descr.). 

Threnoedus militaris CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
690, 1848 Canuku Mountains. 

Haematoderus militaris BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 36, 
1857 Cayenne; CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 107, 1859 
"Venezuela"; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 580 Cameta, 
Rio Tocantins; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 134, 1868 Pard; SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 305 British Guiana (ex SCHOMBURGK); SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 395, 1888 Cayenne and "Amazons;" HELLMAYR, Nov. 
Zool., 12, p. 295, 1905 Igarap-assu, Para (crit., plumages); IHERING 
and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 315, 1907 range; BERLEPSCH, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 143, 1908 Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 
2 i P- I 73 I 9 I Surinam; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.- 
phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 91, 1912 Para, Igarape'-assu ; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 358, 1914 range; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 
306, 1921 Tiger Hill, Demerara River and Canuku Mountains. 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northeastern 
Brazil, in state of Para (Para; Igarape'-assu ; Cameta, Rio Tocantins). 1 

Genus QUERULA Vieillot. 

Querula VIEILLOT, Analyse Nouv. Orn. Ele"m., p. 37, 1816 type by monotypy 
"Piauhau" BUFFON = Muscicapa purpurata P. L. S. MULLER. 

Threnoedus GLOGER, Gemeinnutz. Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., p. 319, 
1841 new name for Querula VIEILLOT. 

*Querula purpurata (Muller). PURPLE-THROATED FRUIT-CROW. 

Muscicapa purpurata P. L. S. MULLER, Natursyst., Suppl., p. 169, 1776 
based on DAUBENTON, PL Enl. 381, Cayenne. 

Muscicapa cruenta BODDAERT, Tabl. PL Enl., p. 23, 1783 based on DAU- 
BENTON, PL Enl. 381; "Le Piauhau" BUFFON; and BRISSON (Orn., 2, p. 
386), Cayenne. 

Muscicapa rubricollis GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 933, 1789 based on 
BUFFON, DAUBENTON, and BRISSON, Cayenne. 

Muscicapa porphyrobroncha SHAW (and NODDER), Natur. Misc., 2, No. 9, pi. 
63 ( = male), 1791 Cayenne. 

*A single adult from Para differs somewhat from Cayenne specimens, but 
owing to the excessive rarity of the species I have not been able to examine a 
satisfactory series. Its plumages are still imperfectly understood. 

Material examined. Cayenne 2; Surinam i; Igarape-assu, Para i. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 227 

Querula rubricollis VIEILLOT (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 181, pi. 
115 (=male), 1823; DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Br6s., p. 23, pi. 25, fig. 2, circa 
1856 "Bahia," "Maranhao," and Para; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 
265, 1857 Rio Javarri and "Tunantins" [ =Tonantins], Rio Solimoes; 
BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 36, 1857 Cayenne. 

Ampelis rubricollis SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, i, p. 183, 1847 
Barima River. 

Threnoedus rubricollis CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
691, 1848 coastal forests and Canuku Mountains. 

Querula cruenta SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota; CASSIN, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 143 Turbo, Colombia; LAWRENCE, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 7, p. 296, 1862 Lion Hill, Panama; idem, 
I.e., 9, p. 117, 1868 Angostura and Payua, Costa Rica; SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1864, p. 362 Isthmus of Panama; idem, I.e., 1866, 
p. 191 upper Ucayali; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 580 Capim River; PELZELN, 
Orn. Bras., 2, p. 134, 1868 Forte do Rio Branco and Serra Carauman, 
Rio Branco, and Para; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 285 
upper Ucayali and Rio Javarri; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 520 Pocun6 and 
Remedies, Colombia; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe>., 2, p. 389, 1884 Rfo 
Javarf; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 305 Bartica Grove, British Guiana; 
ZELED6N, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 118, 1887 Angostura and 
Pacuar6, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 396, 1888 
Demerara, Bartica Grove, Cayenne, Chamicuros, Rio Ucayali, Sarayacu 
and Balzar (Ecuador), Medellin, Neche, Bogota, Panama, Montana del 
Vermejo (Veragua), and Angostura (Costa Rica); RIKER and CHAPMAN, 
Auk, 8, p. 25, 1891 Santare'm, Rio Tapaj6z; SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 144, 1891 Costa Rica, Panama, and South 
America; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 
6, 1899 Punta de Sabana, Dari6n; idem, I.e., No. 362, p. 18, 1899 Rfo 
Peripa, Ecuador; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. Zool. CL, 2, p. 23, 1900 
Loma del Le6n, Panama; MENEGAUX, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., 10, p. 181, 
1904 Camopi, French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 
1907 Para and Our6m, Rio Guama; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 
2, p. 174, 1910 Surinam; MENEGAUX, Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 
Pisana, at junction of Mixiollo and Huallaga rivers, Peru. 

Querula purpurata CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 256 (crit.); 
BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902 Suapure and La 
Pricion, Caura, Venezuela; BERLEPSCH, I.e., 15, pp. 143, 319, 1908 Ipousin, 
R. Approuague, Cayenne, and Camopi, French Guiana; IHERING and 
IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 315, 1907 Santare'm; RIDGWAY, Bull. 
U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 875, 1907 Costa Rica to the Amazon 
Valley (monog.); SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 56, p. 13, 1908 Cachoeira, 
Rio Purus; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 661, 1910 Caribbean 
lowlands of Costa Rica (habits); HELLMAYR, P.Z.S.Lond., 1911, p. 1148 
Noanama, Sipi, and N6vita, Pacific Colombia; idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. 
Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, pp. 36, 91, 1912 Ipitinga, Rio Acara, 
and Para localities; SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 358, 1914 Para, 
Ananindeua, Benevides, Peixe-Boi, Rio Guamd (Our6m), Cussary, Rio 



228 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Punis (Cachoeira); CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 255, 
1916 Caura River; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 500, 1917 
Salaqui, Choc6, Alto Bonito, N6vita, Buenaventura, San Jos6, Bar- 
bacoas, Puerto Valdivia, Puerto Berrio, and La Morelia, Colombia; 
STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 70, p. 270, 1918 Gatun, Panama; BANGS 
and PENARD, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 1918 near Paramaribo, 
Lelydorp, Javaweg, and Rijsdijkweg, Surinam; RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, 
No. 8, p. 23, 1919 Talamanca, Sipurio, and Siquirres, Costa Rica; CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 308, 1921 numerous localities; CHAPMAN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 553, 1926 Bucay, Esmeraldas, and Rio Suno, 
Ecuador; KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 458, 
1928 Almirante, Panama; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80, p. 169, 
1928 Castanhal, Para; HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 12, 
p. 345, 1929 Santo Antonio (B6a Vista), Goyaz; GRISCOM, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 69, p. 181, 1929 El Real and Cana, Darin. 

Range: Tropical Zone of Caribbean Costa Rica, Panama, Co- 
lombia (except Santa Marta region), and Ecuador; eastern Peru; 
the whole of the Amazon Valley east to Pard; French, Dutch, and 
British Guiana, and eastern Venezuela (Caura Valley). 1 

14: Costa Rica (Talamanca i, Mouth of Rio Matina i); Vera- 
guas (unspecified i); Colombia (Alto Bonito i, San Jos6 i); Dutch 
Guiana (Paramaribo i, Javaweg i); British Guiana (Demerara River 
2); Brazil (Conceigao, Rio Branco 2; Serra Grande, Rio Branco 
i; Santo Antonio, lower Tocantins, Goyaz i; Magoary, Par i). 

Genus PYRODERUS Gray. 

Pyroderus GRAY, List Gen. Birds, p. 38, 1840 type by orig. desig. Coracias 
scutate SHAW. 

*Pyroderus scutatus scutatus (Shaw). SCUTATED FRUIT-CROW. 

Coracias scutata SHAW, Mus. Lever., No. 4, p. 199, with col. plate, 1792 
"native country .... not certainly known"; idem, Gen. Zool., 7, (2), 
p. 401, 1809 (reprint) "native region supposed to belong to South Amer- 
ica" southeastern Brazil accepted as type locality. 

Coracina rubricollis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. ed., 8, p. 7, 
1817 "Br6sil" (type in Paris Museum). 

Ampelis sanguinicollis LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 56, 
1823 based on AZARA, No. 56 (ex NOSEDA), Paraguay, and TEMMINCK, 
PI. Col., pi. 40, Brazil. 

Coracina scutata TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 7, pi. 40, 1820 Brazil; 
WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 3, (i), p. 406, 1830 southeastern Brazil 1 

^ixty-five specimens from the whole range examined. 

Specimens were taken at Fazenda Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro and Villa Nova 
de Benevente, Espirito Santo (see WIED, Reise Bras., 4to ed., i, pp. 72, 178, 
1820). 



IQ2Q. BlRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 22Q 

(habits); LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 275, 1846 Brazil (crit.); BUR- 
MEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 417, 1856 Nova Friburgo, Rio 
and Lag6a Santa, Minas Geraes; idem, Abhandl. Naturf. Ges. Halle, 3, 
"1855," pp. 191-212, pi. 8, 1856 (anatomy); DESCOURTILZ, Ornith. Br6s., 
p. 24, pi. 26, fig. 2, circa 1856 Brazil (habits). 

Pyroderus scutatus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 109, 1859 Brazil; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 135, 1868 Registo do Sai, Rio de Janeiro, 
Mattodentro, Ypanemd and Rio Parand (Sao Paulo), Curytiba (Parana); 
REINHARDT, Vid. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 315 near Lagda 
Santa and Uberaba, Minas Geraes; HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 306 Sao 
Paulo (habits); BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 267, 1873 Blumenau, 
Santa Catharina; CABANIS, I.e., 22, p. 90, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; BER- 
LEPSCH and IHERING, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 141, 1885 Taquara and 
Arroio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 
397, 1888 Brazil; IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do Sul, 16, p. 
128, 1899 [Taquara do] Mundo Novo; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 217, 
1899 Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 157, 1900 Cantagallo and Nova Fribur- 
go, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 315, 1907 Campos do Jordao (Sao 
Paulo), Rio Doce (Espirito Santo), and Ourinho (Parana); DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, pp. 313, 431, 1910 Santa 
Ana, Misiones; idem, Bol. Soc. Physis, i, p. 350, 1914 Misiones; BERTONI, 
Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 AltoParand, Paraguay; MENEGAUX, Rev. Prang. 
d'Orn., No. 115, p. 334, 1918 Villa Lutetia, near San Ignacio, Misiones; 
REBORATTI, El Hornero, i, p. 193, 1918 Concepci6n, Corrientes; FIEBRIG, 
I.e., 2, p. 206, 1921 Paraguay; LIMA, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, (2), p. 100, 1920 
Ilhe\3S to Beimonte, southern Bahia; SZTOLCMAN, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. 
Hist. Nat., 5, p. 180, 1926 Invernadinha and Vermelho, Parana. 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia and Minas Geraes south to Rio Grande do Sul, and adjacent 
sections of Paraguay and Argentina (prov. Corrientes and terr. 
Misiones). 1 

3: Argentina, Misiones (Rio Paranay i, Puerto Segundo i, 
Eldorado i). 

*Pyroderus scutatus granadensis (Lafresnaye}.* EAST COLOMBIAN 
FRUIT-CROW. 

Coracina granadensis LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 277, 1846 "Nouvelle- 
Grenade" = Bogotd. 

1 The present form has nowhere been found outside the area above circum- 
scribed, and Messrs. Penard (Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 174, 1910) are undoubtedly 
mistaken in including it in the fauna of Surinam. 

Nineteen specimens from Brazil and Misiones examined. 

'Pyroderus scutatus granadensis (LAFRESNAYE): Very similar to P. s. scutatus, 
but decidedly smaller, with much shorter bill and tarsi; rufous brown pectoral 
spots as a rule somewhat paler. 

A single adult from Tachira and three specimens obtained by S. Bricefio 
near M6rida appear to me indistinguishable from Bogota skins. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 5, Bucaramanga i. Venezuela: 
San Crist6bal, Tachira i; near Me"rida 3. 



230 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Pyroderus grenadensis SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 153, 1855 Bogota. 

Pyroderus granadensis CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 109, 1859 
New Granada; WYATT, Ibis, 1871, pp. 123, 334 Canute, south of Ocafta, 
Santander, Colombia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 398, 1888 
Bogota. 

Pyroderus scutatus granadensis BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 32, p. 306, 1884 
Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia and Tachira, Venezuela (crit.); CHAP- 
MAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 500, 1917 La Palma and San Au- 
gustin, head of the Magdalena Valley, and Fusugasuga, Colombia. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of eastern slope of Central Andes and 
Eastern Andes of Colombia, extending into western Venezuela (in 
states of Tachira and MeYida). 

2: Colombia (Bogotd 2). 

Pyroderus scutatus orenocensis (Lafresnaye) . ORINOCAN FRUIT- 
CROW. 

Coracina orenocensis LAFRESNAYE, Rev. Zool., 9, p. 277, 1846 "le pays 
situe" a 1'embouchure de I'Or^noque" (type in Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge examined). 

Pyroderus orenocensis CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 109, 1859 
"Caracas," Venezuela (spec, examined); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1869, p. 252 Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 398, 1888 part, spec. b,c, Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; PENARD 
and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 175, 1910 Surinam (?); CHUBB, Birds 
Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 310, 1921 Cuyuni and Demerara rivers. 

Pyroderus scutatus orenocensis HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, 
Heft 5, p. 95, 1912 Paso Honda, San Esteban Valley, Carabobo, Vene- 
zuela; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 255, 1916 Altagracia, 
lower Orinoco. 

Range: Northern Venezuela, from the state of Carabobo (Puer- 
to Cabello; San Esteban Valley; Cumbre de Valencia) and the 
vicinity of Caracas south to the Orinoco Valley (Altagracia), and 
east into British Guiana (Cuyuni and Demerara rivers). 1 

*Pyroderus scutatus occidentalis Chapman.* WEST COLOMBIAN 

FRUIT-CROW. 

Pyroderus scutatus occidentalis CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 631, 
1914 San Antonio, Western Andes of Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 500, 

1 Two specimens from Carabobo have the rufous color beneath somewhat 
darker and less extensive than two topotypes from the Orinoco, thus verging in 
the direction of the black- bellied P. s. granadensis. One of the "Caracas" birds, 
however, hardly differs from the Orinoco examples. 

Material examined. Venezuela: Orinoco (including the type) 2; Altagracia, 
Orinoco i ; Puerto Cabello I ; San Esteban Valley i ; Cumbre de Valencia i ; "Cara- 
cas" 3. 

1 Pyroderus scutatus occidentalis CHAPMAN: Nearest to P. s. orenocensis, but 
under parts, including under wing coverts, darker, hazel rather than cinnamon 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 231 

1917 Las Lomitas, San Antonio, Rio Lima, Cerro Munchique, Gallera, 
La Florida, Miraflores, Salento, and La Frijolera, Colombia. 

Pyroderus orenocensis (not of LAFRESNAYE) SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1879, p. 520 Concordia, Frontino, and Santa Elena, Colombia; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 398, 1888 part, spec, d-f, Concordia. 

Range: Subtropical Zone of Western Andes and western slope 
of Central Andes of Colombia. 

3: Colombia (San Antonio i, Rio Lima i, Miraflores, east of 
Palmira i). 

Pyroderus scutatus masoni Ridgway. 1 MASON'S FRUIT-CROW. 

Pyroderus masoni RIDGWAY, Auk, 3, p. 333, 1886 "interior of Venezuela," 
errore; we suggest Pozuzo, dept. Huanuco, Peru (type in U.S. National 
Museum examined); CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 33, p. 632, 1914 
Peru (crit.). 

Pyroderos granadensis (not of LAFRESNAYE) TACZANOWSKI, Orn. Pe"r., 2, p. 
392, 1884 Montanas del Mayro, Peru. 

Range: Tropical Zone of eastern Peru, in dept. of Hudnuco 
(Pozuzo; Cushi Libertad; Montana del Mayro). 

Genus CEPHALOPTERUS Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. 

Cephalopterus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, pp. 
2 35i 2 38, 1809 type (by monotypy and orig. desig.) Cephalopterus ornatus 
GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE. 

AUiceps GISTEL, Naturg. Thierr. Hohere Schulen, p. viii, 1848 new name 
for Cephalopterus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE. 

rufous; lower abdomen and under tail coverts more deeply black; upper parts, 
wings, and tail slightly more glossy. Wing (adult male) 230-250; tail 150-160; 
bill 35-38. 

Material examined. Western Andes: San Antonio 3; Rio Lima 5; "Jorne," 
Cauca Valley 3; Alto de las Ances i; Antioquia (unspecified) 5. Central Andes: 
Miraflores 2. 

1 Pyroderus scutatus masoni RIDGWAY: Most nearly related to P. s. occidentalis, 
but rather smaller; basal portion of the red-tipped throat feathers deeper in tone; 
rufous area of under parts much duller, chestnut bay rather than hazel, as well 
as less extensive, leaving a distinct prepectoral band black; upper parts duller, 
lacking the iridescent gloss to the margins of the dorsal feathers. Wing 215-234; 
tail 138-146; bill 36-38. 

This race, based on fragments attached to some ethnological specimens from 
an unknown locality, was at one time believed to be a native of the interior of 
Venezuela, until F. M. Chapman suggested its Peruvian origin. Many years 
previously, however, the late W. Hoffmanns had discovered its true habitat by 
taking specimens in August, 1903 at Cushi Libertad, alt. 1820 meters, and in March, 
1904 at Pozuzo, alt. 950 meters, in the dept. of Huanuco, although this finding was 
never put on record. 

Material examined. Peru, dept. Huanuco: Pozuzo I, Cushi Libertad 6 
(Tring Museum and Berlepsch Collection). Unspecified (including the type) 2. 



232 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

"Cephalopterus ornatus ornatus Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire. UMBRELLA- 
BIRD. 

Cephalopterus ornatus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
*3. P- 2 38, pi. 15, 1809 Brazil; 1 LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 3, p. 161, pi. 
41, fig. 2, July, 1830 Brazil; LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, 
in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 39, 1837 Bolivia; D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Am6r. 
Mrid., Ois., p. 296, 1839 Rio Beni, Bolivia; TSCHUDI, Untersuch. Faun. 
Peru., Aves, p. 141, 1846 eastern Peru (anatomy); CABANIS in SCHOM- 
BURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 691, 1848 Canuku Mts.; WALLACE, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1 8, p. 206, 1850 opposite the mouth of the Rio Madeira, 
in some islands, abundant on the Rio Negro, and in the "Sohuives" [ = 
SolimSes] as far as the boundaries of Brazil (habits); SCLATER, I.e., 25, p. 
1 8, 1857 Bogota; idem, I.e., 25, p. 265, 1857 Rio Javarri; idem, I.e., 
26, p. 71, 1858 Rfo Napo, Ecuador; BATES, The Naturalist on the 
Amazon, 2, pp. 283, 387, 1863 island of Catua, near Ega, and Fonteb6a, 
Rio Solimoes; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1866, p. 191 Rio 
Ucayali; idem, I.e., 1867, p. 581 wooded islands of lower Rio Negro, 
between Barra and the mouth of the Rio Branco, also on the banks of 
the Uaupe"s, above the cataracts; idem, I.e., p. 751 Chyavetas, Peru; 
PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 135, 1868 Rio Galera, Villa Maria, Caigara, 
Rio Guapor, Engenho do Gama, Sao Vicente, and [Villa Bella de] Matto 
Grosso), Forte do Principe (Rio Madeira), Forte do Rio Branco, Rio 
Cauame", and Serra Carauman (Rio Branco); SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1873, p. 286 Cashiboya, Ucayali, and Chyavetas, Peru; 
TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1874, P- 54 * Monterico, Ayacucho, Peru; PELZELN, 
Ibis, 1875, p. 331 "Spanish Guiana" = Bogota; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 618 Tilotilo and Apolobamba, Bolivia; 
TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1882, p. 24 Huambo, Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 
391, 1884 Peruvian localities; idem and BERLEPSCH, P.Z.S.Lond., 1885, 
pp. 94, 121 Mapoto, Ecuador; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 306 British 
Guiana (ex SCHOMBURGK); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 399, 1888 
(monog.); BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1896, p. 370 
Chanchamayo and Borgofia, dept. Junin, Peru; idem, Ornis, 13, p. 114, 
1906 Rio Cadena, dept. Cuzco, Peru; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 18, 1899 Rio Santiago, San Jos6, and 
M6ndez, Ecuador; BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902 
Samborge and Nericagua, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; IHERING and IHERING, 
Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 316, 1907 (range); HAGMANN, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 
26, p. 32, 1907 Mexiana (?); PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 
177, 1910 (ex SCHOMBURGK); HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 316, 1910, 
Forte do Principe and Rio Guapor6, Rio Madeira; MENEGAUX, Rev. 
Fran?. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1911 Nuevo Loreto, Rio Mixiollo, Peru; SNETH- 
LAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 359, 1914 Rio Purus; CHERRIE, Mus. 
Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 256, 1916 Orinoco River, above the Rio 

J The describer expressly states that the specimens came from Brazil, and as 
no record exists for its occurrence either in French or Dutch Guiana, there is no 
reason to "correct" the type locality to "Cayenne," as was proposed by BERLEPSCH 
and HARTERT (Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902) and again by BERLEPSCH (I.e., 15, p. 
143, 1908). 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 233 

Meta; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 501, 1917 Florencia 
and Buenavista, Colombia; BANGS and NOBLE, Auk, 35, p. 453, 1918 
northeast of Perico, Peru; HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
67, 1920 Chaquimayo, dept. Puno, Peru; CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, 
p. 310, 1921 British Guiana (ex SCHOMBURGK); CHAPMAN, Bull. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., 117, p. 101, 1921 Rfo Comberciato, Urubamba region, Peru; 
HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 12, 1925 Bolivia; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 55, p. 553, 1926 Zamora, Macas region, and Rio Suno, 
eastern Ecuador; BERLIOZ, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 34, p. 72, 1928 
San Jose 1 , Ecuador. 

Ampelis umbellate SHAW (and NODDER), Natur. Misc., 21, No. 6, pi. 897, Feb., 
1810 new name for Cephalopterus ornatus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE. 

Coracina cephaloptera VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. d., 8, p. 5, 
pi. B, fig. 2, 1817 Brazil; idem (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 
179, pi. 114, 1823 Brazil; TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PL Col., livr. 43, pi. 
255, 1824 Brazil. 

Coracina ornata SPIX, Av. Bras., I, p. 63, pi. 59, 1824 Fontebda, Rio Soli- 
m6es; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 420, 1856 Brazil. 

Range: Amazonia, from the Rio Madeira, Rio Negro, and Rio 
Branco in northern Brazil, and the upper Orinoco in southern Vene- 
zuela west to the eastern base of the Andes in Colombia and Ecuador, 
south through eastern Peru to Bolivia and western Matto Grosso; 
casual in British Guiana (one record from the Canuku Mountains). 

3: Brazil (Conceigao, Rio Branco i); Colombia (unspecified i); 
Peru (Poco Tambo i). 

*Cephalopterus ornatus penduliger Sclater. LONG-WATTLED UMBREL- 
LA-BIRD. 

Cephalopterus penduliger SCLATER, Ibis, i, p. 114, pi. 3, 1859 Pallatanga, 
Ecuador; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, p. 142, 1859 Pallatanga; idem, I.e., 
28, p. 67, 1860 Pallatanga; idem, I.e., p. 92, 1860 Nanegal; BERLEPSCH 
and TACZANOWSKI, I.e., 1883, p. 560 Chimbo; idem, I.e., 1884, p. 298 
El Placer; SCLATER Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 400, 1888 Pallatanga; 
HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 490, 1898 Capal Grande, above Chimbo, 
and Paramba, Ecuador; SALVADOR: and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 
14, No. 362, p. 18, 1899 Rio Peripa; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 715 
Santo Domingo (habits); MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme'e Mes. Arc 
Mend. Equat., 9, p. 665, 1911 Santo Domingo; LONNBERG and REN- 
DIAL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 76, 1922 Rio Blanco, below Mindo, and 
Napa road to Santo Domingo de los Colorados; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. N.H., 36, p. 501, 1917 "Los Tambos" [=Los Jambos], Western 
Andes, Colombia; idem, I.e., 55, p. 553, 1926 Rfo de Oro, Manavf, and 
La Chonta, Ecuador. 



234 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Range: Tropical Zone of western Ecuador and western slope of 
Western Andes of Colombia. 

i: Ecuador (Puente de Chimbo i). 

*Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis Gould. BARE-NECKED UMBRELLA- 
BIRD. 

Cephalopterus glabricollis GOULD, P.Z.S.Lond., 18, "1850," p. 92, pi. 20, 
pub. March, 1851 Cordillera of Chiriquf; CABANIS, Journ. Orn., 9, p. 
254, 1861 Costa Rica; SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 150 Cordilleras 
de Tol6 and Chiriquf; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 201 Calovevora and Calobre, 
Veragua; LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 117, 1868 Dota 
Mts., Angostura, and San Jos6, Costa Rica; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 1878, 
p. 66 San Carlos and Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica; ZELED6N, An. Mus. 
Nac. Costa Rica, i, p. 119, 1887 Turrialba, Naranjo de Cartago, Jimenez, 
Santa Maria de Dota, El Zarcero de Alajuela, Costa Rica; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 400, 1888 Turrialba (Costa Rica), Cordillera de 
Tol and Calovevora (Veragua); SALVIN and GODMAN, Biol. Centr. Amer., 
Aves, 2, p. 145, 1891 Costa Rica and Panama; BANGS, Proc. New Engl. 
Zool. Cl., 3, p. 51, 1902 Boquete, Panama; RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 878, 1907 highlands of Costa Rica and western 
Panama (monog.); CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 6, p. 661, 1910 La 
Hondura, La Vijagua, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Guacimo, Rio Sicsola, 
El Hogar, Costa Rica; RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 12, No. 8, p. 23, 1919 
Siquirres, Costa Rica. 
Range: Costa Rica and western Panama (Chiriqui and Vera- 

guas). 

3: Costa Rica (Lim6n i, Siquirres 2). 

Genus PERISSOCEPHALUS Oberholser. 

Gymnocephalus (notof BLOCK and SCHNEIDER, 1801) GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, 

Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 237, 1809 type by orig. desig. Corvus 

calvus GMELIN. 
Perissocephalus OBERHOLSER, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 209 new 

name for Gymnocephalus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE preoccupied. 
Calvifrons RICHMOND (ex DAUDiN), 1 Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., 24, p. 671, 1902 

type by orig. desig. Corvus calvus GMELIN. 

*Perissocephalus tricolor (Mutter). CAPUCHIN-BIRD. 

Corvus tricolor P.L.S. MULLER,* Natursyst., Suppl., p. 85, 1776 based on 
"Choucas chauve de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 521, Cayenne; 
CASSIN, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 242 (crit.). 

l Calvifrons DAUDIN (Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 3, p. 146, 1804), proposed for 
"Chauvard," an unidentifiable vernacular name, appears to be a nomen nudum. 

*Muller's name, although rejected by the late Count BERLEPSCH (Nov. Zool., 
15, p. 143, 1908), is of unquestionable pertinence. It was obviously based on 
Daubenton's plate 521. This figure shows indeed a greenish tinge on the upper 
parts, which accounts for Muller's misleading expression: "die Hauptfarbe ist 
grun." 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OP THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 235 

Corvus calvus GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (i), p. 372, 1788 based on DAUBENTON, 
PI. Enl. 521, and BUFFON, Cayenne. 

Gymnocephalus capucinus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 13, p. 237, 1809 new name for Corvus calvus GMELIN; LESSON, 
Trait6 d'Orn., p. 359, pi. 41, fig. i, end of 1830 "Guyane." 

Coracina gymnocephala VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 5, 
1817 French Guiana. 

Ampelis calva LICHTENSTEIN, Verz. Dubl. Berliner Mus., p. 56, 1823 Cay- 
enne (ex Corvus calvus GMELIN). 

Gymnocephalus calvus HAHN, Vogel aus Asien, etc., Lief. 2, pi. 4, 1818 
Cayenne; CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 690, 1848 
British Guiana; WALLACE, Trav. Amaz. and Rio Negro, p. 228, 1853 
Cobati, Rio Negro; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 423, 
1856 northern Brazil; BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 2, p. 
36, 1857 Cayenne; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 581 
Guia, Rio Negro; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 135, 1868 Rio Vaupe', 
Forte do Rio Branco, and Rio Branco above the Cachoeira, Brazil; SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 306 Bartica Grove, Camacusa, and Roraima, British 
Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 401, 1888 Cayenne, Maroni 
River (Surinam), Bartica Grove, Camacusa, Roraima; MENEGAUX, Bull. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 181, 1904 Camopi and Lunier River, 
French Guiana; SNETHLAGE, Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Monte Alegre; 
PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 176, 1910 Surinam. 

Coracina calva SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, i, p. 415, 1847 Nappi 
River, Canuku Mts. (call-note). 

Calvifrons calvus IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 316, 1907 
(range); BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, pp. 143, 319, 1908 Ipousin, Ap- 
prouague River, Cayenne, Camopi, and Lunier River, French Guiana; 
SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 359, 1914 Rio Jary (Santo Antonio da 
Cachoeira) and Monte Alegre, Brazil; BANGS and PENARD, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 313, 1921 numerous localities. 

Range : French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and northern Brazil, 
from the confines of the Guianas south to the north bank of the lower 
Amazon, west to the Rio Negro. 

2: British Guiana (Demerara River 2). 

Genus GYMNODERUS Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire. 

Gymnoderus GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 13, p. 
237, 1809 type by orig. desig. Corvus nudus GMELIN = Gracula foetida 
LINNAEUS. 

*Gymnoderus foetidus (Linnaeus). BARE-NECKED GRACKLB. 

Gracula foetida LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., loth ed., i, p. 108, 1758 "America, 
ROLANDER"; we accept Surinam as type locality (ex BERLEPSCH and 
HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902). 



236 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Corvus nudicollis BODDAERT, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 37, 1783 based on "Le Colnud, 
de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 609, Cayenne. 

Corvus nudus GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (i), p. 371, 1788 based on BUFFON 
and DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 609, Cayenne. 

Gymnoderus cayennensis GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Paris, 13, p. 237, 1809 new name for Corvus nudus GMELIN. 

Coracina gymnodera VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 6, 
1817 "Guyane"; idem (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 178, pi. 
112, 1823 "la Guyane." 

Gymnoderus foetidus CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 
691, 1848 Canuku Mountains; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, 
p. 425, 1856 northern Brazil; BONAPARTE, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, 
2, p. 36, 1857 Cayenne; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 25, p. 265, 1857 Rio 
Javarri; idem and SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 581 right bank of lower Rio 
Negro; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 286 Rio Javarri; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 
135, 1868 Villa Maria [=Sao Luiz de Caceres], Rio do Cabacal, Retiro, 
Caigara, Engenho do Gama, and [Villa Bella de] Matto Grosso (Matto 
Grosso), Rio Guapore" and Borba (Rio Madeira), and Barra do Rio Negro; 
TACZANOWSKI, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 390, 1884 Rio Javarri; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 306 British Guiana (ex SCHOMBURGK); SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 402, 1888 Cayenne, Surinam, Barra do Rio Negro, Caicara, and 
Sarayacu, Ecuador; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 Rio 
Beni, Bolivia; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 37, p. 303, 1889 Yurimaguas, 
Peru; CHAPMAN, Auk, 8, p. 26, 1891 Santare'm; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 
1901, p. 714, pi. 14 Rfo Coca, upper Napo, Ecuador (descr. adult male); 
BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902 Mataben, Mun- 
duapo, and Bichaco, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela; IHERING, Rev. Mus. Paul., 
6. P- 435, 1905 Rio Jurua; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 316, 1907 Rio 
Jurua; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 14, p. 364, 1907 Humaytha, Rio Madeira; 
HAGMANN, Zool. Jahrb., (Syst.), 26, p. 32, 1907 Mexiana; SNETHLAGE, 
Journ. Orn., 55, p. 292, 1907 Para and Mexiana; idem, I.e., 56, p. 13, 
1908 Monte Verde, Rio Punas; BERLEPSCH, Nov. Zool., 15, p. I43i 
1908 Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 178, 1910 
Surinam; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 17, p. 317, 1910 Calama, Rio Madeira; 
idem, Abhandl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., 26, No. 2, p. 120, 1912 
Mexiana (ex HAGMANN); SNETHLAGE, Bol. Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 359, 
1914 Para, Quati-puni, Rio Punis (Monte Verde), Mexiana, and Monte 
Alegre, Brazil; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 256, 1916 
Orinoco River, above the mouth of the Rfo Meta; BANGS and PENARD, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62, p. 72, 1918 vicinity of Paramaribo, Surinam; 
CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 314, 1921 upper Takutu Mountains, 
Berbice River, and Canuku Mountains; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
N.H., 55, p. 553, 1926 eastern Ecuador; YOUNG, Ibis, 1929, p. 233 
Blairmont, British Guiana. 

Range: French, Dutch and British Guiana; southern Venezuela 
(upper Orinoco) ; and the whole of the Amazon Valley and its tribu- 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 237 

taries from Para west to eastern Ecuador and eastern Peru, south to 
western Matto Grosso and northern Bolivia. 

i: Peru (Yurimaguas i). 

Genus PROCNIAS Illiger. 

Procnias ILLIGER, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. et Av., p. 228, 1811 type by subs, 
desig. (GRAY, List Gen. Birds, p. 34, 1840) "P. variegatus (L.) ILL." = 
Ampelis variegata GMELIN = Ampelis averano HERMANN. 

Casmarhinchos TEMMINCK, Man. d'Orn., 2nd ed., i, p. LXIII, 1820 type by 
subs, desig. (SCLATER, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 14, p. 403, 1888) Ampelis 
variegata GMELIN = A mpelis averano HERMANN. 

Casmarhynchos TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 9, pi. 51, 1821 type 
by monotypy "Casmarhynchos variegatus" = Ampelis carnobarba CUVIER. 

Averano Anonymous, Cat. Coll. Cabinet Riocour, p. 17, 1829 type by subs, 
desig. (ZiMMER, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 16, p. 12, 1926) "Averano 
caronculatus" = Ampelis alba HERMANN. 

Arapunga LESSON, Trait d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 365, end of 1830 type by subs, 
desig. (SCLATER, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 14, p. 403, 1888) Ampelis nudi- 

Cottis VlEILLOT. 

Eulopogon GLOGER, Gemeinutz. Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., i, p. 321, 
1841 type by monotypy Ampelis variegata VIEILLOT (not of GMELIN) = 
Ampelis carnobarba CUVIER. 

Vavasouria CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 107, 1920 type by orig. desig. 
Ampelis nivea BODDAERT = Ampelis alba HERMANN. 

Calloprocnias CHUBB, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., 40, p. 107, 1920 type by orig. 
desig. Chasmorhynchus tricarunculatus J. and E. VERREAUX. 

*Procnias alba (Hermann). WHITE BELL-BIRD. 

Ampelis alba HERMANN, Tab. Affin. Anim., p. 213, note, 1783 based on "Le 
Guira Panga ou Cotinga Blanc" MONTBEILLARD in BUFFON, Hist. Nat. 
Ois., 4, p. 454, Cayenne. 

Ampelis nivea BODDAERT, Tabl. PI. Enl., p. 49, Dec., 1783 based on "Cotinga 
Blanc, de Cayenne" DAUBENTON, PI. Enl. 793 (male), 794 (female). 

Ampelis carunculata GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 841, 1789 based on "Le 
Cotinga Blanc" BRISSON (Orn., 2, p. 356) and BUFFON, Cayenne; R. H. 
SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana and Orinoco, p. 197, 1841 junction 
of the Rivers Moschieba and Berbice, three days' journey above New 
Amsterdam, Brit. Guiana. 

Chasmarhynchos carunculatus SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, i, pp. 343, 
430, 1847 Canuku Mountains (habits, call-note). 

Chasmarhynchus carunculatus CABANIS in SCHOMBURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 
3, p. 692, 1848 Demerara, Berbice, and Canuku Mountains (habits); 
BURUEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., a, p. 427, 1856 Guyana. 



238 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Casmarhynchos carunculata (us) WALLACE, Travels Amaz. and Rio Negro, 
p. 132, 1853 "seen" at Nazar6, near Para; C. B. BROWN, Canoe and Camp 
Life Brit. Guiana, p. 181, 1876 Surama Landing, Burroburro River 
(habits). 

Procnias nivea LEOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 261, 1866 "Trinidad"; SCLATER, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 1 08 occurrence in Trinidad questioned. 

Ohasmorhynchus niveus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 108, 1859 
Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. Coll. Amer. Birds, p. 258, 1862 Cayenne; SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1865, p. 92 Cayenne (descr.); SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1867, p. 580 Rio Negro, about twenty miles above Barra [=Manaos], 
also "seen" near Para; PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, p. 134, 1868 Barcellos, 
Rio Negro; FINSCH, P.Z.S.Lond., 1870, p. 574 "Trinidad"; SALVIN, 
Ibis, 1885, p. 306 Bartica Grove, Merum6 Mts., Atapurow River, 
Roraima, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 403, 1888 
Cayenne, Surinam, Bartica Grove, Carimang River, Atapurow River, 
Merum6 Mts., Roraima, "Venezuela"; IHERING and IHERING, Cat. Faun. 
Braz., i, p. 316, 1907 Guiana and Lower Amazonia; BERLEPSCH, Nov. 
Zool., 15, p. 143, 1908 Cayenne; PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, a, 
p. 179, 1910 Surinam. 

Chasmorhynchus albus SCLATER, Ibis, 1866, p. 407 Guiana. 
Procnias alba STRESEMANN, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 330, 1920 (crit.). 

Vavasouria alba CHUBB, Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 320, 1921 British Guiana 
(numerous localities). 

Range: French, Dutch, and British Guiana, and adjacent parts 
of northern Brazil (Rio Negro). 1 

3: British Guiana (Demerara River 2). 

*Procnias nudicollis (Vieillof). NAKED-THROATED BELL-BIRD. 

Ampelis nudicollis VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. 6d., 8, p. 164, 
1817 "le Bre"sil" (descr. of male and female; types in Paris Museum 
examined). 

Procnias ventralis HAHN, V6gel aus Asien, Afrika, etc., Lief. 7, pi. 2, 1820 
Brazil. 

Cotinga alba (not Ampelis alba HERMANN, 1783) THUNBERG, Mdm. Soc. Imp. 
Natur. Moscou, 6, p. 177, 1823 Brazil (descr. of male). 

Casmarhynchus ecarunculatus SPIX, Av. Bras., 2, p. 3, pi. 4, 1825 Rio de 
Janeiro (type in Munich Museum examined; =male) ; HELLMAYR, Abhandl. 
2. Kl. Bayr. Ak. Wiss., 22, No. 3, p. 639, 1906 (crit.). 

Procnias nudicollis WIED, Reise Bras., i, p. 52 (8vo ed., p. 51), 60 (8vo ed., 
P- 59)i 1820 Serra de Inua and Guaripana, near Rio; idem, I.e., 2, p. 158, 
1821 Rio Pardo, southern Bahia; DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 24, pi. 
27, fig. 2 ( = male), circa 1856 Brazil (habits); DABBENE, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 432, 1910 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; 
BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Puerto Bertoni. 

'There is no reliable record of its occurrence in Trinidad, Venezuela, or Para. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 239 

Casmarhynchos nudicollis TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 62, pi. 368 
(male), 383 (female), 1825 eastern Brazil; WIED, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., 
3. (Ot P- 377. l &3 near Rio de Janeiro and Cabo Frio, and in Bahia at 
Barra da Vareda, Rio Pardo, etc.; A. DE SAINT-HILAIRE, Voyage prov. Rio 
de Janeiro et Minas Geraes, i, pp. 16-17, !83O Rio, Espirito Santo, and 
Minas Geraes (descr. habits); idem, Voyage distr. des Diamants et Litt. 
du Bre"sil, i, p. 107, 1833 Fazenda d'Ocubas, Serra da Lappa, Minas 
Geraes; idem, Voyage aux sources du Rio San- Francisco et prov. Goyaz, i, 
p. 26, 1847 between Uba and Rio Parahyba, Rio. 

Procn[ias] araponga ("PR. MAX" MS.) CUVIER, Rgne Anim., nouv. e'd., i, 
p. 364, 1829 new name for TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., pis. 368, 383, 
Brazil. 

Arapunga nudicollis LESSON, Traite d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 365, end of 1830 
Brazil. 

Chasmarhynchus 1 nudicollis BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 426 
Nova Friburgo, Rio; SALVIN, Ibis, 1865, p. 91 southeastern Brazil; 
SCLATER, I.e., 1866, p. 407 Brazil (call-note); PELZELN, Orn. Bras., 2, 
p. 134, 1868 Rio de Janeiro, Mattodentro and Ypanema, Sao Paulo; 
BURTON, Expl. Highl. Brazil, 2, p. 85, 1869 near Gouva, on the way 
from the Rio das Velhas to Diamantina, Minas Geraes; REINHARDT, 
Vidensk. Medd. Naturhist. Foren., 1870, p. 316 Lag6a Santa, Minas 
Geraes and Hytu, Sao Paulo (habits); HAMILTON, Ibis, 1871, p. 306 
Sao Paulo; BERLEPSCH, Journ. Orn., 21, p. 266, 1873 Blumenau, Santa 
Catharina; CABANIS, I.e., 22, p. 90, 1874 Cantagallo, Rio; PELZELN, 
Nunq. Otios., 2, p. 292, 1874 Nova Friburgo, Rio; BERLEPSCH and 
IHERING, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 2, p. 141, 1885 Linha Piraja, Rio Grande do 
Sul; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 404, 1888 Bahia, Sao Paulo, 
"Pelotas," Rio Grande do Sul; IHERING, Annuario Est. Rio Grande do 
Sul, 16, p. 128, 1899 Rio Grande do Sul; idem, Rev. Mus. Paul., 3, p. 
218, 1899 Piracicaba and Iguape", Sao Paulo; idem, I.e., 4, p. 157, 1900 
Cantagallo and Nova Friburgo, Rio; idem, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 316, 
1907 Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo and Nova Hamburgo, Rio Grande do 
Sul; BERTONI, Rev. Inst. Parag., 1907, p. 5 Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay; 
idem, Anal. Soc. Cient. Arg., 75, p. 94, 1913 Misiones; DABBENE, Bol. 
Soc. Physis, i, p. 350, 1914 Paraguay. 

Procnias averano (not of HERMANN) HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 329, 1920 
(crit.). 

Range: Wooded region of southeastern Brazil, from southern 
Bahia and Minas Geraes to Rio Grande do Sul, and adjacent parts 
of Argentina (Misiones) and eastern Paraguay (Puerto Bertoni). 

i: "Brazil." 

*Procnias averano averano (Hermann). MARCGRAVE'S BLACK- 
WINGED BELL-BIRD. 

Ampelis Averano HERMANN, Tab. Affin. Anim., pp. 211, 214, 1783 based on 
"L'Averano" BUFFON (Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 457, 1778) ex "Guirapunga," 

'Variously spelled Chasmarhynchus ; Chasmorhynchus, and Chasmorhynchos. 



240 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

MARCGRAVE, Hist. Nat. Bras., p. 201 northeastern Brazil (descr. of 
male in change of plumage). 

Ampelis variegata GMELIN, Syst. Nat., i, (2), p. 841, 1789 same basis; 
LICHTENSTEIN, Abhandl. Ak. Wiss. Berlin, Phys. Kl., for 1816-17, p. 
164, 1819 note on "Guirapunga" of MARCGRAVE. 

Procnias averano averano HELLMAYR, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Pub., Zool. Ser., 
12, p. 345, 1929 Grajahu and Tranqueira, Maranhao (crit.). 

Range: Northeastern Brazil, in state of Maranhao, extending 
without doubt into some of the neighboring provinces. 

5: Brazil, Maranhao (Grajahu i, Tranqueira 4). 

Procnias averano carnobarba (Cuvier}. 1 BLACK-WINGED BELL-BIRD. 

Ampelis carnobarba CUVIER, Regne Animal, 4, p. 172, pi. 4, fig. 4 (=adult 
male), 1817 no locality stated (the type, examined in the Paris Museum, 
was obtained by Robin on the island of Trinidad). 

Averano carnobarba LESSON, Trait6 d'Orn., livr. 5, p. 365, pi. 52, fig. i, end 
of 1830 Trinidad (descr. of male and female). 

Ampelis variegata (not of GMELIN) VIEILLOT (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, 
(2), p. 184, 1823 no locality stated (descr. of male and female, excl. 
Marcgrave's account). 

Ampelis averano (not of HERMANN) VIEILLOT (and OUDART), Galerie Ois., i, 
(2), pi. 117, 1823 (=adult male). 

Procnias lumbriciferus GISTEL, Naturg. Thierr. Hoh. Schulen, p. 90, 1848 
"in Waldern Brasiliens," errore (descr. of male and female). 

Casmarhynchos variegatus TEMMINCK, Nouv. Rec. PI. Col., livr. 9 pi. 51 ( = 
male), 1821 "Bre'sil," errore. 

Chasmarhynchus variegatus BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. Th. Bras., 2, p. 428, 
1856 (descr.). 

Chasmorhynchus variegatus CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 107, 1859 
Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; SALVIN, Ibis, 1865, p. 91 "Brazil" (descr.); 
SCLATER, I.e., 1866, pp. 406, 407 Valencia, Venezuela and Bande de 1'Est, 
Trinidad; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1868, pp. 168, 172 forest 
of Casual, Nueva Andalucia, Venezuela; idem, I.e., 1868, p. 628 San 
Esteban, Venezuela; GOERING, I.e., 1869, p. 251 San Esteban; SCLATER, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 462 near the Arapu River, one day's journey from Mount 
Roraima, British Guiana (call-note); SALVIN, Cat. Strickland Coll., p. 
331, 1882 Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad; idem, Ibis, 1885, p. 306 
Roraima, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 405, 1888 
Roraima, San Esteban; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 6, p. 47, 

1 Procnias averano carnobarba (Cuvier): Very similar to P. averano averano, 
but body plumage of adult male grayish (pale gull gray to pallid neutral gray) 
instead of pure white. 

Material examined. Trinidad: Heights of Aripo 12, unspecified (the type) 
i. Venezuela: San Esteban 2. British Guiana: Roraima 2. 



i 9 2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 241 

1894 Trinidad; idem, I.e., 7, p. 323, 1895 Caparo and Caura Valley, 
Trinidad; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 13, p. 28, 1906 Aripo, Caparo, and 
Valencia, Trinidad. 

Chasmorhynchus niveus (not Ampelis nivea BODDAERT) TAYLOR, Ibis, 1864, 
p. 88 Trinidad. 

Procnias variegata DESCOURTILZ, Orn. Brs., p. 25, pi. 27, fig. 3 (=male), 
circa 1856 "Bresil" (errore); LEOTAUD, Ois. Trinidad, p. 259, 1866 
Trinidad; HELLMAYR and SEILERN, Arch. Naturg., 78, A, Heft 5, p. 165, 
1912 San Esteban, Venezuela. 

Casmorkynchus variegatus C. BROWN, Canoe and Camp Life in Brit. Guiana, 
p. 123, 1876 common from the Cotinga to Roraima, rare east of the 
Cotinga. 

Procnias carnobarba HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 27, p. 330, 1920 (crit.); CHUBB, 
Birds Brit. Guiana, 2, p. 317, 1921 Mount Roraima and Cotinga River. 

Range : Mountains of western British Guiana (from the Cotinga 
to Roraima, rare farther east), Trinidad, and northern Venezuela 
(from Sucre to Carabobo). 

*Procnias tricarunculata (/. aitd E. Verreaux). COSTA RICAN BELL- 
BIRD. 

Casmarhynchus tricarunculatus J. and E. VERREAUX, Rev. Mag. Zool., (2), 
Si P- X 93> J 853 "Bocos del Toro (Nouvelle Grenade)" = north side of 
Isthmus of Panama. 

Chasnwrhynchus tricarunculatus SALVIN, Ibis, 1865, pp. 90-95, pi. 3 Costa 
Rica (crit.); idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 1867, p. 150 Santiago de Veragua and 
Cordillera de Tol, Veragua; idem, I.e., 1870, p. 200 Calovevora, Veragua; 
LAWRENCE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.Y., 9, p. 117, 1868 "San JoseY' 
Dota, Cervantes, and Turrialba, Costa Rica; BOUCARD, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1878, p. 66 Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica; RIDGWAY, Proc. U.S.Nat. 
Mus., 5, p. 496, 1882 Volcan de Irazu; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
14, p. 405, 1888 Costa Rica, Chiriqui, Veragua; SALVIN and GODMAN, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 2, p. 142, 1891 Costa Rica and Panama; 
idem, Ibis, 1892, p. 327 Matagalpa, Nicaragua; SALVADORI and FESTA, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 339, p. 6, 1899 Chiriqui; BANGS, Auk, 
18, p. 365, 1901 Divala, Panama; idem, Proc. New Eng. Zool. CL, 3, 
p. 51, 1902 Boquete, Chiriqui; idem, Auk, 24, p. 303, 1907 Pozo del 
Rio Grande, Costa Rica. 

Procnias tricarunculata RIDGWAY, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 50, Part 4, p. 883, 
1907 Nicaragua to Panama (monog., full bibliography); FERRY, Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Orn. Ser., i, p. 269, 1910 Volcan de Turrialba, Costa 
Rica; CARRIKER, Ann. Carnegie Museum, 6, p. 660, 1910 La Estrella, 
Azahar de Cartago, Turrialba, Pozo Azul de Pirris, Cariblanco de Sarapi- 
qui, Guapiles, Irazu, El Hogar, Costa Rica; KENNARD and PETERS, Proc. 
Boston Soc. N.H., 38, p. 458, 1928 Almirante, Panama. 

Range: Highlands of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. 



242 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

21 : Nicaragua (San Rafael del Norte 4); Costa Rica (Lim6n 7, 
Volcan de Turrialba 7, Terraba i, unspecified 2). 

FAMILY RUPICOLIDAE. 

COCKS-OF-THE-ROCK. 
Genus RUPICOLA Brisson. 

Rupicola BRISSON, Orn., 4, p. 437, 1760 type by monotypy "Rupicola" 
= Pipra rupicola LINNAEUS. 

*Rupicola rupicola (Linnaeus). COCK-OF-THE-ROCK. 

Pipra rupicola LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat., i2th ed., i, p. 338, 1766 based on 
"Rupicola" BRISSON (Orn., 4, p. 437, pi. 34, fig. i, 1760, "Surinam et 
toute la Guyane"), "The Hoopoe Hen" EDWARDS (Glean. Nat. Hist., 2, 
pi. 264, fig. 2, Surinam), and "Gallus ferus saxatilis" BARRERE (Essai 
Hist. Nat. France Equin., p. 132, "Cayenne"); we accept French Guiana as 
type locality. 

Pipra rubicolla MEUSCHEN, Mus. Geversianum, p. 46, 1787 no locality 
stated; WALCH (Naturforscher, n, p. 5, 1777) gives "Cayenne" for the 
specimen in the Gevers Collection. 

Rupicola crocea BONNATERRE, Tabl. Enc. Mth., Orn., i, livr. 51, p. 266, 
1792 based on "Le Coq de Roche" BUFFON (Hist. Nat. Ois., 5, p. 157 
"dans la montagne Luca, pres d'Oyapoc, et dans la montagne Courouaye, 
pres de la riviere d'Aprouack") and "Felsenhahn" WALCH (Naturforscher, 
ii. P- 5. pl- * 1 777> "Cayenne"), French Guiana; CABANIS in SCHOM- 
BURGK, Reisen Brit. Guiana, 3, p. 694, 1848 Canuku Mountains and 
Avarimatta, Wenamu River, upper Cuyuni; BURMEISTER, Syst. Ubers. 
Th. Bras., 2, p. 437, 1856 northern districts of Brazil; GOULD, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 27, p. 99, 1859 "Cayenne" and Demerara (crit.); SCLATER and 
SALVIN, I.e., 1867, p. 580 Serra de Cobati, Rio Negro; PELZELN, Orn. 
Bras.,. 2, p. 131, 1868 Forte do Sao Gabriel and Cocuy, above Mara- 
bitanas, Rio Negro; SALVIN, Ibis, 1885, p. 304 Camacusa, Merum 
Mts., and Atapurow River, British Guiana; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
I4 P- 369. 1888 Carimang River, Merum6 Mts., Atapurow River, 
Camacusa, Demerara, British Guiana, "Cayenne," and Guia, Rio Negro; 
LLOYD, Timehri, (n.s.), 9, p. 231, 1895 Pirara River, British Guiana 
(nest and egg descr.); idem, Ibis, 1896, p. 429 (reprint); MENEGAUX, 
Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 10, p. 181, 1904 Ouanary, French Guiana 
(descr. of young male); PENARD and PENARD, Vog. Guyana, 2, p. 165, 
1910 interior of Surinam (habits). 

Rupicola aurantia VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. eel., 29, p. 551, 
1819 new name for Pipra rupicola LINNAEUS; "Montagne Courouaye, 
pres de la riviere d'Aprouack," French Guiana; idem (and OUDART), 
Galerie Ois., i, (2), p. 316, pl. 189, 1824 same locality; SCHOMBURGK, 
Naumaunia, i, Heft 2, pp. 34-38, 1850 British Guiana (habits); DES- 
COURTILZ, Orn. Bres., p. 34, pl. 38, fig. 2, 1856 Brazil. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 243 

Rupicola elegans STEPHENS in SHAW, Gen. Zool., 13, (2), p. 257, 1826 new 
name for Pipra rupicola LINNAEUS; R. H. SCHOMBURGK, Reisen in Guiana 
und am Orinoko, pp. 332, 446, 1841 Canuku Range, British Guiana and 
mountains at the sources of the Rio Padamo, Venezuela. 

Rupicola cayana SWAINSON, Classif. Birds, 2, p. 253, 1837 based on DAU- 
BENTON, PI. Enl. 39, French Guiana; WALLACE, Trav. Amazon and Rio 
Negro, p. 474, 1853 range confined to granite formation. 

Rupicola cayanna C. B. BROWN, Canoe and Camp Life in British Guiana, p. 
288, 1876 Amailah Fall, Curiebrong River, tributary of the Potaro. 

Rupicola rupicola BERLEPSCH and HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 9, p. 58, 1902 
mountains west of Suapure, Caura River, Venezuela; BERLEPSCH, I.e., 
15, pp. 142, 319, 1908 "Cayenne" and Ouanary, French Guiana; IHERING 
and IHERING, Cat. Faun. Braz., i, p. 312, 1907 range; SNETHLAGE, Bol. 
Mus. Goeldi, 8, p. 355, 1914 Rio Negro and Matta Atraz dos Campos 
de Ariramba, between Rio Erepecuni and Rio Curua do Norte, lower 
Amazon; CHERRIE, Mus. Brookl. Inst., Sci. Bull., 2, p. 256, 1916 about 
the Maipures Rapids, Orinoco River, Venezuela; CHUBB, Birds Brit. 
Guiana, 2, p. 293, 1921 various localities. 

Range : Mountain ranges of French, Dutch, and British Guiana, 
southern Venezuela (Caura, Orinoco, and Padamo rivers), and 
northern Brazil (Rio Negro; Campos de Ariramba, north of the lower 
Amazon). 1 

3: French Guiana ("Cayenne" i); British Guiana (Roraima i, 
unspecified i). 

*Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta Gould.* BLOOD-RED COCK-OF- 

THE-ROCK. 

Rupicola sanguinolenta GOULD, P.Z.S.Lond., 27, pp. 90, 100, 1859 "Quito," 
Ecuador; SCLATER, I.e., 28, p. 91, 1860 Nanegal; SCLATER and SALVIN, 
Exotic Orn., p. 29, pi. 15, 1867 western Ecuador; idem, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1879, p. 519 Concordia and Frontino, Colombia (habits; eggs descr.); 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 371, 1888 "Quito," Intac, Concordia, 
and near Medellfn; ALLEN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 74, 1889 
Milligalli; HARTERT, Nov. Zool., 5, p. 490, 1898 Milligalli; SALVADORI 
and FESTA, Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 17, 1899 Intac and 
Gualea; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 712 Gualea and Milligalli (habits); 

*Material examined. French Guiana: "Cayenne" 5, Ouanary i. British 
Guiana 7. Brazil: Rio Negro (Sao Gabriel and Cocuy) 10. 

t Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta, while separated from the range of R. p. 
aequatorialis by the intervening Cauca Valley, is clearly but an intensely colored 
race, the gap between the two forms being to a certain extent bridged by R. p. 
saturata, of Bolivia and southern Peru. 

Birds from the Western Andes of Colombia appear to be inseparable, though 
they average slightly darker, while the crest is often not quite so long. 

Material examined. Colombia: La Florida i, Castilla i, Riolima 8, San 
Pablo 6. Ecuador: Gualea 8, Milligalli 7, Nanegal i, Nono 2. 



244 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme"e Mes. MeYid. Equat., 9, p. 662, 
1911 San Nicolas; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 547, 1926 
Gualea and Milligalli. 

Rupicola peruviana (not of LATHAM) JARDINE, Edinb. New Philos. Journ., 
(n.s.), 2, p. 118, 1855 part, towards base of the Andes on the western 
slopes, Ecuador. 

Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 36, p. 
497, 1917 N6vita Trail, San Antonio, Munchique, La Florida, Gallera, 
and Cocal, Western Andes of Colombia; LSNNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. 
Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 75, 1922 Nanegal and Milligalli, Ecuador; HELL- 
MAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. II, 1925 western Ecuador. 

Rupicola peruviana aurea (not of CHAPMAN) HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 
II, 1925 Riolima, Western Andes of Colombia. 

Range: Western Ecuador and Western Andes of Colombia. 

6 : Colombia (La Florida, west of Popayan, Cauca i ; Castilla 
Cauca i); Ecuador (Nono 2; Nanegal i; unspecified i). 

*Rupicola peruviana aequatorialis Taczanowski. 1 EQUATORIAL COCK- 

OF-THE-ROCK. 

Rupicola peruviana aequatorialis TACZANOWSKI, Warszawski Uniwersytet 
Izvestja, 1889, No. 4, p. 19, 1889 based on Rupicola peruviana (not of 
LATHAM) TACZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, P.Z.S.Lond., 1885, P- 93. Machay 
and Mapoto, eastern Ecuador; CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 
547, 1926 Zamora, Macas region, Huilca (near Macas), Baeza, below 
Rio Sardinas, below Oyacachi, and lower Sumaco, eastern Ecuador (crit.); 
SZTOLCMAN and DOMANIEWSKI, Ann. Zool. Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., 6, p. 
151, 1927 Mapoto (type in Warsaw Museum). 

Rupicola peruviana aurea CHAPMAN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 31, p. 156, 
1912 Salento, Central Andes, Colombia; idem, I.e., 36, p. 496, 1917 
Salento, La Palma, Andalucia, near San Agustin, Buenavista, and "Bar- 
rigon," Colombia. 

Pipra peruviana (not of LATHAM) GOUDOT, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, text to pis. 
67-68, pp. 1-4, 1843 Rio Combayma, Central Cordillera of Colombia 
(habits). 

1 Rupicola peruviana aequatorialis TACZANOWSKI: Similar to R. p. peruviana, 
but general coloration of males deeper orange and the gray on the apical portion 
of the tertials more restricted, not wholly concealing the blackish basal area. 

The range of this form apparently extends south to northern Peru. Two adult 
males from Huayabamba, when compared with a large series from more northern 
localities, agree in the pattern of the tertials, but are perhaps if anything very 
slightly paler, less orange, than the majority from Colombia and Ecuador. Bogota 
skins exhibit a large amount of variation, as far as intensity of coloration is con- 
cerned, and certain specimens closely approach sanguinolenta. 

Material examined. Colombia: Bogota 14; Bucaramanga I; San Agustfn 2; 
La Palma I. Ecuador: below Baeza 6, near Banos 3. Peru: Huayabamba, 
dept. San Martm 5. 



1929. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 245 

Rupicola peruviana GOUDOT, Rev. Zool., 6, p. I, 1844 Colombia (nest descr.); 
DES MURS, Mag. Zool., (2), 5, pi. 37, 1843 Colombia (egg descr.); 
JARDINE, Edinb. New Philos. Journ., (n.s.), 2, p. 118, 1855 part, towards 
base of the Eastern Andes, Ecuador; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 126, 
1855 Bogota (range in part); idem, I.e., 26, p. 71, 1858 Rio Napo; 
GOULD, I.e., 27, p. 99, 1859 Bogotd (crit.); SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 
1867, p. 751 Chyavetas, Peru; idem, I.e., 1873, p. 285 Chyavetas; 
idem, I.e., 1875, PP- 2 37. 2 3 8 Sa n Crist6bal, Tachira, Venezuela; WYATT, 
Ibis, 1871, p. 334 Potrerras, south of Ocana, Santander, Colombia; 
TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1882, p. 24 Huambo; TACZANOWSKI, Orn. 
Pr., 2, p. 373, 1884 part, Chyavetas and Huambo; BERLEPSCH, Journ. 
Orn., 32, p. 306, 1884 Bucaramanga; TACZANOWSKI and BERLEPSCH, 
P.Z.S.Lond., 1885, p. 93 Mapoto, Machay, Sarayacu, Ecuador (crit.); 
BERLEPSCH, Zeits. Ges. Orn., 4, p. 184, 1887 Bogota; SCLATER, Cat. B. 
Brit. Mus., 14, p. 370, 1888 part, spec, g-q, San Cristobal, Bogota, 
"San Lucas," Chiquinda, Chyavetas, Peru; SALVADORI and FESTA, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 14, No. 362, p. 18, 1899 Chuquibamba, Rfo Zamora, 
Rio Santiago, and San Jose\ Ecuador; STONE, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1899, p. 306 "Nevada" de Tolima; GOODFELLOW, Ibis, 1901, p. 711 
below Baeza, eastern Ecuador; MENEGAUX, Miss. Serv. G6ogr. Arme'e 
Mes. Arc MeYid. Equat., 9, p. 662, 1911 Rio Napo, Ecuador; idem, Rev. 
Prang. d'Orn., 2, p. 8, 1917 Nuevo Loreto, Rio Mixiollo, Huallaga 
drainage basin, Peru; LC^NNBERG and RENDAHL, Ark. Zool., 14, No. 25, p. 
75, 1922 Baeza, Ecuador. 

Rupicola peruviana peruviana HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 34, p. n, 1925 
northern Peru to Colombia. 

Range: Extreme western Venezuela (San Crist6bal, state of 
Tachira) ; Central and Eastern Andes of Colombia ; eastern Ecuador ; 
and northern Peru, south to depts. Amazonas and San Martin 
(Chyavetas; Huayabamba; Nuevo Loreto, Rio Mixiollo). 

5 : Colombia (Bogota 2 ; La Palma, Huila i ; near San Agustin, 
Huila 2). 

*Rupicola peruviana peruviana (Latham). PERUVIAN COCK-OF-THE- 
ROCK. 

Pipra peruviana LATHAM, Ind. Orn., 2, p. 555, 1790 based on "Le Coq-de- 
Roche du PeYou" BUFFON, Hist. Nat. Ois., 4, p. 437, and DAUBENTON, 
PL Enl. 745, Peru; Chanchamayo, dept. Junin, suggested as type locality 
by CHAPMAN (Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 547, 1926). l 

l lt is with considerable reluctance that I follow Dr. F. M. Chapman in the 
disposition of the name peruviana, since Buffon's specimen, the sole basis of 
Latham's description, is far more likely to have come from northern Peru (Maynas) 
than from the central provinces, then practically unknown. As explained else- 
where (Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 66, 1920), I do not attach much importance 
to the absence of the black portion of the tertials in Daubenton's plate 745, a 
feature that might easily be concealed in a mounted specimen. Since, however, 
the type no longer exists in the Paris Museum, it is perhaps preferable to accept 
Chapman's designation of Chanchamayo as final rather than to rename the 
central-Peruvian form. 



246 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

Rupicola peruviana DUMONT, Diet. Sci. Nat., 46, p. 453, 1827 Peru (ex 
BUFFON); TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1874, p. 540 Soriano, dept. Junfn, 
and (?) Monterico, dept. Ayacucho; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 373, 1884 
part, Soriano and (?) Monterico; BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, P.Z.S. 
Lond., 1896, p. 369 La Gloria, Garita del Sol, and San Emilio, dept. 
Junfn. 

Rupicola peruana TSCHUDI, Untersuch. Fauna Peru., Aves, p. 142, 1846 
Peru, unquestionably dept. Junln. 

Range : Central Peru, in depts. of Huanuco and Junin, possibly 
also Ayacucho (Monterico, east of Huanta). 1 

5: Peru, dept. Huanuco (Chinchao 2; Huachipa 2; mouth of 
Cayumba River i). 

Rupicola peruviana saturata Cabanis and Heine.* BOLIVIAN COCK- 

OF-THE-ROCK. 

Rupicola saturata CABANIS and HEINE, Mus. Hein., 2, p. 99, 1859 Bolivia. 

Rupicola peruviana (not of LATHAM) LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., 
I, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 38, 1837 Yungas and Yuracares, Bolivia; 
D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Ame'r. Me"rid., Ois., p. 294, 1839 Yungas and east 
of Cochabamba, Bolivia; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 23, p. 152, 1855 part, 
Bolivia; SCLATER and SALVIN, I.e., 1869, p. 598 Cosnipata, dept. Cuzco, 
Peru; idem, I.e., 1879, p. 618 Yungas, Cochabamba, Simacu, and Tilo- 
tilo, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 370, 1888 part, spec, 
r-v, Simacu and Tilotilo, Bolivia. 

Rupicola peruviana saturata BERLEPSCH and STOLZMANN, Ornis, 13, pp. 90, 
114, 1906 Idma, above Santa Ana, Urubamba, and Huaynapata, Mar- 
capata, dept. Cuzco, Peru; HELLMAYR, Arch. Naturg., 85, A, Heft 10, p. 
66, 1920 Chaquimayo, dept. Puno, Peru (crit.); idem, Nov. Zool., 32, 
p. n, 1925 southeastern Peru and Bolivia. 

Rupicola peruviana peruviana CHAPMAN, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 117, p. 100, 
1921 Huiro, Idma, and San Miguel Bridge, Urubamba, Peru. 

Range: Southeastern Peru (in depts. of Cuzco and northern 
Puno) and northern Bolivia (Yungas of La Paz and Cochabamba). 

Material examined. Peru: Chinchao 2, Huachipa 2, mouth of Cayumba 
River i ; La Gloria, Chanchamayo 2, Vitoc 4. 

1 Rupicola peruviana saturata CABANIS and HEINE: Similar to R. p. peruviana 
in pattern of tertials, but coloration of males much redder, flame scarlet rather 
than orange chrome. 

Birds from Cuzco and Marcapata. agree with Bolivian specimens, while those 
from Idma, by slightly lighter coloring, diverge in the direction of the typical 
form. 

Material examined. Bolivia: Locotal, Yungas of Cochabamba 5; Songo, 
Yungas of La Paz 16. Peru: Marcapata 5; Callanga, Cuzco 12; Ocobamba, 
Cuzco i; Chaquimayo, Puno I. 



IQ2Q- BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HELLMAYR. 247 

FAMILY PHYTOTOMIDAE. 

PLANT-CUTTERS. 

Genus PHYTOTOMA Molina. 

Phytotoma MOLINA, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, pp. 254, 345, 1782 type by 
monotypy Phytotoma rara MOLINA. 

*Phytotoma rara Molina. CHILEAN PLANT-CUTTER. 

Phytotoma, rara MOLINA, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili, p. 254, 1782 Chile; 
LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 37, 
1837 Chile (male and female descr.); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Amer. MeYid., 
Ois., p. 293, 1839 Valparaiso, Chile; EYDOUX et GERVAIS, Mag. Zool., 
8, cl. 2, pi. 86, 1838 anatomy; idem, Voy. Favorite, 5, Zool., Part 2, 
p. 64 bis, pi. 25, 1839 anatomy; EYDOUX and SOULEYET, Voy. Bonite, 
Zool., i, p. 92, 1841 anatomy; DARWIN, Zool. Voy. Beagle, 3, Part 
15, p. 106, 1841 central Chile; EYTON, I.e., p. 153, 1841 anatomy; 
BRIDGES, P.Z.S. Lond., n, p. 113, 1843 Chile (habits); YARRELL, I.e., 15, 
p. 53, 1847 Chile (eggs descr.); TSCHUDI, Untersuch. Faun. Peru., Aves, 
p. 139, 1846 "Peru" (no locality specified); 1 DES MURS in GAY, Hist. 
Fis. Pol. Chile, Zool., i, p. 363, 1847 Coquimbo to Chilo6, Chile; BIBRA, 
Denks. Math.-naturw. Kl. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 5, p. 130, 1853 lowlands, 
less common in the Cordilleras of central Chile; HARTLAUB, Naumannia, 
1853, p. 214 Valdivia, Chile; BOECK, I.e., 1855, p. 505 Valdivia; CASSIN 
in GILLISS, U. S. Astron. Exp. So. Hemis., a, p. 183, 1855 Valparaiso- 
Santiago Road, Chile; GERMAIN, Proc. Boston Soc. N.H., 7, p. 312, 
1860 Chile (nest and eggs descr.); PELZELN, Reise Novara, Zool., i, 
Vogel, p. 95, pi. 6, fig. ii (egg), 1865 Chile; SCLATER, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1867, pp. 327, 338 Chile; PHILIPPI, Anal. Univ. Chile, 31, p. 266, 1868 
Chile; LANDBECK, Zool. Garten, 18, p. 260, 1877 Chile (habits); REED, 
Anal. Univ. Chile, 49, p. 553, 1877 Cauquenes; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus., 14, p. 406, 1888 Colchagua and Valparaiso, Chile; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 "Mapiri, Bolivia" (errore); WAUGH 
and LATASTE, Act. Soc. Scient. Chile, 4, p. LXXXVI, 1894 Pefiaflor, 
Santiago; idem, I.e., p. CLXXII, 1895 San Alfonso, Quillota; LATASTE, 
I.e., s, p. XXXIV, 1895 Caillihue, Vichuquen; LANE, Ibis, 1897, p. 
35 Hacienda Mansel, near Hospital, prov. Santiago, and Corral and 
Callecalle, prov. Valdivia, Chile; SCHALOW, Zool. Jahrb., Suppl., 4, p. 
711, 1898 Santiago (nest and eggs descr.); HARTERT and VENTURI, Nov. 
Zool., 16, p. 206, pi. 3, fig. 8 (egg), 1909 dept. of Rio Negro; DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 349, 1910 vicinity of 
Lake Nahuel Huapi, Neuqun; BARROS, Anal. Zool. Aplic. Santiago de 
Chile, 6, p. ii, pi. 2, 1919 (habits, food); idem, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 24, 
p. 147, 1920 Valle de Nilahue, Curic6, Chile; idem, I.e., 35, p. 186, 
1921 Los Andes, Aconcagua, Chile: PAESSLER, Journ. Orn., 70, p. 469, 

'The description corresponds to the Chilean, not to the Peruvian species. The 
bird was doubtless obtained in Chile, where Tschudi stopped when on his way to 
Peru. 



248 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

1922 Coronel, Chile (habits, nest and eggs); PETERS, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., 65, p. 326, 1923 Bariloche, Lake Nahuel Huapi, Rio Negro; 
HOUSSE, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat., 28, p. 49, 1924 Isla La Mocha, Chile; idem, 
I.e., 29, p. 146, 1925 San Bernardo, Chile; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. 
10, 1925 Valparaiso, Chile and Lake Nahuel Huapi, Neuqu&i; WET- 
MORE, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., 24, p. 452, 1926 Bariloche, Rio Negro. 

Phytotoma bloxamii JARDINE and SELBY, Illust. Orn., i, Part i, pi. 4, Feb., 
1827 Valparaiso, Chile; PIDGEON in GRIFFITH, Anim. Kingdom, 7, pi. 
facing p. 319, 1829 "South America"= Valparaiso; VIGORS, Proc. Cornm. 
Sci. Corresp. Zool. Soc. Lond., a, p. 3, 1832 Chile (note on female); 
MEYEN, Nov. Act. Acad. Leop. Carol. Nat. Cur., 16, Suppl., p. 89, 1834 
Chile, particularly common .... in the vicinity of Tacna (errore) ; LESSON 
Rev. Zool., 5, p. 136, 1842 Valparaiso (crit.). 

Phytotoma silens KITTLITZ, Mm. Ac. Sci. St. P6tersb., (sav. 6tr.), i, livr. 2 t 
p. 175, pi. i, 1830 near Valparaiso, Chile; CHROSTOWSKI, Ann. Zool. 
Mus. Pol. Hist. Nat., i, p. 13, 1921 type from Valparaiso in Leningrad 
Museum. 

Phytotoma rutila (not of VIEILLOT) LAFRESNAYE, Mag. Zool., 2, cl. 2, pi. 5, 1832 
Valparaiso and Santiago, Chile, and "Peru" (errore). 

Phytotoma molina LESSON, L'Institut, 2, No. 72, p. 317, Sept., 1834 en ~ 
virons of Valparaiso, Chile (male and female descr.). 

Range: Central Chile, from Coquimbo to Llanquihue, and ad- 
jacent districts of Argentina in the vicinity of Lake Nahuel Huapi, 
on the border line of Rio Negro and Neuque'n. 1 

16: Chile (Paiguano, Coquimbo i; Santiago i; Hacienda Gual- 
pencillo, Concepci6n i; Curacautin, Malleco 7; Mafil, Valdivia 2; 
Rinihue, Valdivia i ; Quellon, Chilo Island 2 ; Rio Nireguao, 
Llanquihue i). 

*Phytotoma rutila rutila Vieillot. REDDISH PLANT-CUTTER. 

Phytotoma rutila VIEILLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., nouv. d., 26, p. 64, 1818 
based on Azara, No. 91, Paraguay; LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. 
Av., i, in Mag. Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 38, 1837 Corrientes (spec, in Paris 
Museum examined); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage AmeY. Meiid., Ois., p. 293, pi. 
29, fig. i, 1839 Rinc6n de Luna, near the Rio Batel, Corrientes (descr. 
of immature male); BURMEISTER, Journ. Orn., 8, p. 245, 1860 Argen- 
tina; idem, Reise La Plata St., 2, p. 451, 1861 Parana, Mendoza, Cor- 
doba, Tucuman, and Catamarca (habits; female descr.); SCLATER and 
SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1869, p. 162 Buenos Aires; SCLATER (and HUD- 
SON), I.e., 1872, pp. 537, 549 lower Rio Negro; DOERING, Period. Zool. 
Arg., i, p. 251, 1874 Rio Guayquiraro, Corrientes; WHITE, P.Z.S.Lond., 
1882, p. 609 Fuerte de Andalgala, Catamarca; BARROWS, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Cl., 8, p. 203, 1883 Concepci6n del Uruguay, Entre Rios (nest 
descr.); SCLATER and HUDSON, Arg. Orn., i, p. 164, pi. 8 (male, female), 

'Three specimens from Lake Nahuel Huapi agree with a Chilean series. 



IQ2Q. BIRDS OF THE AMERICAS HfiLLMAYR. 249 

1888 Argentina; SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 407, 1888 Men- 
doza, Cosquin (C6rdoba), Parand, vicinity of Buenos Aires, and Rio 
Negro; WITHINGTON, Ibis, 1888, p. 466 Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; 
STEMPELMANN and SCHULZ, Bol. Ac. Nac. Ci. C6rdoba, 10, p. 403, 1890 
C6rdoba; KERR, Ibis, 1892, p. 131 Fortin Page, lower Pilcomayo; 
HOLLAND, I.e., 1893, p. 487 Santa Elena, Entre Rios; KOSLOWSKY, Rev. 
Mus. La Plata, 6, p. 281, 1895 Chilecito, La Rioja; LILLO, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 188, 1902 vicinity of Tucuman; 
BAER, Ornis, 12, p. 221, 1904 Tapia and Santa Ana, Tucuman; LILLO, 
Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 51, 1905 vicinity of Tucuman; HARTERT and 
VENTURI, Nov. Zool., 16, p. 206, pi. 3, fig. 6 (egg), 1909 Cosquin (C6r- 
doba), Tapia (Tucuman), and Barracas al Sud (Buenos Aires); DABBENE, 
Anal. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 350, 1910 range in 
Argentina; BERTONI, Faun. Parag., p. 58, 1914 Paraguay; REED, Av. 
prov. Mendoza, p. 38, 1916 prov. Mendoza; SANZIN, El Hornero, i, p. 
151, 1918 La Paz and Alto Verde, Mendoza; DAGUERRE, I.e., 2, p. 269, 
1922 Rosas, prov. Buenos Aires; SERIE and SMYTH, I.e., 3, p. 51, 1923 
Santa Elena, Entre Rios; GIACOMELLI, I.e., p. 72, 1923 La Rioja; 
PEREYRA, I.e., p. 169, 1923 Zeleya and Moreno, Buenos Aires; MARELLI, 
Mem. Min. Obr. Publ. (Buenos Aires) for 1922-23, p. 650, 1924 Buenos 
Aires; HELLMAYR, Nov. Zool., 32, p. n, 1925 Corrientes; MENEGAUX, 
Rev. Franc. d'Orn., 17, p. 326, 1925 Rio Salado, near Icano, Santiago 
del Estero; WETMORE, Bull. U.S.Nat. Mus., 133, p. 339, 1926 Las Palmas 
(Chaco), Riacho Pilaga (Formosa), Victorica (Pampa), and Potrerillos 
(Mendoza); TREMOLERAS, El Hornero, 4, p. 19, 1927 Rinc6n de Latorre, 
dept. San Jos6, Uruguay; SANBORN, Auk, 46, p. 251, 1929 Estancia 
Concordia, s. w. of Dolores, Soriano, Uruguay. 

Phytotoma rutila rutila PETERS, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 326, 1923 
Rio Colorado, Argentina; FRIEDMANN, I.e., 68, p. 209, 1927 Concepci6n r 
Tucuman. 

Phytotoma angustirostris (not of LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY) LILLO, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 8, p. 188, 1902 vicinity of Tucu- 
man; BAER, Ornis, 12, p. 221, 1904 Tapia, Tucuman (spec, examined); 
LILLO, Rev. Letr. Cienc. Soc., 3, p. 51, 1905 vicinity of Tucuman. 

Range: Argentina, from the Rio Negro north to Catamarca, 
Tucuman, Chaco, Formosa, and Corrientes; the Paraguayan Chaco; 
Uruguay. 1 

Specimens from eastern Argentina (Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires; Cor- 
rientes) and Uruguay agree well together. All the birds I have seen from C6rdoba 
and Tucuman are likewise referable to P. r. rutila. Certain examples with more 
white than usual on the lateral rectrices have no doubt given rise to the reported 
occurrence of P. angustirostris in northwestern Argentina. I have examined two 
skins from Tapia, Tucuman, so identified by the late G. A. Baer. They are, how- 
ever, much smaller and have less white in the tail than a Bolivian series, and as 
the majority from Tucuman are identical with the average from eastern Argentina, 
they must undoubtedly go with rutila. 

Material examined. Uruguay: Near Dolores, Soriano i. Argentina: 
Corrientes i ; Barracas al Sud, Buenos Aires 4; Santa Elena, Entre Rios I ; Men- 
doza i; Cosquin, C6rdoba 3; Tapia, Tucuman 6; Concepci6n, Tucuman 21. 



250 FIELD MUSEUM OP NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. XIII. 

22: Uruguay (Estancia Concordia, s. w. of Dolores, dept. 
Soriano i); Argentina (Concepci6n, Tucuman 21). 

*Phytotoma rutila angustirostris Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny. 1 BOLIV- 
IAN PLANT-CUTTER. 

Phytotoma angustirostris LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY, Syn. Av., i, in Mag. 
Zool., 7, cl. 2, p. 37, 1837 La Paz, Bolivia (types in Paris Museum ex- 
amined); D'ORBIGNY, Voyage Am6r. Merid., Ois., p. 292, pi. 29, fig. 2, 
1839 La Paz, Cavari, Enquisivi, Palca, Sicasica, Ayupaya, Cochabamba, 
Mizque, Chuquisaca, Bolivia; SCLATER and SALVIN, P.Z.S.Lond., 1879, p. 
619 Tilotilo, Yungas, and d'Orbigny's localities, Bolivia; SCLATER, Cat. 
B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 407, 1888 Tilotilo, La Paz; (?) SALVADORI, Boll. 
Mus. Zool. Torino, 10, No. 208, p. 12, 1895 Chilcas, Salta; (?) idem, 
I.e., 13, No. 292, p. 17, 1897 Tala and Cara-huassi, Salta; L6NNBERG, 
Ibis, 1903, p. 455 San Lufs, Tarija, Bolivia; (?) DABBENE, Anal. Mus. 
Nac. Hist. Nat. Buenos Aires, 18, p. 349, 1910 Salta; HELLMAYR, Nov. 
Zool., 32, p. 10, 1925 La Paz, Bolivia (note on types). 

(?) Phytotoma rutila (not of VIEILLOT?) BRUCH, Rev. Mus. La Plata, n, p. 
256, 1904 Oran, Salta. 

Range: Mountainous parts of Bolivia, from La Paz to Tarija, 
and (?) extreme northwestern Argentina (prov. Salta). 
7: Bolivia (Parotani, dept. Cochabamba 7). 

Phytotoma raimondii Taczanowski* PERUVIAN PLANT-CUTTER. 

Phytotoma raimondii TACZANOWSKI, P.Z.S.Lond., 1883, p. 71, pi. 17 (male) 
Tumbez, northwestern Peru; idem, Orn. P6r., 2, p. 395, 1884 Tumbez; 
SCLATER, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 14, p. 408, 1888 Tumbez; ALLEN, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. N.H., 2, p. 88, 1889 "Valparaiso, Chile" (errore). 
Range: Littoral of northwestern Peru, in depts. of Tumbez 
(Tumbez) and Libertad (Trujillo; Vird). 

1 Phytotoma rutila angustirostris LAFRESNAYE and D'ORBIGNY: Very similar 
to P. r. rutila, but larger, with stronger bill; lateral tail feathers more broadly 
tipped with white. Wing 94-100, (female) 94-97 (against 83-89, in P. r. rutila); 
tail 88-94, (female) 85-89; bill 12-13. 

Sclater is quite wrong in describing the under parts of this form as "brownish 
red," since these parts, in the adult male, are just as deep cinnamon rufous as in 
the typical race. The larger size and the longer white tips to the tail, however, 
serve to distinguish it from its southern ally. 

It is somewhat questionable whether P. r. angustirostris really extends into 
Argentina, since Salvadori, in referring Salta specimens to the present form, may 
have been misled by Sclater's key. In the absence of material, I am unable to 
decide the point. 

Material examined. Bolivia: La Paz (including the types) 13; Parotani, 
Cochabamba 7; Valle Grande 4; Samaipata i. 

1 Phytotoma raimondii TACZANOWSKI: Readily distinguished from P. rutila 
angustirostris by its much more elongated bill; by lacking in the male sex the 
cinnamon rufous frontal patch and by having the foreneck, chest, and sides of the 
breast extensively mouse gray (instead of cinnamon rufous like the rest of the 
under parts). Wing 93, (female) 90; tail 90, (female) 82-84; bill 14. 

Material examined. Peru, dept. Libertad: Trujillo i; Vini 2. 



INDEX 



Bold-faced type denotes names adopted in this work. 



abditivus, Manacus 68 

acevalianus, Psaliurus 97 

actinosa, Pipra 28 

aegithalodes, Pipra 55 

aenigma, Sapayoa 86 

aequatorialis, Rupicola 244 

affinis, Platypsaris 199 

affinis, Psaris 193 

aglaiae, Pachyrhynchus 199 

aglaiae, Platypsaris 199 

alba, Ampelis 237 

alba, Cotinga 238 

alba, Prpcnias 237 

albibarbis, Corapipo 63 

albifrons, Pachyrynchus 186 

albiloris, Pachyrhamphus 182 

albinuchus, Exetastes 216 

albitorques, Tityra 222 

albiventris, Hadrostomus 201 

albiventris, Platypsaris 201 

albogriseus, Pachyramphus 188 

albogriseus, Pachyrhamphus. ... 188 

Allocopterus 42 

Allocotopterus 42 

altera, Corapipo 62 

Alticeps 231 

amabilis, Cotinga 105 

amazonum, Heteropelma 81 

amazonus, Schiffornis 81 

Ampelio 102 

Ampelion IOI 

Ampeleia 1 24 

Ampelioides 124 

Ampelis 104 

Amphibolura 97 

angosturae, Heterocercus 91 

angustirostris, Phytotoma 250 

anomala, Pipra 13 

anthracina, Pipra 32 

Anticorys 49 

Antilophia 51 

antioquiae, Heliochera 100 

antioquiae, Machaeropterus 41 

antioquiae, Piprites 7 

antoniae, Carpodectes 112 

Arapunga 237 

arcuata, Ampelis 123 

arcuata, Euchlornis 123 

arcuatus, Lanius 95 

arimensis, Pipra 19 

arizelus, Attila 132 

armiger, Tyrannus 164 

aterrimus, Pachyrhynchus 203 



atlantica, Chiroxiphia 54 

atra, Tijuca 101 

atricapilla, Pipra 170 

atricapilla, Tityra 193 

atricapillus, Lanius 186 

atricapillus, Tyrannus 216 

atricilloides, Pachyramphus 197 

a tr on it ens, Xenopipo 47 

atro-purpurea, Ampelis 1 1 1 

atro-purpurea, Xipholena 1 1 1 

Attila 128 

audax, Hadrostomus 195 

audax, Platypsaris 195 

Aulea 149 

Aulia 149 

aurantia, Muscicapa 169 

aurantia, Pipra 8 

aurantia, Rupicola 242 

aurantiaca, Chiromachaeris 73 

aurantiaca, Pipra 8 

aurantiacus, Manacus 73 

auran tiicollis, Pipra 9 

aurantiivertex, Heterocercus. ... 91 

aurea, Rupicola 244 

Aureola, Parus 8 

aureola, Pipra 8 

aureo-pectus. Ampelis 119 

aureopectus, Euchlornis 119 

aurifrons, Muscicapa 87 

aurifrons, Neopelma 87 

aurocapilla, Pipra 27 

aurora, Euphone 125 

australis, Pachyramphus 191 

australis, Pachyrhamphus 191 

Averano 237 

Averano, Ampelis 239 

averano, Procnias 239 

Azarac, Tityra 217 

bahiae, Pipra 37 

bangsi, Manacus 69 

Bathmidurus 163 

bellus, Masius 51 

berlepschi, Pipra 30 

Berlepschia 164 

bloxamii, Phytotoma 248 

boliviana, Chiroxiphia 58 

bolivianus, Attila 141 

bolivianus, Piprites 5 

borellianus, Hadrostomus 172 

brachyurus, Tyranneutes 48 

brasiliensis, Attila 129 

braziliensis, Psaris 207 



251 



INDEX 



braziliensis, Tityra 207 

brevipes, Muscicapa 87 

brooksi, Oxyruncus 2 

buckleyi, Laniisoma 96 

buckleyi, Ptilochloris 96 

buckleyi, Tityra 221 

caelesti-pileata, Pipra 20 

caerulea, Ampelis 104 

caeru 1 eocapilla, Pipra 21 

cajanus, Pachyrhynchus 204 

calamae, Pipra 13 

calcaratus, Tyrannus 152 

Calloprocnias 237 

Callopsaris 163 

Calvifrons 234 

calvus, Corvus 235 

Calyptura 127 

candei, Manacus 74 

candei, Pipra 74 

canescens, Platypsaris 196 

caniceps, Attila 134 

capucinus, Gymnocephalus 235 

carbonata , Pipra 16 

Carnifex 92 

carnifex, Lanius 93 

carnif ex, Phoenicircus 93 

carnobarba, Ampelis 240 

carnobarba, Procnias 240 

Carpodectes 1 1 1 

Carpornis 102 

carunculata, Ampelis 237 

Casiornis 146 

Casmarhinchos 237 

Casmarhynchos 237 

castanea, Tityra 172 

castaneotinctus, Lathria 162 

castaneotinctus, Lipaugus 162 

castaneus, Pachyramphus 172 

caudata, Chiroxiphia 58 

caudata, Pipra 58 

cayana, Ampelis 108 

cayana, Cotinga 108 

cayana, Rupicola 243 

cayana, Tityra 204 

cayanensis, Psaris 204 

cayanus, Lanius 204 

cayennensis, Ampelis 108 

cayennensis, Gymnoderus 236 

cephaleucos, Pipra 37 

cephaloptera, Coracina 233 

Cephalopterus 231 

Ceratopipra 46 

Cercophaena 52 

cerritus, Manacus 74 

chachapoyas, Euchlornis 115 

chapmani, Pachyrhamphus 186 

Chelidis 97 

Chirocylla 1 63 

Chiromachaeris 64 

Chiroprion 52 

Chiroxilla 1 63 



Chiroxiphia 52 

chlorion, Hemipipo 4 

chlorion, Piprites 4 

chloris, Pipra 4 

chloris, Piprites 4 

chlorolepidota, Pipreola 113,120 

chloromelaena, Pipra 19 

chloromeros, Pipra 25 

Chloropipo 43 

Chloropsaris 1 63 

chrysoblephara, Berlepschia 164 

chrysocephala, Pipra 28 

chrysocephalum, Heteropelma. . 88 

chrysocephalum, Neopelma 88 

chrysopogon, Pipra 97 

chrysoptera, Pipra 49 

chrysopterus, Masius 49 

Chrysopteryx 101 

cincta, Ampelis 105,124 

cineracea, Ampelis 157 

cineraceus, Lipaugus 157 

cinerascens, Muscicapa 152 

cinerascens, Pachyrhynchus 193 

cinerea, Ampelis 110,157 

cinerea, Muscicapa 142 

cinerea, Pipra 17 

cinerea, Tityra 204 

cinereiventris, Pachyramphus . . 183 

cinereiventris, Pachyrhamphus. . 183 

cinnamomea, Muscicapa 145 

cinnamomea, Neopipo 75 

cinnamomea, Pipra 75 

cinnamomeus, Attila 140 

cinnamomeus, Attila 145 

cinnamomeus, Pachyramphus . . 175 

circumpicta, Pipra 21 

Cirrhipipra 38 

citreopyga, Dasycephala 136 

citreopygus, Attila 136 

citriniventris, Attila 144 

clara, Lathria 162 

Climacocercus 164 

coccinea, Ampelis 93 

coelestis, Cotinga 104 

columbiana, Tityra 210 

comata, Pipra 3 6 

confinis, Attila 134 

coracina, Pipra 33 

Corapipo 61 

cornuta, Ceratopipra 4 6 

cornuta, Pipra 46 

coronata, Chiromachaeris 75 

coronata, Pipra 18 

coronatus, Manacus 75 

coronatus, Pardalotus 128 

coronulatus, Masius 5 

Coropipo 61 

costaricensis, Pachyramphus.. . . 168 
costaricensis, Pachyrhamphus. 168,184 

costaricensis, Tityra 213 

Cotinga 104 

cotinga, Ampelis 104 



INDEX 



253 



cotinga, Cotinga 104 

cozumelae, Attila 140 

cristata, Calyptura 127 

cristata, Phibalura 97 

cristatus, Oxyrhyncus i 

cristatus, Oxyruncus i 

cristatus, Pardalotus 127 

cristatus, Psaris 193 

crocea, Rupicola 242 

cruenta, Muscicapa 226 

cryptolophus, Lipaugus 160 

cryptolopha, Lathria 160 

cucullata, Ampelis 102 

cucullata, Procnias 102 

cucullatus, Ampelion 102 

cuprea, Cotinga 93 

cuvierii, Psaris 164 

cyanocapilla, Pipra 17 

cyanocephalus, Climacocercus . . . 178 

cyanocephalus, Thamnophilus. . . 178 

Dasycephala 128 

Dasyncetopa 8 

Dasyopsis 128 

decora, Euchlornis 120 

decora, Pipreola 120 

deliciosa, Pipra 42 

deliciosus, Allocotopterus 42 

deses, Tityra 215 

Dicranura 97 

dimidiatus, Pachyrhamphus 1 68 

Dixiphia 8 

Doliornis 100 

dor sal is, Pachyramphus 185 

dorsalis, Pachyrhamphus 185 

dubia, Pipra 8 

dumicola, Scotothorus 85 

dupontii, Platyrhynchus 164 

ecarunculatus, Casmarhynchus . . 238 

edwardsi, Manacus 65 

electilis, Manacus 75 

elegans, Ampelis 95,118 

elegans, Laniisoma 95 

elegans, Rupicola 243 

emiliae, lodopleura 127 

eques, Muscicapa 169 

Erator 204 

erythrocephala, Pipra 27 

erythrocephalus, Parus 27 

erythrogenys, Psaris 220 

erythrogenys, Tityra 220 

erythrolophos, Pipra 31 

erythrorhynchus, Chrysopteryx. . 101 

esmeraldae, Tityra 212 

eucephala, Pipra 23 

Euchlornis 113 

Euchlorornis 113 

Eulopogon 237 

Exetastes 204 

Exetastus 204 

exilis, Psaris 1 70 



exquisita, Pipra 21 

fasciata, Ampelis 105 

fasciata, Pipra 1 1 

f asciicauda, Pipra n 

fastuosa, Pipra 52 

f estiva, Euchlornis 119 

filicauda, Pipra 38 

filicauda, Teleonema 38 

filifera, Pipra 38 

flammiceps, Oxyrhynchus i 

flammic eps, Pipra 31 

flammulatus, Attila 138 

flaveolus, Manacus 69 

flavicapilla, Chloropipo 43 

flavicapilla, Pipra 43 

flavicapillum, Heteropelma 89 

flavicollis, Chloropipo 43 

flavicollis, Pipra 10 

flavigula, Heteropelma 81 

flavirostris, Phibalura 97 

flavitincta, Pipra 69 

flavitorques, Ampelioides 124 

flavivertex, Heterocercus 91 

foetida, Gracula 235 

f oetidus, Gymnoderus 235 

forficata, Pipra 97 

formosa, Ampelis 121 

formosa, Euchlornis 121 

fortis, Tityra 210 

fraserii, Psaris 223 

f raserii, Tityra 223 

frater, Oxyrhamphus 3 

frater, Oxyruncus 3 

frederici, Lipaugus 153 

f rederici, Rhytipterna 153 

frontalis, Euchlornis 120 

furvus, Schiffornis 84 

furvus, Scotothorus 84 

f usca, Ampelis 126 

fusca, Casiornis 148 

fusca, lodopleura 126 

fuscicauda, Attila 135 

fusco-cinerea, Querula 156 

f usco-cinereus, Lipaugus 1 56 

galeata, Antilophia 51 

galeata, Pipra 51 

gaumeri, Attila 140 

glabricollis, Cephalopterus 234 

gracilis, Pipra 23 

granadensis, Coracina 229 

granadensis, Pyroderus 229 

grisea, Ampelis no 

griseiceps, Piprites 7 

griseiceps, Tityra 215 

griseigularis, Attila 143 

griseigularis, Pachyramphus. ... 166 

griseigularis, Pachyrhamphus. . . 167 

griseus, Pachyrhamphus 170 

gualeae, Tityra 212 

guayaquilensis, Lathria 1 56 



254 



INDEX 



guianensis, Psaris 204 

guttata, lodopleura 126 

guttural is, Corapipo 61 

gutturalis, Pipra 61 

gutturosa, Pipra 71 

gutturosus, Manacus 71 

gymnocephala, Coracina 235 

Gymnocephalus 234 

gymnodera, Coracina 236 

Gymnoderus 235 

Hadrostomus 193 

Haematoderus 225 

haematodes, Dasycephala 147 

Heilicura 60 

helenae, Neopipo 76 

Helicura 60 

Heliochaera 98 

Heliochera 98 

Helipchoera 98 

Hemipipo 3 

herbacea, Pipra 18 

heterocerca, Pipra 39 

heterocerca, Teleonema 39 

Heterocercus 90 

Heliophilus 125 

heteroleuca, Corapipo 63 

heteromelaena, Tityra 211 

Heteropelma 78 

Hicura 60 

hoffmannsi, Pipra 18 

holerythra, Rhytipterna 1 54 

holerythrus, Lipaugus 154 

holochlora, Chloropipo 44 

homochrous, Pachyrhamphus. . . 195 

homochrous, Platypsaris 195 

hopkei, Carpodectes 112 

Hylocosmia 104 

hypoglaucus, Oxyrhamphus 2 

hypoglaucus, Oxyruncus 2 

hypophaeus, Platypsaris 200 

hypopyrra, Ampelis 149 

hypopyrrha, Ampelis 149 

hypopyrrha, Laniocera 149 

hypoxanthus, Attila 138 

idiotes, Attila 1 34 

ignicapilla, Pipra 59 

igniceps, Heteropelma 88 

ignif era, Pipra 26 

Ilicura 60 

Illicura 60 

immunda, Rhytipterna 1 54 

immundus, Lipaugus 154 

inquisitor, Lanius 216 

inquisitor, Tityra 216 

insularis, Platypsaris 202 

intercedens, Schiffornis 8 1 

interior, Manacus 67 

intermedia, Euchlornis 115 

intermedia, Pipreola 115 

intermedia, Tityra 205 



intermedius, Pachyramphus 173 

intermedius, Pachyrhamphus ... 173 

lodopleura 125 

iracunda, Pipra 46 

iris, Pipra 22 

isabellae, lodopleura 126 

isabellae, lodopleurus 127 

isidorei, Pipra 14 

itzensis, Pachyramphus 192 

itzensis, Pachyrhamphus 192 

jardinii, Psaris 216 

jucunda, Euchlornis 117 

jucunda, Pipreola 117 

lamellipennis, Ampelis no 

lamellipennis, Xipholena no 

lanceolata, Chiroxiphia 53 

lanceolata, Pipra 53 

Laniisoma 95 

Laniocera 149 

lanioides , Lipaugus 159 

lanioides, Turdampelis 159 

laplacei, Pipra 126 

lateralis, Lipangus 149 

Lathria 156 

latirostris, Platypsaris 201 

latirpstris, Pachyrhamphus 201 

Lepidothrix 8 

leuconotus, Tityra 203 

leucocapilla, Pipra 35 

leucochlamys, Manacus 70 

leucocilla, Pipra 34 

leucogaster, Pachyrynchus 170 

leucoptilon, Pachyramphus 194 

leucopygia, lodopleura 126 

leucopygia, Pipra 14 

leucorrhoa, Corapipo 61 

leucorrhoa, Pipra 65 

leucura, Tityra 225 

linearis, Chiroxiphia 52 

linearis, Pipra 52 

lineata, Pipra 40 

linteata, Elaenia 90 

linteatus, Heterocercus 90 

Lipaugus 1 56 

litae, Chloropipo 44 

longicauda, Pipra 59 

lubomirskii, Euchlornis 117 

lubomirskii, Pipreola 117 

lumbriciferus, Procnias 240 

luteocephala, Muscicapa 87,92 

luteocephalus, Heterocercus .... 92 

luteola, Attila 137 

macconnelli, Pachyrhamphus.. . . 182 

Machaeropterus 40 

maculata, Cotinga 104 

maculatus, Ampelis 105 

magdalenae, Pachyramphus. . . . 176 

magdalenae, Pachyrhamphus.. . . 176 

major, Bathmidurus 191 

major, Massornis 77 



INDEX 



255 



major, Pachyramphus 191 

major, Schiffornis 77 

Manacus 64 

manacus, Manacus 65 

manacus, Pipra 65 

marcidus, Pachyrhamphus 1 70 

marginata, Muscipeta 186 

marginatus, Pachyramphus 186 

marginatus, Todus 1 86 

Masius 49 

masoni, Pyroderus 231 

Massomis 77 

maximus, Manacus 70 

maximus, Psaris 207 

maynana, Ampelis 107 

maynana, Cotinga 107 

megacephalus, Pachyrynchus ... 193 

melanocephala, Pipra 60,65 

melanocephalus, Ampelion 102 

melanocephalus, Pachyrhynchus. 204 

melanocephalus, Procnias 102 

melanocephalus, Turdus 102 

melanolaema, Euchlornis 113 

melanolaema, Pipreola 113 

melanoleucus, Bathmidurus . . 168,172 

mentalis, Pipra 25 

merremii, Ampelis 94 

Metopia 51 

mexicanus, Attila 138 

mexicanus, Psaris 214 

microlopha, Pipra 35 

militaris, Coracina? 225 

militaris, Haematoderus 225 

militaris, Ilicura 60 

militaris, Pipra 60 

milleri, Manacus 73 

mindoensis, Lathria 161 

mindoensis, Lipaugus 161 

minima, Pipra 33 

minor, Pipra 26 

minor, Pipra 33 

minor, Platypsaris . 197 

minor, Psaris 186 

minor, Querula 197 

minuscula, Pipra 15 

mitratus, Lanius 1 70 

molina, Phytotoma 248 

morenoana, Pipra 78 

naevius, Lanius 204 

nanus, Pachyramphus 187 

nanus, Pachyrhamphus 187 

napensis, Chiroxiphia 57 

nattereri, Attila 142 

nattered, Pipra 

nattererii, Ampelis 106 

nattererii, Cotinga 1 06 

natterii, Psaris 216 

Neopelma 87 

Neopipo 75 

neoxenus, Attila 132 

niger, Lanius 203 



niger, Pachyramphus 180 

niger, Pachyrhynchus 180 

niger, Platypsaris 203 

nigra, Tijuca 101 

nigrescens, Pachyrhamphus 203 

nigriceps, Muscicapa 164 

nigriceps, Tityra 212 

nigricollis, Phoenicircus 94 

nigrigularis, Phoenicocercus 95 

nigriventris, Pachyrhamphus . .180,182 

nitidus, Carpodectes in 

nivea, Ampelis 237 

notius, Pachyrhamphus 177 

nudicollis, Ampelis 238 

nudicollis, Corvus 236 

nudicollis, Procnias 238 

nudus, Corvus 236 

obscurus, Attila 132 

obscurus, Platypsaris 200 

occidentalis, Euchlornis 114 

occidentals, Pyroderus 230 

olivaceus, Schiffornis 80 

olivaceus, Scotothorus 80 

opalizans, Pipra 22 

orenocensis, Coracina 230 

orenocensis, Pyroderus 230 

ornatus, Cephalopterus 232 

ornatus, Pachyramphus 189 

ornatus, Pachyrhamphus 189 

Oxyramphus i 

Oxyrhamphus i 

Oxyrhynchus i 

Oxyrhyncus i 

Oxyruncus i 

oxyura, Pipra 60 

Pachyramphus 163 

Pachyrhamphus 163,193 

Pachyrhynchus 204 

pacificus, Attila 140 

pallescens, Neopelma 89 

pallescens, Tyrannula 89 

pallidigula, Euchlornis 122 

panamensis, Schiffornis 84 

paraguayensis, Oxyrhamphus. . . 2 

parambae, Attila 135 

pareola, Chiroxiphia 55 

pareola, Pipra 55 

pareolides, Pipra 53 

parinus, Psaris 1 70 

parvirostris, Attila 133 

pectoralis, Pachyrynchus 197 

pelzelni, Tityra 218 

penduliger, Cephalopterus 233 

Perissocephalus 234 

personata, Tityra 214 

perspicillata, Pipra 61 

peruanus, Pachyrhamphus 166 

peruviana, Pipra 245 

peruviana, Rupicola 245 

Phaenicocercus 92 



256 



INDEX 



Phibalura 97 

Phoenicercus 92 

Phoenicircus 92 

Phoenicocercus 92 

phoenicurus, Attila 144 

phygas, Porphyrolaema 103 

Phytotoma 247 

pileata, Pipra 4 

pileata, Tityra 193 

pileatus, Piprites 4 

Pipra 8 

pipra, lodopleura 125 

pipra, Pardalotus 125 

pipra, Parus 34 

pipra, Pipra 34 

Pipreola 113 

Piprites 3 

Platypsaris 193 

plumata, Pipra 55 

plumbea, Muscicapa 157 

polychopterus, Pachyramphus . . 179 

polychopterus, Platyrhynchos . . . 179 

pompadora, Ampelis 109 

porphyrobroncha, Muscicapa. . . . 226 

porphyrolaema, Cotinga 103 

Porphyrolaema 103 

porphyrolaema, Porphyrolaema. . 103 

Procnias 237 

Psaliurus 97 

Psaris 204 

Ptilochloris 95 

pulchra, Euchlornis 1 18 

punicea, Xipholena 109 

puniceus, Turdus 109 

purissimus, Manacus 66 

purpurata, Muscicapa 226 

purpurata , Querula 226 

purpurea, Ampelis in 

purpurea, Querula 226 

purus, Manacus 66 

purusiana, Pipra 13 

pyrocephala, Pipra 42 

pyrocephalus, Machaeropterus. . 42 

Pyroderus 228 

Pyrorhynchus 113 

Pyrrhorhynchus 113 

Pythis 8 

Querula 226 

raimondii, Phytotoma 250 

rara, Phytotoma 247 

regina, Chiroxiphia 57 

regulus, Machaeropterus 40 

regulus, Pipra 40 

remigialis, Ptilochloris 96 

Rhytipterna 152 

ridgwayi, Cotinga 106 

riefferii, Ampelis 113 

riefferii, Euchlornis 113 

roseicollis, Psaris 197 

rosenbergi, Heteropelma 82 



rosenbergi, Lipangus 156 

rosenbergi, Rhytipterna 155 

rosenbergi, Schiffornis 82 

rubicolla, Pipra 242 

rubicunda, Neopipp 76 

rubidior, Euchlornis 122 

rubra, Cotinga 93 

rubra, Muscicapa 147 

rubra, Pipra 8 

rubra, Querula 225 

rubricristatus, Ampelion 98 

rubrifrons, Pipra 60 

rubrpcapilla, Pipra 31 

rubricollis, Coracina 228 

rubricollis, Muscicapa 226 

rubro-cristata, A(mpelis) 98 

rubro-cristata, Heliochera 98 

rufa, Casiornis 147 

rufa, Muscicapa 169 

rufa, Tityra 193 

rufaxilla, Ampelis 99 

ruf axilla, Heliochera 99 

rufescena, Laniocera 151 

rufescens, Lipaugus 151 

rufescens, Muscicapa 170 

rufescens, Pachyrhynchus 170 

rufescens, Tyrannus 129,141 

ruficeps, Pachyrynchus 172 

rufigularis, Attila 130 

rufipectus, Attila 134 

ruf ococcix, Turdampelis 1 59 

rufococcyx, Turdampelis 159 

rufocristata, Ampelis 98 

rufo-olivacea, Muscicapa 79 

rufula, Tyrannula 147 

rufum, Heteropelma 77 

rufus, Attila 142 

ruf us, Pachyramphus 169 

rufus, Platypsaris 193 

rufus, Thamnophilus 147 

rufus, Tyrannus 143 

Rupicola 242 

rupicola, Pipra 242 

rupicola, Rupicola 242 

rustica, Muscicapa 152 

rutila, Phytotoma 248 

rutilus, Thamnophilus 147 

rutilus, Tyrannus 145 

salvini, Attila 138 

salvini, Pachyramphus 190 

salvini, Pachyrhamphus 190 

sanguinaria, Laniocera 149 

sanguinicollis, Ampelis 228 

sanguinolenta, Rupicola 243 

Sapayoa 86 

saturata, Rupicola 246 

saturatus, Pachyramphus 173 

saturatus, Pachyrhamphus 174 

scarlatina, Pipra i r 

Schiffornis 77 

Schiffornis 78 



INDEX 



257 



sclateri, Attila 136 

sclateri, Doliornis 100 

sclateri, Euchlornis 122 

Scotothorus 78 

scutata, Coracias 228 

scutatus, Pyroderus 228 

selbii, Psaris 216 

semifasciata, Tityra 208 

semifasciatus, Pachyrhynchus . . . 208 

serena, Pipra 24 

serratus, Oxyrhynchus i 

setif era, Pipra 38 

sibilatrix, Muscicapa 149 

signata, Euchlornis 1 16 

silens, Phytotoma 248 

similis, Pachyramphus 184 

similis, Pachyrhamphus . . . 184,190 

simoni, Cotinga 107 

simplex, Muscicapa 152 

simplex, Pachyrhynchus 170 

simplex, Rhytipteirna 152 

spadicea, Muscicapa 128 

spadiceus, Attila 128 

spixii, Pachyramphus 177 

spixii, Pachyrhynchus 177 

splendens, Muscipeta 179 

spodiostethus, Attila 131 

spodiurus, Pachyramphus 169 

spodiurus, Pachyrhamphus 169 

squamata, Muscicapa 95 

squamatus, Pachyrhynchus 167 

squamipectus, Euchlornis 121 

steinbachi, Schiffornis 82 

stenorhynchum, Heteropelma. . . 83 

stenorhynchus, Schiffornis 83 

Stictornis 124 

stolzmanni, Pipra 48 

stolzmanni, Tyranneutes 48 

strenuus, Thamnophilus 145 

streptophora, Lathria 160 

strep tophorus, Lipaugus 160 

strigatus, Psaris 193 

strigilata, Pipra 40 

striolata, Pipra 41 

striolatus, Machaeropterus 41 

suavissima, Pipra 24 

subalaris, Lipaugus 160 

subalaris, Xenopipo 46 

subpallida, Cirrhipipra 38 

subpurus, Manacus 67 

sulphureiventer, Neopelma 88 

sulphureiventer, Scotothorus. ... 88 

sumichrasti, Platypsaris 200 

superba, Ampelis 105 

superbus, Manacus 55 

surinama, Muscicapa 168 

surinamensis, Attila 132 

surinamensis, Hadrostomus 194 

surinamensis, Heteropelma 80 

surinamus, Pachyramphus 168 

swainsonii, Pachyrhynchus 186 



tantulus, Pachyramphus 184 

taunaysii, Heliophilus 125 

Teleonema 38 

tephrocephala, Attila 137 

tephronota, Tityra 217 

tertia, Aulia 152 

tertia, Laniocera 151 

thamnophiloides, Muscicapa. ... 145 

Threnoedus 226 

Tijuca 101 

Tityra 204 

tityroides, Tityra 214 

tobagensis, Pachyrhamphus 182 

torridus, Attila 146 

tricarunculata, Procnias 241 

tricarunculatus, Casmarhynchus. 241 

tricolor, Corvus 234 

tricolor, Perissocephalus 234 

trinitatis, Chiromachaeris 64 

trinitatis, Manacus 64 

tristis, Pachyramphus 181 

tristis, Psaris 181 

tschudii, Ampelioides 124 

tschudii, Cotinga 124 

tschudii, Hemipipo 6 

tschudii, Piprites 6 

Turdampelis 1 56 

turdina, Muscicapa 79 

turdinus, Schiffbrnis 79 

typus, Casiornis 147 

Tyranneutes 47 

tyranulus, Pipra 127 

umbellata, Ampelis 233 

unicolor , Chloropipo 45 

unicolor, Heteropelma 78 

unif ormis, Chloropipo 45 

unirufus, Lanius 145 

unirufus, Lipaugus 161 

uropygialis, Chirocylla 163 

uropygialis, Dasycephala 1 30 

uropygialis, Lathria 163 

uropygialis, Pachyramphus 192 

uropygialis, Pachyrhamphus. ... 192 

uropygiata, Muscicapa 133 

uropygiatus, Attila 133 

validus, Attila 141 

validus, Lanius 193 

validus, Pachyramphus 194 

variegata, Ampelis 240 

variegatus, Pachyrhynchus 179 

Vavasouria 237 

ventralis, Procnias 238 

velutina, Pipra 15 

verae-pacis, Heteropelma 85 

verae-pacis, Schiffornis 85 

versicolor, Pachyramphus 167 

versicolor, Vireo 167 

vieilloti, Tityra 164 

virescens, Muscicapa 78 

virescens, Pipra 48 



2 5 8 



INDEX 



virescens, Ptil(ochloris) 78 

virescens, Schiffornis 78 

virescens, Tyranneutes 47 

virgata, Psaris 204 

viridis, Pachyramphus 164 

viridior, Chloropipo 45 

viridescens, Attila 132 

viridis, Ampelis 103,116 

viridis, Muscicapa 78 

viridis, Pipra 59 

viridis, Tityra 164 

viridiventris, Manacus 72 

virussu, Lipaugus 1 59 

vitellina, Pipra 72 

vitellinus, Manacus 72 

vociferans, Muscicapa 157 



wallacii, Heteropelma 80 

wallacii, Schiffornis 79 

whitelyi, Euchlornis 123 

whitelyi, Pipreola 123 

wiedii, Pipra 51 

wighti, Attila 132 

xanthogenys, Pachyramphus. ... 166 

xanthogenys, Pachyrhamphus. . . 166 

Xenopipo 47 

Xipholena 109 

yucatanensis, Platypsaris 202 

Zetetes 163